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^7 2. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S&4, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

St. Louis Mo.: 
Press of Nixon -Jones Printing Co. 

St. Louis, Mo. : 
Becktold cf Co., Book-binders- 



The History of Randolph and Macon Counties, Missouri, has been 
written, in many respects, under trying circumstances. The publishers 
were somewhat embarrassed from lack of material, but not so much 
as overwhelmed by a superabundance of conflicting accounts of deeds 
done and events transpired. 

Such defects as may be apparent in the work as presented, can, to 
some extent, be attributed to lack of material, but not to any want of 
courtesy on the part of the public officials or private citizens, on whom 
the exigencies of the work forced the compilers to intrude, in their 
efforts to obtain desired information. 

In the history of these counties the greatest attention has been given 
to that dim, traditionary period, the record of which is fragmentary, 
and which, therefore, requires our efforts to preserve from that decay 
which follows all events inscribed only in the recollection of men. 

The records of the later history as counties, have been too fully and 
voluminously kept to run the risk of oblivion, and their elaboration is 
left to some future historian. Our aim has been to make this a relia- 
ble, accurate history of these two counties. We cannot say that the 
book is without errors, for, were such the case, it would be beyond the 
merits of any book written. 

To the kindly care of the reader who seeks the truth, this work is 
given with the full faith that he will defend it in full accord with its 
merits against the attacks of all who would prostitute the truth of 
history to the ephemeral uses of individual interest or prejudice. 

To name all to whom we are indebted for valuable information ren- 
dered in the compilation of this history, would be an undertaking of 
too great a magnitude. We are under obligations to the county officials 



of both counties, and especially indebted to the Huntsville Herald^ 
the Moberly Monitor, and the Headlight. The Times^ the True Dem- 
ocrat and Republican, of Macon, and the Home Press, of La Plata. 
Much help has been given by many of the public citizens of each 
county, and, in fact, by every one who has had an interest in the two 
counties. Thanking the citizens generally of Randolph and Macon 
counties for the courtesy and kindness shown to us and our representa- 
tives while in their midst, we submit this volume to their generous 
consideration, believing that whatever of credit is due us, will be ac- 
corded . 

The Publishers. 




Brief Historical Sketch 1-7 



Name — Extent — Surface — Rivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — Popula- 
tion by Counties 7-13 



Classification of Rocks — Quatenary Formation — Tertiary — Cretaceous — Carbonifer- 
ous — Devonian — Silurian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — Iron — Lead — 
Copper — Zinc — Building Stone — Marble — Gypsum — Lime — Clays — Paints — 
Springs — Water Power 13-21 



Title to Missouri Lands — Right of Discovery — Title of France and Spain^^ Cession 
to the United States — Territorial Changes — Treaties with Indians — First Settle- 
ment — Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon — St. Louis — When Incorporated — 
Potosi — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — New Madrid — St. Francois County — 
Perry — Mississippi — Loutre Island — "Boone's Lick" — Cote Sans Dessein — 
Howard County — Some First Things — Counties — When Organized . 21-27 



Organization 1812 — Council — House of Representatives — William Clark First Terri- 
torial Governor — Edward Hempstead First Delegate — Spanish Grants — First 
General Assembly — Proceedings — Second Assembly — Proceedings — Population 
of Territory — Vote of Territory — Rufus Easton — Absent Members — Third 
Assembly — Proceedings — Application for Admission .... 27-31 




Application of Missouri to be Admitted into the Union — Agitation of the Slavery 
Question — " Missouri Compromise " — Constitutional Convention of 1820 — Con- 
stitution Presented to Congress — Further resistance to Admission — Mr. Clay and 
his Committee make Report — Second Compromise — Missouri Admitted 31-37 



First Election for Governor and other State Officers — Senators and Representatives to 
General Assembly — Sheriffs and Coroners — U. S. Senators — Representatives in 
Congress — Supreme Court Judges — Counties Organized — Capital Moved to St. 
Charles — Official Record of Territorial and State Officers . . . 37-43 



Fort Sumpter Fired upon — Call for 75,000 Men — Gov. Jackson Refuses to Furnish a 
Man — U. S. Arsenal at Liberty, Mo., seized — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — 
General Order No. 7 — Legislature Convenes — Camp Jackson Organized — Sterling 
Price Appointed Major-General — Frost's Letter to Lyon — Lyon's Letter to Frost — 
Surrender of Camp Jackson — Proclamation of Gen. Harney — Conference between 
Price and Harney — Harney Superseded by Lyon — Second Conference — Gov. 
Jackson Burns the Bridges behind Him — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — Gen. 
Blair Takes Possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of Lyon — Lyon at 
Springfield — State Offices Declared Vacant — Gen. Fremont Assumes Command — 
Proclamation of Lieut. -Gov. Reynolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson and Gov. 
Jackson — Death of Gen. Lyon — Succeeded by Sturgis — Pi'oclamation of McCul- 
loch and Gamble — Martial Law Declared — Second Proclamation of Jeff. Thomp- 
son — President Modifies Fremont's Order — Fremont Relieved by Hunter — Pro- 
clamation of Price — Hunter's Order of Assessment — Hunter Declares Martial 
Law — Order Relating to Newspapers — Halleck Succeeds Hunter — Halleck's 
Order 18 — Similar Order by Halleck — Boone County Standard Confiscated — 
Execution of Prisoners at Macon and Palmyra — Gen. Ewing's Order No. 11 — 
Gen. Rosecrans Takes Command — Massacre at Centralia — Death of Bill Ander- 
son — Gen. Dodge Succeeds Gen. Rosecrans — List of Battles . . 43-53 


Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War . 53-59 



Missouri as an Agricultural State — The Different Crops — Live Stock — Horses — 
Mules — Milch Cows — Oxen and Other Cattle — Sheep — Hogs — Comparisons — 
Missouri Adapted to Live Stock — Cotton — Broom Corn and Other Products — 
Fruits — Berries — Grapes — Railroads — First Neigh of the " Iron Horse " in Mis- 
souri — Names of Railroads — Manufactures — Great Bridge at St. Louis . 59-65 



Public School System -Public School System of Missouri -Lincoln Institute -Offi- 
cers of Public School System - Certificates of Teachers - University of Missouri - 
Schools - Colleges - Institutions of Learning - Location - Libraries - News- 
papers and Periodicals -No. of School Children - Amount Expended- Value of 
Grounds and Buildings — " The Press " 


Baptist Church -Its History - Congregational - When Founded -Its History - 
Christian Church - Its History - Cumberland Presbyterian Church - Its History - 
Methodist Episcopal Church - Its History - Presbyterian Church - Its History - 
Protestant Episcopal Church -Its History -United Presbyterian Church- Its 
History -Unitarian Church -Its History- Roman Catholic Church -Ks 


Nomination and Election of Thomas T. Crittenden- Personal Mention - Marmaduke's 
Candidacy — Stirring events — Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — Death of Jesse 
James — The Eords— Pardon of the Gamblers . • . . • 79-85 



Introductory -What time has done -Importance of Early Beginnings -First Set- 
tlements made in the Timber- Who the First Settlers were- Additional Names 
of Old Settlers -Postal and Mill Facilities -County Organized and Named-The 
Name — John Randolph 


The Pioneer's Peculiarities- Conveniences and Inconveniences -The Historical 
Lo- Cabin -Agricultural Implements - Household Furniture -Pioneer Corn- 
bre"ad-Hand Mills and Hominy Blocks -Going to Mill -Trading Points- 
Bee Trees— Shooting Matches and Quilting 100 112 




First County Court — Its Proceedings — First Circuit Court — Early Marriages — 
First Recorded Will — Remarkable Deed — Public Buildings — First Court-House — 
Second-Court House — Third Court-House — County Seat Question — Jails — 
County Poor Farm — Blanderrain Smith 112-125 



Original and Present Townships — County and Township Systems — Government 
Surveys — Organization of Townships — Physical Features . . . 125-135 



Cairo Township — Old Settlers — Cairo — Its History — Secret Orders — Business 
Directory — Clifton Township — Stock Report for 1880 — Early Settlers — A Few 
of their Trials — Mills — Churches — Clifton Hill — Secret Orders— Business 
Directory 135-143 



Its Location — Its Agricultural Adaptability — Population — Darksville — Thomas 
Hill — Rolling Home — Old Settlers 143-152 



Jackson Township — Early Settlers — Jacksonville — Its early History — Business 
Directory — Secret Orders — Moniteau Township — Early Settlers — Mills — 
Schools — Farms and Stock — Higbee — Secret Orders — Business Directory — 
Stock Report for 1880 152-160 



Prairie Township — Old Settlers — Durett Bruce — Mill — Elliott — Shafton — Clark's 
Switch — Renick — Its History — Secret Orders — Business Directory — Stock Re- 
port for 1880 — First House Erected in Renick — Salt River Township — Physical 
Features — Early Settlers — Levick's Mill — Union Township — First Settlers — 
Milton 160-169 


History of the Township — Its Soil — Water Courses — Timber — Schools — Churches 
— Mt. Airy — Old Settlers — Crops 169-176 



Its History — Earliest Settlers — Agriculture — Streams — Yield of Products — His- 
tory of Moberly — First Elections — Mayors and Present City Offlcers — Our 
Railroads — Machine Shops — Coal Mines — Grist Mills — Agricultural Imple- 
ments — Furniture — Foundries and Machine Shops — Cotton and Woolen Mills — 
Wagon and Carriage Factories — Tobacco and Cigars — Creamery — Potters 
Ware — Gas — Newspapers — Water and Water Works — Building and Loan Asso- 
ciations — Agricultural Society — Rake and Stacker Factory — Scroll and Fancy 
Work — Soda Bottling — Bricks — Minor Manufactories — Real Estate Agencies — 
Commercial — Schools — Churches — Hotels — Improvements — The Profes- 
sions — Miscellaneous — Banks — Membei's of the Board of Trade — Secret 
Orders — Court of Common Pleas 176-208 



Its History — Salt Spring — Water — Coal — Agriculture — Industries — Old Settlers — 
Death of Dr. William Fort — Huntsville — Its History — Pioneer Business Men — 
Race Track — What Alphonso Whetmore said of Huntsville in 1837 — Huntsville 
in Other Days — Improvements — Destructive Fire- — Subscription to Yellow 
Fever Sufferers — Banks and Bankers — Statement — Secret Orders — Building 
and Loan Association — Pioneer Church and Sunday School — Semple's Opera 
House — Huntsville Brass Band — Home Dramatic Company — Huntsville Flem- 
ing Rake and Stacker Manufactory — Town Incorporated — First Mayor — Pres- 
ent Mayor and Councilmen — Public Schools — Mount Pleasant College — Female 
College — Agricultural Fair — Business and Professions . . . 208-232 



Introductory Remarks — Judge David Todd — Judge John F. Ryland — Hon Joseph 
Davis — Gov. Thomas Reynolds — Gen. Robert Wilson — Gen. John B. Clark, Sr.— 
Robert W. Wells 232-239 



First and Second Executions which occurred in the County under Sentence of Law — 
Melancholy Affair — A Man Shot and Killed near Moberly — The Murder — Peter 
Casper — Woman Shot and Man Hung — Railroad Collision — The last of Corlew, 
the Ravisher — James Hayden Brown Pays the Penalty of his Crime — Brown's 
Wife Commits Suicide — Murder most Foul — Distressing Fatal Accident — James 
A. Wright Commits Suicide 239-270 


War of 1812 — Indian War of 1832 — California Emigrants — Mexican War — Address 
of W. R. Samuel— The Civil War of 1861 — Officers Commanding Companies — 
Non-combatants Killed in the County 270-281 







History of Printing and first Newspapers — Huntsville Becorder — Independent Mis- 
soiirian — Advertisements and Professional Men of that Day — Randolph Citizen — 
Randolph American — Randolph Vindicator — North Missouri Herald — Huntsville 
Herald — Higbee Enterprise — Moberly Herald and Seal Estate Index — The Moni- 
tor — Moberly Daily Enterprise — Enterprise-Monitor — The Headlight — The Chi'on- 
ic?e — The Moberly i^oresc/in« — Public Schools 342-350 


Ecclesiastical History 



Death of Jas. A. Garfield — Death of C. Wisdom — Death of Capt. Lowry — Death 
of Capt. Coates — Judge Thomas P. White — Sudden Death of Dr. J. C. Oliver — 
Death of an Old and Estimable Lady — Tornado — Tornado of 1831 —Randolph 
MedicalSprings — Official Record — Politics — Taxable Wealth. . . 360-381 


Sugar Creek Township 
Salt Spring Township 
Prairie Township 
Silver Creek Township 
Union Township 
Clifton Township 
Chariton Township . 
Cairo Township 
Moniteau Township . 
Salt River Township 
Jackson Township 





The Pioneer — First Settlements — Names of Early Settlers — Organization of the 
County — Nathaniel Macon. 701-713 



"Times change and We change with Time " — The Customs of Early Days — The Man- 
ner of Building — Furniture, etc. — Pioneer Women — Their Dress — Table Sup- 
plies—Cloth, How Made — House-raisings — Log-rollings — Corn Shuckings — 
Dances — Shooting Matches — Settlement of Disputes — Pioneer Mills 713-723 



County Court — Circuit Court — First Grand Jury — First Civil Case — First Indict- 
ment — Number of Civil and Criminal Cases Compared — Oliver Perry Magee 
Trial — First Deed Recorded — Early Marriages — Court-Houses — Jails — County 
Poor Farm 723-734 



Morrow Township — Chariton Township — Narrows Township — Middle Fork Town- 
ship 734-752 


Lingo Township — Callao Township — Bevier Township — Round Grove Town- 
ship 752-762 



Its Location — Water Courses and Railroads — Early Settlers — Macon — Macon City 
the Original Town — The Town of Hudson — Early Business Men — Additions to 
Macon — City Officials — City Indebtedness — Banks and Bankers — Moot Legis- 
lature — Secret Orders — Band of Hope — Macon Fire Company No. 1 — Macon 
County Medical Society — Strong's Cornet Band — Macon Foundry and Machine 
Works — The Massey Wagon Company — Public School — School Boards — St. 
James' Academy — Johnson College — Hotels — Macon Association for the Distri- 
bution of Real Estate — Macon Elevator Company — The Macon Creamery — 
Wright's Opera House — The Old Harris House — Improvements in 1883 — Business 
Directory 762-783 



Teu Mile Township — Eagle Township — Liberty Township — Valley Township — 
Russell Township • . . . . 783-801 


Jackson Township —Lyda Township — Independence Township — Walnut Creek 
Township — White Township 801-809 


Johnston Township — La Plata Township — Richland Township — Easley Township — 
Drake Township 809-823 



Thomas Reynolds — Robert T. Pruitt — William H. Davis — Alexander L. Slayback — 
John V.Turner — James M. Gordon — J. R. Abernathy — Amusing Incidents — 
Suing a Bull — Drinkard Case — Harris Case — Keller Case — Walter Tracy Shot 
and Killed by Charles Stewart 823-843 


Newspapers, Public Schools and Post-offlces 843-850 



Mormon Diflficulty — Mexican War — California Emigrants — The Civil War of 1861 — 
Resolutions — Extracts from the Macon Legion — Companies and Captains — Occu- 
pation of Macon City by Union Troops — Military Execution at Macon — Confeder- 
ate Soldiers Review of Macon County Men — Confederate OflScers Hanged 850-866 


Reunions 866-873 



Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — North Missouri Road — Alexander and Bloom- 
ington Road — Mississippi and Missouri Road — St. Louis, Macon and Omaha Air 
Line Road — M. and M. Bonds — Bonded Debt of Macon County . 873-887 


Cyclone and Hurricane 887-897 




Agricultural Societies — Granges — Coal and Fruit Interests — Official Record. 897-903 


Ecclesiastical History 903-920 


Macon County of 1884 



La Plata Township . 
Lingo Township 
Independence Township 
Round Grove Township 
Narrows Township . 
Jackson Township 
Middle Fork Township 
Richland Township . 
Johnston Township . 
Eagle Township 
Lyda Township . 
Valley Township 
Morrow Township 
Bevier Township 
Callao Township 
Chariton Township . 
Russell Township 
Ten Mile Township . 
Liberty Township 
Hudson Township 






The purchase in 1803 of the vast territory west of the Mississippi 
River, by the United States, extending through Oregon to the Pacific 
coast and south to the Dominions of Mexico, constitutes the most im- 
portant event that ever occurred in the history of the nation. 

It gave to our Republic additional room for that expansion and 
stupendous growth, to which it has since attained, in all that makes it 
strong and enduring, and forms the seat of an empire, from which 
will radiate an influence for good unequaled in the annals of time. In 
1763, the immense region of country, known at that time as Louisiana, 
was ceded to Spain by France. By a secret article, in the treaty of 
St. Ildefonso, concluded in 1800, Spain ceded it back to France. 
Napoleon, at that time, coveted the island of St. Dominaro, not onlv 
because of the value of its products, but more especially because its 
location in the Gulf of Mexico would, in a military point of view, 
afibrd him a fine field whence he could the more effectively guard his 
newly-acquired possessions. Hence he desired this cession by Spain 
should be kept a profound secret until he succeeded in reducing St. 
Domingo to submission. In this undertaking, however, his hopes 
were blasted, and so great was his disappointment that he apparently 
became indifferent to the advantages to be secured to France from his 
purchase of Louisiana. 

In 1803 he sent out Laussat as prefect of the colony, who gave the 



people of Louisiana the first intimation they had that they -had once 
more become the subjects of France. This was the occasion of great 
rejoicing among the inhabitants, who were Frenchmen in their origin, 
habits, manners, and customs. 

Mr. Jefierson, then President of the United States, on being in- 
formed of the retrocession, immediately dispatched instructions to 
R()l)ert Livingston, the American Minister at Paris, to make known 
to Napoleon that the occupancy of New Orleans, by his government, 
would not only endanger the friendly relations existing between the 
two nations, but, perhaps, oblige the United States to make common 
cause with England, his bitterest and most dreaded enemy ; as the 
possession of the city by France would give her command of the 
Mississippi, which was the only outlet for the produce of the Westr- 
ern States, and give her also control oi the Gulf of Mexico, so neces- 
sary to the protection of American commerce. Mr. Jefferson was so 
fully impressed with the idea that the occupancy of New Orleans, by 
France, would bring about a conflict of interests between the two 
nations, which would finally culminate in an open rupture, that he 
urged Mr. Livingston, to not only insist upon the free navigation of 
the Mississippi, but to negotiate for the purchase of the city and the 
surrounding country. 

The question of this negotiation was of so grave a character to the 
United States that the President appointed Mr. Monroe, with full 
power to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. Ever equal to all 
emergencies, and prompt in the cabinet, as well as in the field. Na- 
poleon came to the conclusion that, as he could not well defend his 
occupancy of New Orleans, he would dispose of it, on the best terms 
possible. Before, however, taking final action in the matter, he sum- 
moned two of his Ministers, and addressed them follows : — 

" I am fully sensible of the value of Louisiana, and it was my wish 
to repair the error of the French diplomatists who abandoned it in 
1763. I have scarcely recovered it before I run the risk of losing it ; 
but if I am obliged to give it up, it shall hereafter cost more to those 
who force me to part with it, than to those to whom I shall 
yield it. The English have despoiled France of all her northern pos- 
sessions in America, and now they covet those of the South. I am 
determined that they shall not have the Mississippi. Although 
Louisiana is but a trifle compared to their vast possessions in other 
parts of the globe, yet, judging from the vexation they have mani- 
fested on seeing it return to the power of France, I am certain that 


their first object will be to gain possession of it. They will proba- 
bly commeuce the war in that quarter. They have twenty vessels in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and our affairs in St. Dominffo are dailv eettintr 
worse since the death of LeClerc. The conquest of Louisiana might 
be easily made, and I have not a moment to lose in getting out of 
their reach. I am not sure but that they have already begun an at- 
tack upon it. Such a measure would be in accordance with their 
habits ; and in their place I should not wait. I am inclined, in order 
to deprive them of all prospect of ever possessing it, to cede it to the 
United States. Indeed, I can hardly say that I cede it, for I do not 
yet possess it ; and if I wait but a short time my enemies may leave 
me nothing but an empty title to grant to the Republic I wish to con- 
ciliate. I consider the whole colony as lost, and I believe that in the 
hands of this rising power it will be more useful to the political and 
even commercial interests of France than if I should attempt to retain 
it. Let me have both your opinions on the subject." 

One of his Ministers approved of the contemplated cession, but 
the other opposed it. The matter was long and earnestly discussed 
by them, before the conference was ended. The next day, Napoleon 
sent for the Minister who had agreed with him, and said to him : — 

'♦ The season for deliberation is over. I have determined to re- 
nounce Louisiana. I shall give up not only New Orleans, but the 
whole colony, without reservation. That I do not undervalue Louis- 
iana, I have sufficiently proved, as the object of my first treaty with 
Spain was to recover it. But though I regret parting with it, I am 
convinced it would be folly to persist in trying to keep it. I commis- 
sion you, therefore, to negotiate this afiair with the envoys of the 
United States. Do not wait the arrival of Mr. Monroe, but go this 
very day and confer with Mr. Livingston. Remember, however, that 
I need ample funds for carrying on the war, and I do not wish to com- 
mence it by levying new taxes. For the last century France and Spain 
have ipcurred great expense in the improvement of Louisiana, for 
which her trade has never indemnified them. Large sums have been 
advanced to different companies," which have never been returned to 
'the treasury. It is fair that I should require repayment for these. 
Were I to regulate my demands by the importance of this territorj^ 
to the United States, they would be unbounded ; but, being obliged to 
part with it, I shall be moderate in my terms. Still, remember, I 
must have fifty millions of francs, and I will not consent to take less. 


I would rather make some desperate effort to preserve this fine 

That day the negotiations commenced. Mr. Monroe reached Paris 
on the 12th of April, 1803, and the two representatives of the United 
States, after holding a private interview, announced that they were 
ready to treat for the entu-e territory. On the 30th of April, the 
treatv was signed, and on the 21st of October, of the same year, Con- 
«-ress ratified the treaty. The United States were to pay $11,250,000, 
and her citizens were to be compensated for some illegal captures, 
to the amount of $3,750,000, making in the aggregate the sum of 
$15,000,000, while it was agreed that the vessels and merchandise of 
France and Spain should be admitted into all the ports ot Louisiana 
free of duty for twelve years. Bonaparte stipulated in favor of 
Louisiana, that it should be, as soon as possible, incorporated into 
the Union, and that its inhabitants should enjoy the same rights, 
l^rivileges and inmiunities as other citizens of the United States, and 
the clause giving to them these benefits was drawn up by Bonaparte, 
who presented it to the plenipotentiaries with these words : — 

" Make it known to the people of Louisiana, that we regret to part 
with them ; that we have stipulated for all the advantages they could 
desire ; and that France, in giving them up, has insured to them the 
o-reatest of all. They could never have prospered under any Euro- 
pean government as they will when they become independent. But 
while thev enjoy the privileges of liberty let them remember that they 
are French, and preserve for their mother country that aftection which 
a common origin inspires." 

Complete satisfaction was given to both parties in the terms of the 
treaty. Mr. Livingston said : — 

<' I consider that from this day the United States takes rank with 
the first powers of Europe, and now she has entirely escaped from the 
power of England," and Bonaparte expressed a similar sentiment when 
he said : "By this cession of territory I have secured the power of the 
United States, and given to England a maritime rival, who, at some 
future time, will humble her pride." 

These were prophetic words, for within a few years afterward the 
British met with a signal defeat, on the plains of the very territory of 
which the great Corsican had been speaking. 

From 1800, the date of the cession made by Spain, to 1803, when 
it was purchased by the United States, no change had been made by 


the French authorities in the jurisprudence of the Upper and Lower 
Louisiana, and during this period the Spanish laws remained in full 
force, as the laws of the entire province ; a fact which is of interest to 
those who would understand the legal history and some of the present 
laws of Missouri. 

On December 20th, 1803, Gens. Wilkinson and Claiborne, who 
were jointly commissioned to take possession of the territory for the 
United States, arrived in the city of New Orleans at the head of the 
American forces. Laussat, who had taken possession but twenty days 
previously as the prefect of the colony, gave up his command, and the 
star-spangled banner supplanted the tri-colored flag of France. The 
agent of France, to take possession of Upper Louisiana from the 
Spanish authorities, was Amos Stoddard, captain of artillery in the 
United States service. He was placed in possession of St. Louis on 
the 9th of March, 1804, by Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish 
commandant, and on the following day he transferred it to the United 
States. The authority of the United States in Missouri dates from 
this day. 

From that moment the interests of the people of the Mississippi 
Valley became identified. They were troubled no more with uncer- 
tainties in regard to free navigation. The great river, along whose 
banks they had planted their towns and villages, now afforded them 
a safe and easy outlet to the markets of the world. Under the pro- 
tecting aegis of a government, republican in form, and having free 
access to an almost boundless domain, embracing in its broad area the 
diversified climates of the globe, and possessing a soil unsurpassed for 
fertility, beauty of scenery and wealth of minerals, they had every 
incentive to push on their enterprises and build up the land wherein 
their lot had been cast. 

In the purchase of Louisiana, it was known that a great empire had 
been secured as a heritage to the people of our country, for all time to 
come, but its grandeur, its possibilities, its inexhaustible resources 
and the important relations it would sustain to the nation and the 
world were never dreamed of by even Mr. Jefferson and his adroit and 
accomplished diplomatists. 

The most ardent imagination never conceived of the progress which 
would mark the history of the " Great West." The adventurous 
pioneer, who fifty years ago pitched his tent upon its broad prairies, 
or threaded the dark labyrinths of its lonely forests, little thought that 
a mighty tide of physical and intellectual strength, would so rapidly 


flow on in his footsteps, to populate, build up and enrich the domain 
which he had con(^uered. 

Year after year, civilization has advanced further and further, until 
at length the mountains, the hills and the valleys, and even the rocks 
and the caverns, resound with the noise and din of busy millions, 

" I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown crowded nations. 
All the land was full of people, 
Restless, struggling, toiling, striving, 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes ; 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys; 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder." 

In 1804, Congress, by an act passed in April of the same year, 
divided Louisiana into two parts, the "Territory of Orleans," and 
the " District of Louisiana," known as **Upper Louisiana." This 
district included all that portion of the old province, north of *« Hope 
Encampment," on the Lower Mississippi, and embraced the present 
State of Missouri, and all the western region of country to the Pacific 
Ocean, and all below the forty-ninth degree of north latitude not 
claimed by Spain. 

As a matter of convenience, on March 26th, 1804, Missouri was 
placed within the jurisdiction of the government of the Territory of 
Indiana, and its government put in motion by Gen. William H. Har- 
rison, then governor of Indiana. In this he was assisted by Judges 
Griffin, Vanderburg and Davis, who established in St. Louis what were 
called Courts of Common Pleas. The District of Louisiana was regu- 
larly organized into the Territory of Louisiana by Congress, March 3, 
1805, and President Jefferson appointed Gen. James Wilkinson, Gov- 
ernor, and Frederick Bates, Secretary. The Legislature of the ter- 
ritory was formed by Governor Wilkinson and Judges R. J. Meigs 
and John B. C. Lucas. In 1807, Governor Wilkinson was succeeded 
by Captain Meriwether Lewis, who had become famous by reason of 
his having made the expedition up the Missouri with Clark. Governor 
Lewis committed suicide in 1809 and President Madison appointed 
Gen. Benjamin Howard of Lexington, Kentucky, to fill his place. 
Gen. Howard resigned October 25, 1810, to enter the war of 1812, 
and died in St. Louis, in 1814. Captain William Clark, of Lewis and 
Clark's expedition, was appointed Governor in 1810, to succeed Gen. 


Howard, and remained in office until the admission of the State into 
the Union, in 1821. 

The portions of Missouri which were settled, for the purposes of 
local government were divided into four districts. Cape Girardeau 
was the first, and embraced the territory between Tywappity Bottom 
and Apple Creek. Ste. Genevieve, the second, embraced the terri- 
tory from Apple Creek to the Meramec River. St. Louis, the third, 
embraced the territory between the Meramec and Missouri Rivers. 
St, Charles, the fourth, included the settled territory, between the 
Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The total population of these dis- 
tricts at that time, was 8,670, including slaves. The population of 
the district of Louisiana, when ceded to the United States was 10.120. 



Name — Extent — Surface — Rivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — Popula- 
tion by Counties. 


The name Missouri is derived from the Indian tongue and signifies 


Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa (from which it is sep- 
arated for about thirty miles on the northeast, by the Des Moines 
River), and on the east by the Mississippi River, which divides it from 
Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee, and on the west by the Indian Ter- 
ritory, and the States of Kansas and Nebraska. The State lies (with 
the exception of a small projection between the St. Francis and the 
Mississippi Rivers, which extends to 36*), between 36° 30' and 40" 36' 
north latitude, and between 12° 2' and 18° 51' west longitude from 

The extreme width of the State east and west, is about 348 miles ; 
its width on its northern boundary, measured from its northeast cor- 
ner along the Iowa line, to its intersection with the Des Moines 


River, is about 210 miles ; its width on its southern boundary is about 
288 miles. Its average width is about 235 miles. 

The length of the State north and south, not including the narrow strip 
between the St. Francis and Mississippi Rivers, is about 282 miles. It 
is about 450 miles from its extreme northwest corner to its southeast 
corner, and from the northeast corner to the southwest corner, it is 
about 230 miles. These limits embrace an area of 65,350 square 
miles, or 41,824,000 acres, being nearly as large as England, and the 
States of Vermont and New Hampshire. 


North of the Missouri, the State is level or undulating, while the 
portion south of that river (the larger portion of the State) exhibits a 
greater variety of surface. In the southeastern part is an extensive 
marsh, reaching beyond the State into Arkansas. The remainder of 
this portion between the Mississippi and Osage Rivers is rolling, and 
gradually rising into a hilly and mountainous district, forming the out- 
skirts of the Ozark Mountains. 

Beyond the Osage River, at some distance, commences a vast ex- 
panse of prairie land which stretches away towards the Rocky Moun- 
tains. The ridges forming the Ozark chain extend in a northeast and 
southwest direction, separating the waters that flow northeast into the 
Missouri from those that flow southeast into the Mississippi River. 


No State in the Union enjoys better facilities for navigation than 
Missouri. By means of the Mississippi River, which stretches along 
her entire eastern boundary, she can hold commercial intercourse with 
the most northern territory and State in the Union ; with the whole 
valley of the Ohio ; with many of the Atlantic States, and with the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

"Ay, gather Europe's royal rivers all — 
The snow-swelled Neva, with an Empire's weight 
On her broad breast, she yet may overwhelm ; 
Dark Danube, hurrying, as by foe pursued. 
Through shaggy forests and by palace walls, 
To hide its terror in a sea of gloom; 
The castled Rhine, whose vine-crowned waters flow, 
The fount of fable and the source of song ; 
The rushing Rhone, in whose cerulean depths 
The loving sky seems wedded with the wave ; 
The yellow Tiber, chok'd with Roman spoils, 


A dying miser shrinking 'neatli his goM; 

The Seine, where fashion glasses the fairest forms; 

The Thames that bears the riches of the world; 

Gather their waters in one ocean mass, 

Our Mississippi rolling proudly on, 

Would sweep them from its path, or swallow up, 

Like Aaron's rod, these streams of fame and song." 

By the Missouri River she can extend her commerce to the Rocky 
Mountains, and receive in return the products which will come in the 
course of time, by its multitude of tributaries. 

The Missouri River coasts the northwest line of the State for about 
250 miles, following its windings, and then flows through the State, a 
little south of east, to its junction with the Mississippi. The Mis- 
souri River receives a number of tributaries within the limits of the 
State, the principal of which are the Nodaway, Platte, Grand and 
Chariton from the north, and the Blue, Sniabar, Lamine, Osage and 
Gasconade from the south. The principal tributaries of the Missis- 
sippi within the State, are the Salt River, north, and the Meramec 
River south of the Missouri. 

The St. Francis and White Rivers, with their branches, drain 
the southeastern part of the State, and pass into Arkansas. The 
Osage is navigable for steamboats for more than 175 miles. There 
are a vast number of smaller streams, such as creeks, branches and 
rivers, which water the State in all directions. 

Timber. — Not more towering in their sublimity were the cedars of 
ancient Lebanon, nor more precious in their utility were the almug- 
trees of Ophir, than the native forests of Missouri. The river bottoms 
are covered with a luxuriant growth of oak, ash, elm, hickory, cotton- 
wood, linn, white and black walnut, and in fact, all the varieties found 
in the Atlantic and Eastern States. In the more barren districts may 
be seen the white and pin oak, and in many places a dense growth of 
pine. The crab apple, papaw and persimmon are abundant, as also 
the hazel and pecan. 

Climate. — The climate of Missouri is, in general, pleasant and 
salubrious. Like that of North America, it is changeable, and sub- 
iect to sudden and sometimes extreme changes of heat and cold ; but 
it is decidedly milder, taking the whole year through, than that of the 
same latitudes east of the mountains. While the summers are not 
more oppressive than they are in the corresponding latitudes on and 
near the Atlantic coast, the winters are shorter, and very much milder, 



except during the month of February, which has many days of pleas- 
ant sunshine. 

Prairies. — Missouri is a prairie State, especially that portion of it 
north and northwest of the Missouri River. These prairies, along the 
water courses, abound with the thickest and most luxurious belts of 
timber, while the "rolling" prairies occupy the higher portions of 
the country, the descent generally to the forests or bottom lands being 
over only declivities. Many of these prairies, however, ejfhibit a grace- 
fully waving surface, swelling and sinking with an easy slope, and a 
full, rounded outline, equally avoiding the unmeaning horizontal sur- 
face and the interruption of abrupt or angular elevations. 

These prairies often embrace extensive tracts of land, and in one or 
two instances they cover an area of fifty thousand acres. During the 
spring and summer they are carpeted with a velvet of green, and 
gaily bedecked with flowers of various forms and hues, making a 
most fascinating panorama of ever-changing color and loveliness. To 
fully appreciate their great beauty and magnitude, they must be 

Soil. — The soil of Missouri is good, and of great agricultural capa- 
bilities, but the most fertile portions of the State are the river bot- 
toms, which are a rich alluvium, mixed in many cases with sand, the 
producing qualities of which are not excelled by the prolific valley of 
the famous Nile. 

South of the Missouri Eiver there is a greater variety of soil, but 
much of it is fertile, and even in the mountains and mineral districts 
there are rich valleys, and about the sources of the White, Eleven 
Points, Current and Big Black Rivers, the soil, though unproductive, 
furnishes a valuable growth of yellow pine. 

The marshy lands in the southeastern part of the State will, by a 
system of drainage, be one of the most fertile districts in the State. 





Adair . 


Atchison . 


Barry . 


Bates . 


Bollinger . 


Buchanan . 


Caldwell . 

Callaway . 


Cape Girardeau 



Cass . 

Cedar . 


Christian . 

Clark . 

Clay . 


Cole . 


Crawford . 

Dade . 



DeKalb . 

Dent . 

Douglas . 



Gasconade . 




Harrison . 



Holt . 



Iron . 



Jefferson . 


Knox . 


Lafayette . 

Lawrence . 

Lewis . 


Linn . 

Livingston . 
































































































New Madrid 




Osage . 

Ozark . 


Perry . 

Pettis . 


Pike . 


Polk . 



Ralls . 


Ray . 



St. Charles 

St. Clair 

St. Franco 

Ste. Genev 

St. Louis* 




Scott . 




Stone . 











City of St. Louis 





























































































1,547,030 I 2,168,804 

' St. Louis City and County separated In 1877. Population for 1876 not given. 








Colored i 






Classification of Rocks — Quatenary Formation — Tertiary — Cretaceous — Carbonifer- 
ous — Devonian — Silurian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — Iron — Lead — 
Copper — Zinc — Building Stone — Marble — Gypsum — Lime — Clays — Paints — 
Springs — Water Power. 

The stratified rocks of Missouri, as classified and treated of by Prof. 

G. C. Swallow, belong to the following divisions : I. Quatenary ; 
II. Tertiary; III. Cretaceous; IV. Carboniferous; V. Devonian; 
VI. Silurian ; VII. Azoic. 

" The Quatenary formations, are the most recent, and the most 
valuable to man: valuable, because they can be more readily utilized. 

The Quatenary formation in Missouri, embraces the Alluvium, 30 
feet thick ; Bottom Prairie, 30 feet thick ; Blufi", 200 feet thick ; and 
Drift, 155 feet thick. The latest deposits are those which constitute 
the Alluvium, and includes the soils, pebbles and sand, clays, vegeta- 
ble mould, bog, iron ore, marls, etc. 

The Alluvium deposits, cover an area, within the limits of Mis- 
souri, of more than four millions acres of land, which are not sur- 
passed for fertility by any region of country on the globe. 

The Bluff Prairie formation is confined to the low lands, which are 
washed by the two great rivers which course our eastern and western 
boundaries, and while it is only about half as extensive as the Allu- 
vial, it is equally as rich and productive." 

" The Blufi" formation," says Prof. Swallow, *• rests upon the 
ridges and river blufii*s, and descends along their slopes to the lowest 
valleys, the formation capping all the Blufi's of the Missouri from 
Fort Union to its mouth, and those of the Mississippi from Dubuque 

> Including 92 Chinese, 2 half Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeds. 


to the mouth of the Ohio. It forms the upper stratum beneath the 
soil of all the high lands, both timber and prairies, of all the counties 
north of the Osage and Missouri, and also St. Louis, and the Missis- 
sippi counties on the south. 

Its greatest development is in the counties on the Missouri River 
from the Iowa line to Boonville. In some localities it is 200 feet 
thick. At St. Joseph it is 140 ; at Boonville 100 ; and at St. Louis, 
in St. George's quarry, and the Big Mound, it is about 50 feet ; 
while its greatest observed thickness in Marion county was only 30 

The Drift formation is that which lies beneath the Bluff formation, 
having, as Prof. Swallow informs us, three distinct deposits, to wit : 
♦'Altered Drift, which are strata of sand and pebl)les, seen in the 
banks of the Missouri, in the northwestern portion of the State. 

The Boulder formation is a heterogeneous stratum of sand, gravel 
and boulder, and water-worn fragments of the older rocks. 

Boulder Clay is a bed of bluish or brown sandy clay, through which 
pebbles are scattered in greater or less abundance. In some locali- 
ties in northern Missouri, this formation assumes a pure white, pipe- 
clay color." 

The Tertiary formation is made up of clays, shales, iron ores, sand- 
stone, and sands, scattered along the bluffs, and edges of the bottoms, 
reaching from Commerce, Scott County, to Stoddard, and south to 
the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas. 

The Cretaceous formation lies beneath the Tertiary, and is com- 
posed of variegated sandstone, bluish-brown sandy slate, whitish- 
brown impure sandstone, fine white clay mingled with spotted flint, 
purple, red and blue clays, all being in the aggregate, 158 feet in 
thickness. There are no fossils in these rocks, and nothing by which 
their age may be told. 

The Carboniferous system includes the Upper Carboniferous or 
coal-measures, and the Lower Carboniferous or Mountain limestone. 
The coal-measures are made up of numerous strata of sandstones, 
limestones, shales, clays, marls, spathic iron ores, and coals. 

The Carboniferous formation, including coal-measures and the beds 
of iron, embrace an area in Missouri of 27,000 square miles. The 
varieties of coal found in the State are the common bituminous and 
cannel coals, and they exist in quantities inexhaustible. The fact 
that these coal-measures are full of fossils, which are always confined 


to the coal measures, enables the geologist to point them out, and the 
coal beds contained in them. 

The rocks of the Lower Carboniferous formation are varied in color, 
and are quarried in many different parts of the State, being exten- 
sively utilized for building and other purposes. 

Among the Lower Carboniferous rocks is found the Upper Archi- 
medes Limestone, 200 feet ; Ferruginous Sandstone, 195 feet ; Mid- 
dle Archimedes, 50 feet ; St. Louis Limestone, 250 feet; Oolitic 
Limestone, 25 feet; Lower Archimedes Limestone, 350 feet; and 
Encrinital Limestone, 500 feet. These limestones generally contain 

The Ferruginous limestone is soft when quarried, but becomes hard 
and durable after exposure. It contains large quantities of iron, and 
is found skirting the eastern coal measures from the mouth of the 
Des Moines to McDonald county. 

The St. Louis limestone is of various hues and tints, and very hard. 
It is found in Clark, Lewis and St. Louis counties. 

The Lower Archimedes limestone includes partly the lead bearing 
rocks of Southwestern Missouri. 

The Encrinital limestone is the most extensive of the divisions of 
Carboniferous limestone, and is made up of brown, buff, gray and 
white. In these strata are found the remains of corals and moUusks. 
This formation extends from Marion county to Greene county. The 
Devonian system contains : Chemung Group, Hamilton Group, 
Onondaga limestone and Oriskany sandstone. The rocks of the 
Devonian system are found in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline 
and Ste. Genevieve counties. 

The Chemung Group has three formations, Chouteau limestone, 85 
'feet; Vermicular sandstone and shales, 75 feet; Lithographic lime- 
stone, 125 feet. 

The Chouteau limestone is in two divisions, when fully developed, 
and when first quarried is soft. It is not only good for building pur- 
poses but makes an excellent cement. 

The Vermicular sandstone and shales are usually buff or yellowish 
brown, and perforated with pores. 

The Lithographic limestone is a pure, fine, compact, evenly-tex- 
tured limestone. Its color varies from light drab to buff and blue. 
It is called "pot metal," because under the hammer it gives a sharp, 
ringing sound. It has but few fossils. 


The Hamilton Group is made up of some 40 feet of blue shales, and 
170 feet of crystalline limestone. 

Onondaga limestone is usually a coarse, gray or buff crystalline, 
thick-bedded and cherty limestone. No formation in Missouri pre- 
sents such variable and widely different lithological characters as the 

The Oriskany sandstone is a light, gray limestone. 

Of the Upper Silurian series there are the following formations : 
Lower Helderberg, 350 feet ; Niagara Group, 200 feet ; Cape Girar- 
deau limestone, 60 feet. 

The Lower Helderberg is made up of buff, gray, and reddish cherty 
and argillaceous limestone. 

Niagara Group. The Upper part of this group consists of red, 
yellow and ash-colored shales, with compact limestones, variegated 
with bands and nodules of chert. 

The Cape Girardeau limestone, on the Mississippi Kiver near Cape 
Girardeau, is a compact, bluish-gray, brittle limestone, with smooth 
fractures in layers from two to six inches in thickness, with argilla- 
ceous partings. These strata contain a great many fossils. 

The Lower Silurian has the following ten formations, to wit : Hud- 
son River Group, 220 feet ; Trenton limestone, 360 feet ; Black River 
and Bird's Eye liniestone, 175 feet ; first Magnesian limestone, 200 
feet; Saccharoidal sandstone, 125 feet; second Magnesian limestone, 
250 feet; second sandstone, 115 feet; third Magnesian limestone, 
350 feet; third sandstone, 60 feet; fourth Magnesian limestone, 350 

Hudson River Group : — There are three formations which Prof. 
Swallow refers to in this group. These formations are found in the 
bluff above and below Louisiana ; on the Grassy a few miles north- 
west of Louisiana, and in Ralls, Pike, Cape Girardeau and Ste. Gene- 
vieve Counties. 

Trenton limestone : The upper part of this formation is made up 
of thick beds of hard, compact, bluish gray and drab limestone, varie- 
o-ated with irregular cavities, filled with greenish materials. 

The beds are exposed between Hannibal and New London, north of 
Salt River, near Glencoe, St. Louis County, and are seventy-five feet 

Black River and Bird's Eye limestone the same color as the Trenton 


The first Magnesian limestone cap the picturesque bluffs of the Osage 
in Benton and neighboring counties. 

The Saccharoidal sandstone has a wide range in the State. la a 
bluff about two miles from Warsaw, is a very striking change of thick- 
ness of this formation. 

Second Maguesian limestone, in lithological character, is like the 

The second sandstone, usually of yellowish brown, sometimes 
becomes a pure white, fine-grained, soft sandstone as on Cedar Creek, 
in Washington and Franklin Counties. 

The third Magnesian limestone is exposed in the high and picturesque 
bluffs of the Niangua, in the neighborhood of Bryce's Sprino-. 

The third sandstone is white and has a formation in movino- water. 

The fourth Magnesian limestone is seen on the Niangua and Osao-e 

The Azoic rocks lie below the Silurian and form a series of silicious 
and other slates which contain no remains of organic life, 


Coal. — Missouri is particularly rich in minerals. Indeed, no State 
in the Union, surpasses her in this respect. In some unknown ao-e of 
the past — long before the existence of man — Nature, by a wise process, 
made a bountiful provision for the time, when in the order of thino-s. 
it should be necessary for civilized man to take possession of these 
broad, rich prairies. As an equivalent for lack of forests, she quietly 
stored away beneath the soil those wonderful carboniferous treasures 
for the use of man. 

Geological surveys have developed the fact that the coal deposits in 
the State are almost unnumbered, embracing all varieties of the best 
bituminous coal. A large portion of the State, has been ascer- 
tained to be one continuous coal field, stretching from the mouth 
of the Des Moines River through Clark, Lewis, Scotland, Adair, 
Macon, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, 
Benton, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton and 
Jasper, into- the Indian Territory, and the counties on the northwest of 
this line contain more or less coal. Coal rocks exist in Ralls, Mont- 
gomery, Warren, St. Charles, Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford and 
Lincoln, and during the past few years, all along the lines of all the 
railroads in North Missouri, and along the western end of the Missouri 
Pacific, and on the Missouri River, between Kansas City and Sioux 


City, has systematic mining, opened up hundreds of mines in different 
localities. The area of our coal beds, on the line of the southwestern 
boundary of the State alone, embraces more than 26,000 square miles 
of regular coal measures. This will give of workable coal, if the 
average be one foot, 26,800,000,000 tons. The estimates from the 
developments already made, in the different portions of the State, will 
give 134,000,000,000 tons. 

The economical value of this coal to the State, its influence in 
domestic life, in navigation, commerce and manufactures, is beyond 
the imagination of man to conceive. Suffice it to say, that in the pos- 
session of her developed and undeveloped coal mines, Missouri has a 
motive power, which in its influences for good, in the civilization of 
man, is more potent than the gold of California. 

Iron. Prominent among the minerals, which increase the power 

and prosperity of a nation, is iron. Of this ore, Missouri has an inex- 
haustible quantity, and like her coal fields, it has been developed in 
many portions of the State, and of the best and purest quality. It is 
found in great abundance in the counties of Cooper, St. Clair, Greene, 
Henry, Franklin, Benton, Dallas, Camden, Stone, Madison, Iron, 
Washington, Perry, St. Francois, Reynolds, Stoddard, Scott, Dent 
and others. The greatest deposit of iron is found in the Iron Moun- 
tain, which is two hundred feet high, and covers an area of five hun- 
dred acres, and produces a metal, which is shown by analysis, to con- 
tain from 65 to 69 per cent of metallic iron. 

The ore of Shepherd Mountain contains from 64 to 67 pen* cent of 
metallic iron. The ore of Pilot Knob contains from 53 to 60 per cent. 
Rich beds of iron are also found at the Big Bogy Mountain, and at 
Russell Mountain. This ore has, in its nude state, a variety of colors, 
from the red, dark red, black, brown, to a light bluish gray. Tlie 
red ores are found in twenty-one or more counties of the State, and 
are of great commercial value. The brown hematite iron ores extend 
over a greater range of country than all the others combined, embrac- 
ing about one hundred counties, and have been ascertained to exist in 
these in large quantities. 

Lead. — Long before any permanent settlements were made in Mis- 
souri by the whites, lead was mined within the limits of the State at 
two or three points on the Mississippi. At this time more than five 
hundred mines are opened, and many of them are being successfully 
worked. These deposits of lead cover an area, so far as developed, 
of more than seven thousand square miles. Mines have been opened 


in Jefferson, Washington, St. Francois, Madison, Wayne, Carter, Rey- 
nolds, Crawford, Ste. Genevieve, Perry, Cole, Cape Girardeau, Cam- 
den, Morgan, and many other counties. 

Copper and Zinc. — Several varieties of copper ore are found in 
Missouri. The copper mines of Shannon, Madison and Franklin 
Counties have been known for years, and some of these have been 
successfully worked and are now yielding good results. 

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Ben- 
ton, Maries, Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Eeyuolds 
and Wright Counties. 

Zinc is abundant in nearly all the lead mines in the southwestern 
part of the State, and since the completion of the A. & P. R. R. a 
market has been furnished for this ore, which will be converted into 
valuable merchandise. 

Building Stone and Marble. — There is no scarcity of good buildino' 
stone in Missouri. Limestone, sandstone and granite exist in all 
shades of buff, blue, red and brown, and are of great beauty as build- 
ing material. 

There are many marble beds in the State, some of which furnish 
very beautiful and excellent marble. It is found in Marion, Cooper, 
St. Louis, and other counties. 

One of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the 3rd 
Magnesian limestone, on the Niangua. It is fine-grained, crystalline, 
silico-magnesian limestone, light-drab, slightly tinged with peach blos- 
som, and clouded by deep flesh-colored shades. In ornamental archi- 
tecture it is rarely surpassed. 

Gypsum and Lime. — Though no extensive beds of gypsum have 
been discovered in Missouri, there are vast beds of the pure white 
crystalline variety on the line of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, on Kan- 
sas River, and on Gypsum Creek. It exists also in several other 
localities accessible by both rail and boat. 

All of the limestone formations in the State, from the coal measures 
to fourth Magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure car- 
bonate of pure lime. 

Clays and Paints. — Clays are found in nearly all parts of the State 
suitable for making bricks. Potters' clay and fire-clay are worked in 
many localities. 

There are several beds of purple shades in the coal measures which 
possess the properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Yel- 
low and red ochres are found in considerable quantities on the Missouri 


River. Some of these paints have been thoroughly tested and found 
fire-proof and durable. 


No State is, perhaps, better supplied with cold springs of pure water 
than Missouri. Out of the bottoms, there is scarcely a section of 
land but has one or more perennial springs of good water. Even 
where there are no springs, good water can be obtained by digging 
from twenty to forty feet. Salt springs are abundant in the central 
part of the State, and discharge their brine in Cooper, Saline, Howard, 
and adjoining counties. Considerable salt was made in Cooper and 
Howard Counties at an early day. 

Sulphur springs are also numerous throughout the State. The 
Chouteau Springs in Cooper, the Monagaw Springs in St. Clair, the 
Elk Springs in Pike, and the Cheltenham Springs in St. Louis County 
have acquired considerable reputation as salubrious waters, and have 
become popular places of resort. Many other counties have good 
sulphur springs. 

Among the Chalybeate springs the Sweet Springs on the Black- 
water, and the Chalybeate spring in the University campus are, perhaps, 
the most popular of the kind in the State. There are, however, other 
springs impregnated with some of the salts of iron. 

Petroleum springs are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, 
Lafayette, Bates, Vernon, and other counties. The variety called 
lubricating oil is the more common. 

The water power of the State is excellent. Large springs are 
particularly abundant on the waters of the Meramec, Gasconade, 
Bourbeuse, Osage, Niangua, Spring, White, Sugar, and other streams. 
Besides these, there are hundreds of springs sufficiently large to drive 
mills and factories, and the day is not far distant when these crystal 
fountains will be utilized, and a thousand saws will buzz to their 
dashing music. 




Title to Missouri Lands — Right of Discovery — Title of France and Spain — Cession 
to the United States — Territorial Changes — Treaties with Indians — First Settle- 
ment — Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon — St. Louis — When Incorporated — 
Potosi — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — New Madrid — St. Francois County — 
Perry — Mississippi — Loutre Island — "Boone's Lick" — Cote Sans Dessein — 
Howard County — Some First Things — Counties — When Organized. 

The title to the soil of Missouri was, of course, primarily vested in 
the original occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery 
by the whites. But the Indians, being savages, possessed but few 
rights that civilized nations considered themselves bound to respect ; 
so, therefore, when they found this country in the possession of such 
a people they claimed it in the name of the King of France, by the 
right of discovery. It remained under the jurisdiction of France 
until 1763. 

Prior to the year 1763, the entire continent of North America was 
divided between France, England, Spain and Kussia. France held all 
that portion that now constitutes our national domain west of the 
Mississippi River, except Texas, and the territory which we have 
obtained from Mexico and Russia. The vast region, while under the 
jurisdiction of France, was known as the " Province of Louisiana," 
and embraced the present State of Missouri. At the close of the 
** Old French War," in 1763, France gave up her share of the con- 
tinent, and Spain came into the possession of the territory west of the 
Mississippi River, while Great Britain retained Canada and the regions 
northward, having obtained that territory by conquest, in the war 
with France. For thirty-seven years the territory now embraced 
within the limits of Missouri, remained as a part of the possession of 
Spain, and then went back to France by the treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
October 1, 1800. On the 30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the 
United States, in consideration of receiving $11,250,000, and the 
liquidation of certain claims, held by citizens of the United States 
against France, which amounted to the further sum of $3,750,000, 
making a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be seen that France has 
twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory embracing 


Missouri, "but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our Govern- 
ment an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved, 
authorizing the President to take possession of the newly acquired 
territory, and provided for it a temporary government, and another 
act, approved March 26, 1804, authorized the division of the " Louis- 
iana Purchase," as it was then called, into two separate territories. 
All that portion south of the 33d parallel of north latitude was called 
the " Territory of Orleans," and that north of the said parallel was 
known as the '* District of Louisiana," and was placed under the 
jurisdiction of what was then known as *' Lidian Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the 
*' District of Louisiana" was organized as the " Territory of Louis- 
iana," with a territorial government of its own, which went into 
operation July 4th of the same year, and it so remained till 1812. In 
this year the " Territory of Orleans " became the State of Louisiana, 
and the ** Territory of Louisiana" was organized as the " Territory 
of Missouri." 

This change took place under an act of Congress, approved June 4, 
1812. In 1819, a portion of this territory was organized as " Arkan- 
sas Territory," and on August 10, 1821, the State of Missouri was 
admitted, being a part of the former " Territory of Missouri." 

In 1836, the *' Platte Purchase," then being a part of the Indian 
Territory, and now composing the counties of Atchison, Andrew, 
Buchanan, Holt, Nodaway and Platte, was made by treaty with the 
Indians, and added to the State. It will be seen, then, that the soil 
of Missouri belonged : — 

1. To France, with other territory. 

2. In 1763, with other territory, it was ceded to Spain. 

3. October 1, 1800, it was ceded, with other territory from Spain, 
back to France. 

4. April 30, 1803, it was ceded, with other territory, by France to 
the United States. 

5. October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized by 
Congress for the newly acquired territory. 

6. October 1, 1804, it was included in the '* District of Louisiana" 
and placed under the territorial government of Indiana. 

7. July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the " Territory of 
Louisiana," then organized with a separate territorial government. 



8. June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the «* Ter- 
ritory of Missouri." 

9. August 10, 1821, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

10. In 1836, the "Platte Purchase" was made, adding more ter- 
ritory to the State. 

The cession by France, April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United 
States, subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly 
the policy of the Government to recognize. Before the Government 
of the United States could vest clear title to the soil in the grantee it 
was necessary to extinguish the Indian title by purchase. This was 
done accordingly by treaties made with the Indians at different times. 


The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory now 
embraced in the State of Missouri, is not known, nor is it known at 
what precise period the first settlements were made. It is, however, 
generally agreed that they were made at Ste. Genevieve and New 
Bourbon, tradition fixing the date of the settlements in the autumn of 
1735. These towns were settled by the French from Kaskaskia and 
St. Philip in Illinois. 

St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Liguest, on the 15th of 
February, 1764. He was a native of France, and was one of the 
members of the company of Laclede Liguest, Antonio Maxant & Co., 
to whom a royal charter had been granted, confirming the privilege 
of an exclusive trade with the Indians of Missouri as far north as St. 
Peter's Eiver. 

While in search of a trading post he ascended the Mississippi as far 
as the mouth of the Missouri, and finally returned to the present town 
site of St. Louis. After the village had been laid off he named it St. 
Louis in honor of Louis XV., of France. 

The colony thrived rapidly by accessions from Kaskaskia and other 
towns on the east side of the Mississippi, and its trade was largely in_ 
creased by many of the Indian tribes, who removed a portion of their 
peltry trade from the same towns to St. Louis. It was incorporated 
as a town on the ninth day of November, 1809, by the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of the district of St. Louis ; the town trustees being 
Auguste Chouteau, Edward Hempstead, Jean F. Cabanne, Wm. C. 
Carr and William Christy, and incorporated as a city December 9, 
1822. The selection of the town site on which St. Louis stands was 
highly judicious, the spot not only being healthful and having the ad- 


vantages of water transportation unsurpassed, but surrounded by a 
beautiful region of country, rich in soil and mineral resources. St. 
Louis has grown to be the fifth city in population in the Union, and 
is to-day the great center of internal commerce of the Missouri, the 
Mississippi and their tributaries, and, with its railroad facilities, it is 
destined to be the greatest inland city of the American continent. 

The next settlement was made at Potosi, in Washington County, in 
1765, by Francis Breton, who, while chasing a bear, discovered the 
mine near the present town of Potosi, where he afterward located. 

One of the most prominent pioneers who settled at Potosi was 
Moses Austin, of Virginia, who, in 1795, received by grant from the 
Spanish government a league of land, now known as the "Austin Sur- 
vey.** The grant was made on condition that Mr. Austin would es- 
tablish a lead mine at Potosi and work it. He built a palatial 
residence, for that day, on the brow of the hill in the little villagej 
which was for many years known as '* Durham Hull.'* At this point 
the first shot-tower and sheet-lead manufactory were erected. 

Five years after the founding of St. Louis the first settlement made 
in Northern Missouri was made near St. Charles, in St. Charles 
County, in 1769, The name given to it, and which it retained till 
1784, was Les Petites Gotes^ signifying, Little Hills. The town site 
was located by Blanchette, a Frenchman, surnamed LeChasseur, who 
built the first fort in the town and established there a military post. 

Soon after the establishment of the military post at St. Charles, the 
old French village of Portage des Sioux, was located on the Missis- 
sippi, just below the mouth of the Illinois River, and at about the 
same time a Kickapoo village was commenced at Clear Weather Lake. 
The present town site of New Madrid, in New Madrid county, was 
settled in 1781, by French Canadians, it then being occupied by Del- 
aware Indians. The place now known as Big River Mills, St. Fran- 
cois county, was settled in 1796, Andrew Baker, John Alley, Francis 
Starnater and John Andrews, each locating claims. The following 
year, a settlement was made in the same county, just below the pres- 
ent town of Farmington, by the Rev. William Murphy, a Baptist min- 
ister from East Tennessee. In 1796, settlements were made in Perry 
county by emigrants from Kentucky and Pennsylvania ; the latter lo- 
cating in the rich bottom lands of Bois Brule, the former generally 
settling in the " Barrens," and along the waters of Saline Creek. 

Bird's Point, in Mississippi county, opposite Cairo, Illinois, was 
settled August 6, 1800, by John Johnson, by virtue of a land-grant 


from the commandant under the Spanish Government. Norfolk and 
Charleston, in the same county, were settled respectively in 1800 and 
1801. Warren county was settled in 1801. Loutre Island, below 
the present town of Hermann, in the Missouri River, was settled by a 
few American families in 1807. This little company of pioneers suf- 
fered greatly from the floods, as well as from the incursions of thieving 
and blood-thirsty Indians, and many incidents of a thrilling character 
could be related of trials and struggles, had we the time and space. 

In 1807, Nathan and Daniel M. Boone, sons of the great hunter and 
pioneer, in company with three others, went from St. Louis to 
"Boone's Lick," in Howard county, where they manufactured salt 
and formed the nucleus of a small settlement. 

Cote Sans Dessein, now called Bakersville, on the Missouri River, 
in Callaway county, was settled by the French in 1801. This little 
town was considered at that time, as the '* Far West" of the new 
world. During the war of 1812, at this place many hard-fought 
battles occurred between the whites and Indians, wherein woman's 
fortitude and courage greatly assisted in the defence of the settle- 

In 1810, a colony of Kentuckians numbering one hundred and fifty 
families immigrated to Howard county, and settled on the Missouri 
River in Cooper's Bottom near the present town of Franklin, and 
opposite Arrow Rock. 

Such, in brief, is the history of some of the early settlements of 
Missouri, covering a period of more than half a century. 

These settlements were made on the water courses ; usually along 
the banks of the two great streams, whose navigation aflbrded them 
transportation for their marketable commodities, and communication 
with the civilized portion of the country. 

They not only encountered the gloomy forests, settling as they did 
by the river's brink, but the hostile incursion of savage Indians, by 
whom they were for many years surrounded. 

The expedients of these brave men who first broke ground in the 
territory, have been succeeded by the permanent and tasteful improve- 
ments of their descendants. Upon the spots where they toiled, dared 
and died, are seen the comfortable farm, the beautiful village, and 
thrifty city. Churches and school houses greet the eye on every 
hand; railroads diverge in every direction, and, indeed, all the appli- 
ances of a higher civilization are profusely strewn over the smiling 
surface of the State. 

2d history of MISSOURI. 

Culture's hand 
Has scattered verdure o'er the land; 
And smiles and fragrance rule serene, 
Where barren wild usurped the scene. 


The first marriage that took place in Missouri was April 20, 1766, 
in St. Louis. 

The first baptism was performed in May, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first house of worship, (Catholic) was erected in 1775, at St. 

The first ferry established in 1805, on the Mississippi River, at St. 

The first newspaper established in St. Louis (Missouri Gazette) y in 

The first postoffice was established in 1804, in St. Louis — Rufus 
Easton, post-master. 

The first Protestant church erected at Ste. Genevieve, in 1806 — 

The first bank established (Bank of St. Louis), in 1814. 

The first market house opened in 1811, in St. Louis. 

The first steamboat on the Upper Mississippi was the General Pike, 
Capt. Jacob Reid ; landed at St. Louis 1817. 

The first board of trustees for public schools appointed in 1817, St. 

The first college built (St. Louis College), in 1817. 

The first steamboat that came up the Missouri River as high as 
Franklin was the Independence, in May, 1819 ; Capt. Nelson, mas- 

The first court house erected in 1823, in St. Louis. 

The first cholera appeared in St. Louis in 1832. 

The first railroad convention held in St. Louis, April 20, 1836. 

The first telegraph lines reached East St. Louis, December 20, 

The first great fire occurred in St. Louis, 1849. 




Organization 1812 — Council — House of Representatives — William Clark first Terri- 
torial Governor — Edward Hempstead first Delegate — Spanish Grants— First 
General Assembly — Proceedings — Second Assembly — Proceedings — Population 
of Territory — Vote of Territory — Ruf us Easton — Absent Members — Third Assem- 
bly — Proceedings — Application for Admission. 

Congress organized Missouri as a Territory, July 4, 1812, with a 
Governor and General Assembly. The Governor, Legislative Coun- 
cil, and House of Representatives exercised the Legislative power of 
the Territory, the Governor's vetoing power being absolute. 

/lie Legislative Council was composed of nine members, wiiose ten- 
ure of office lasted five years. Eighteen citizens were nominated by 
the House of Representatives to the President of the United States, 
from whom he selected, with the approval of the Senate, nine Coun- 
cillors, to compose the Legislative Council. 

The House of Representatives consisted of members chosen every 
two years by the people, the basis of representation being one mem- 
ber for every five hundred white males. The first House of Repre- 
sentatives consisted of thirteen members, and, by Act of Congress, the 
whole number of Representatives could not exceed twenty-five. 

The judicial power of the Territory, was vested in the Superior and 
Inferior Courts, and in the Justices of the Peace ; the Superior Court 
having three judges, whose term of office continued four years, hav- 
ing original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. 

The Territory could send one delegate to Congress. Governor 
Clark issued a proclamation, October 1st, 1812, required by Congress, 
reorganizing the districts of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, 
Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid, into five counties, and fixed the 
second Monday in November following, for the election of a delegate 
to Congress, and the members of the Territorial House of Represen- 

William Clark, of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, was the first 
Territorial Governor, appointed by the President, who began his duties 

Edward Hempstead, Rufus Easton, Samuel Hammond, and Matthew 
Lyon were candidates in November for delegates to Congress. 


Edward Hempstead was elected, being the first Territorial Dele- 
gate to Congress from Missouri. He sei-ved one term, declining a 
second, and was instrumental in having Congress to pass the act of 
June 13, 1812, which he introduced, confirming the title to lands 
which were claimed by the people by virtue of Spanish grants. The 
same act confirmed to the people " for the support of schools," the 
title to villaire lots, out-lots or common field lots, which were held 
and enjoyed by them, at the time of the session in 1803. 

Under the act of June 4, 1812, the first General Assembly held its 
session in the house of Joseph Robidoux, in St. Louis, on the 7th of 
December, 1812. The names of the members of the House were: — 

St. Charles. — John Pitman and Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis. — David Music, Bernard G. Farrar, William C. Can.', 
and Richard Clark. 

Ste. Genevieve. — George Bullet, Richard S. Thomas, and Isaac 

Cape Girardeau. — George F. Bollinger, and Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid. — John Shrader and Samuel Phillips. 

John B. C. Lucas, one of the Territorial Judges, administered the 
oath of office. William C. Carr was elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott, Clerk. 

The House of Representatives proceeded to nominate eighteen per- 
sons from whom the President of the United States, with the Senate, 
was to select nine for the Council. From this number the President 
chose the following : 

St. Charles. — James Flaugherty and Benjamin Emmons. 

St. Louis. — Auguste Chouteau, Sr., and Samuel Hammond. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John Scott and James Maxwell. 

Cape Girardeau. — William Neeley and Joseph Cavenor. 

New Madrid. — Joseph Hunter. 

The Legislative Council, thus chosen by the President and Senate, 
was announced by Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting-Governor of 
the Territory, by proclamation, June 3, 1813, and fixing the first 
Monday in July following, as the time for the meeting of the Legis- 

In the meantime the duties of the executive office were assumed by 
William Clark. The Legislature accordingly met, as required by the 
Acting-Governor's proclamation, in July, but its proceedings were 
never officially published. Consequently but little is known in refer- 
ence to the workings of the first Territorial Legislature in Missouri. 



From the imperfect account, published in the Missouri Gazette, of 
that day ; a paper which had been in existence since 1808, it is found 
that laws were passed regulating and establishing weights and meas- 
ures ; creating the office of Sheriflf; providing the manner for taking 
the census ; permanently fixing the seats of Justices, and an act to 
compensate its own members. At this session, laws were also passed 
defining crimes and penalties ; laws in reference to forcible entry and 
detainer ; establishing Courts of Common Pleas ; incorporating the 
Bank of St. Louis ; and organizing a part of Ste. Genevieve county 
into the county of Washington. 

The next session of the Lesjislature convened in St. Louis, Decern- 
ber 6, 1813. George Bullet of Ste. Genevieve county, was speaker 
elect, and Andrew Scott, clerk, and William Sullivan, doorkeeper. 
Since the adjournment of the former Legislature, several vacancies 
had occurred, and new members had been elected to fill their places. 
Among these was Israel McCready, from the county of Washington. 

The president of the legislative council was Samuel Hammond. 
No journal of the council was officially published, but the proceedings 
of the house are found in the Gazette. 

At this session of the Legislature many wise and useful laws were 
passed, having reference to the temporal as well as the moral and 
spiritual welfare of the people. Laws were enacted for the suppres- 
sion of vice and immorality on the Sabbath day ; for the improve- 
ment of public roads and highways ; creating the offices of auditor, 
treasurer and county surveyor ; regulating the fiscal affiiirs of the 
Territory and fixing the boundary lines of New Madrid, Cape Girar- 
deau, Washington and St. Charles counties. The Legislature ad- 
journed on the 19th of January, 1814, sine die. 

The population of the Territory as shown by the United States 
census in 1810, was 20,845. The census taken by the Legislature in 
1814 gave the Territory a population of 25,000. This enumeration 
shows the county of St. Louis contained the greatest number of in- 
habitants, and the new county of Arkansas the least — the latter hav- 
ing 827, and the former 3,149. 

The candidates for delegate to Congress were Rufus Easton, Samuel 
Hammond, Alexander McNair and Thomas F. Riddick. Rufus 
Easton and Samuel Hammond had been candidates at the preceding 
election. In all the counties, excepting Arkansas, the votes aggre- 
gated 2,599, of which number Mr. Easton received 965, Mr. Ham- 


moud 746, Mr. McNair 853, and Mr. Riddick (who had withdrawn 
previously to the election) 35. Mr. Easton was elected. 

The census of 1814 showing a large increase in the population of 
the Territory, an appointment was made increasing the number of 
Representatives in the Territorial Legislature to twenty-two. The 
General Assembly began its session in St. Louis, December 5, 1814. 
There were present on the first day twenty Representatives. James 
Caldwell of Ste. Genevieve county was elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott who had been clerk of the preceding assembly, was chosen 
clerk. The President of the Council was William Neeley, of Cape 
Girardeau county. 

It appeared that James Maxwell, the absent member of the Council, 
and Seth Emmons, member elect of the House of Representatives, 
were dead. The county of Lawrence was organized at this session, 
from the western part of New Madrid county, and the corporate 
powers of St. Louis were enlarged. In 1815 the Territorial Legisla- 
ture ao-ain began its session. Only a partial report of its proceedings 
are o-iven in the Gazette. The county of Howard was then organized 
from St. Louis and St. Charles counties, and included all that part of 
the State lying north of the Osage and south of the dividing ridge 
between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. (For precise bounda- 
ries, see Chapter I. of the History of Boone County.) 

The next session of the Territorial Legislature commenced its ses- 
sion in December, 1816. During the sitting of this Legislature many 
important acts were passed. It was then that the " Bank of Mis- 
souri " was chartered and went into operation. In the fall of 1817 the 
"Bank of St. Louis" and the "Bank of Missouri" were issuing 
bills. An act was passed chartering lottery companies, chartering 
the academy at Potosi, and incorporating a board of trustees for 
superintending the schools in the town of St. Louis. Laws were also 
passed to encourage the " killing of wolves, panthers and wild-cats." 

The Territorial "Legislature met again in December, 1818, and, 
among other things, organized the counties of Pike, Cooper, Jeffer- 
son, Franklin, Wayne, Lincoln, Madison, Montgomery, and three 
counties in the Southern part of Arkansas. In 1819 the Territory of 
Arkansas was formed into a separate government of its own. 

The people of the Territory of Missouri had been, for some time, 
anxious that their Territory should assume the duties and responsibilities 
of a sovereign State. Since 1812, the date of the organization of the 
Territory, the population had rapidly increased, many counties had 


been established, its commerce had grown into importance, its agri- 
cultural and mineral resources were being developed, and believing 
that its admission into the Union as a State would give fresh impetus 
to all these interests, and hasten its settlement, the Territorial Legis- 
lature of 1818-19 accordingly made application to Congress for the 
passage of an act authorizing the people of Missouri to organize a State 


Application of Missouri to be admitted into the Union — Agitation of tlie Slavery 
Question — *' Missouri Compromise " — Constitutional Convention of 1820 — Con- 
stitution presented to Congress — Further Resistance to Admission — Mr. Clay and 
his Committee make Report — Second Compromise — Missouri Admitted. 

With the application of the Territorial Legislature of Missouri for 
her admission into the Union, commenced the real agitation of the 
slavery question in the United States. 

Not only was our National Legislature the theater of angry discus- 
sions, but everywhere throughout the length and breadth of the Re- 
public the "Missouri Question" was the all-absorbing theme. The 
political skies threatened, 

" In forked flashes, a commanding tempest," 

Which was liable to burst upon the nation at any moment. Through 
such a crisis our country seemed destined to pass. The question as to 
the admission of Missouri was to be the beginning of this crisis, which 
distracted the public counsels of the nation for more than forty years 

Missouri asked to be admitted into the great family of States. 
'* Lower Louisiana," her twin sister Territory, had knocked at the 
door of the Union eight years previously, and was admitted as stipu- 
lated by Napoleon, to all the rights, privileges and immunities of a 
State, and in accordance with the stipulations of the same treaty, 
Missouri now sought to be clothed with the same rights, privileges 
and immunities. 

As what is known in the history of the United States as the " Mis- 
souri Compromise," of 1820, takes rank among the most prominent 


measures that had up to that day engaged the attention of our 
National Legislature, we shall enter somewhat into its details, being 
connected as they are with the annals of the State. 

February 15th, 1819. — After the House had resolved itself into a 
Committee of the Whole on the bill to authorize the admission of Mis- 
souri into the Union, and after the question of her admission had been 
discussed for some time, Mr. Tallmadge, of New York, moved to 
amend the bill, by adding to it the following proviso : — 

'■''And Provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involun- 
tary servitude be prohibited, except for the punishment of crime, 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, and that all chil- 
dren born within the said State, after the admission thereof into the 
Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." 

As might have been expected, this proviso precipitated the angry 
discussions which lasted nearly three years, finally culminating in the 
Missouri Compromise. All phases of the slavery question were pre- 
sented, not in its moral and social aspects, but as a great constitu- 
tional question, ajSecting Missouri and the admission of future States. 
The proviso, when submitted to a vote, was adopted — 79 to 67, and 
so reported to the House. 

Hon. John Scott, who was at that time a delegate from the Terri- 
tory of Missouri, was not permitted to vote, but as such delegate he 
had the privilege of participating in the debates which followed. On 
the 16th day of February the proviso was taken up and discussed. 
After several speeches had been made, among them one by Mr. Scott 
and one by the author of the proviso, Mr. Tallmadge, the amendment, 
or proviso, was divided into two parts, and voted upon. The first 
part of it, which included all to the word " convicted," was adopted — 
87 to 76. The remaining part was then voted upon, and also 
adopted, by 82 to 78. By a vote of 97 to 56 the bill was ordered to 
be engrossed for a third reading. 

The Senate Committee, to whom the bill was referred, reported the 
same to the Senate on the 19th of February, when that body voted 
first upon a motion to strike out of the proviso all after the word 
«' convicted," which was carried by a vote of 32 to 7. It then voted 
to strike out the first entire clause, which prevailed — 22 to 16, 
thereby defeating the proviso. 

The House declined to concur in the action of the Senate, and the 
bill was again returned to that body, which in turn refused to recede 
from its position. The bill was lost and Congress adjourned. This 


was most unfortunate for the country. The people having already 
been wrought up to fever heat over the agitation of the question in 
the National Councils, now became intensely excited. The press 
added fuel to the flame, and the progress of events seemed rapidly 
tending to the downfall of our nationality. 

A long interval of nine months was to ensue before the meeting of 
Congress. The body indicated by its vote upon the *' Missouri Ques- 
tion," that the two great sections of the country were politically 
divided upon the subject of slavery. The restrictive clause, which it 
was sought to impose upon Missouri as a condition of her admission, 
would in all probability, be one of the conditions of the admission of 
the Territory of Arkansas. The public mind was in a state of great 
doubt and uncertainty up to the meeting of Congress, which took 
place on the 6th of December, 1819. The memorial of the Legisla- 
tive Council and House of Representatives of the Missouri Territory, 
praying for admission into the Union, was presented to the Senate 
by Mr. Smith, of South Carolina. It was referred to the Judiciary 

Some three weeks having passed without any action thereon by the 
Senate, the bill was taken up and discussed by the House until the 
19th of February, when the bill from the Senate for the admission of 
Maine was considered. The bill for the admission of Maine included 
the " Missouri Question," by an amendment which read as follows : 

"And be it further enacted. That in all that territory ceded by 
France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies 
north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, north latitude (except- 
ing such part thereof as is) included within the limits of the State, 
contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, other- 
wise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been convicted, shall be and is hereby forever prohibited ; Provided, 
always, That any person escaping into the same from whom labor or 
service is lawfully claimed, in any State or Territory of the United 
States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the 
person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid." 

The Senate adopted this amendment, which formed the basis of the 
«♦ Missouri Compromise," modified afterward by striking out the 
words, ** excepting only such part thereof y 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 24 to 20. On the 2d day of 
March the House took up the bill and amendments for consideration, 
and by a vote of 134 to 42 concurred in the Senate amendment, and 


the bill being passed by the two Houses, constituted section 8, of 
•'An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri Territory to form a 
Constitution and State Government, and for the admission of such 
State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, and 
to prohibit slavery in certain territory." 

This act was approved March 6, 1820. Missouri then coutained fif- 
teen organized counties. By act of Congress the people of said State 
were authorized to hold an election on the first Monday, and two suc- 
ceeding days thereafter in May, 1820, to select representatives to a 
State convention. This convention met in St. Louis on the 12th of 
June, following the election in May, and concluded its labors on the 
19th of July, 1820. David Barton was its President, and Wm. G. 
Pettis, Secretary. There were forty-one members of this convention, 
men of ability and statesmanship, as the admirable constitution which 
they framed amply testifies. Their names and the counties repre- 
sented by them are as follows : — 

Cape Girardeau. — Stephen Bj'^rd, James Evans, Kichard S. 
Thomas, Alexander Buckner and Joseph McFerron. 

Cooper. — Eobert P. Clark, Robert Wallace, Wm. Lillard. 

Franklin. — John G. Heath. 

Howard. — Nicholas S. Burkhart, Dufi" Green, John Ray, Jonathan 
S. Findley, Benj. H. Reeves. 

Jefferson. — Daniel Hammond. 

Lincoln. — Malcom Henry. 

Montgomery. — Jonathan Ramsey, James Talbott. 

Madison. — Nathaniel Cook. 

New Madrid. — Robert S. Dawson, Christopher G. Houts. 

Pike. — Stephen Cleaver. 

St. Charles. — Benjamin Emmons, Nathan Boone, Hiram H. Baber. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John D. Cook, Henry Dodge, John Scott, R. T. 

St. Louis. — David Barton, Edward Bates, Alexander McNair, 
Wm. Rector, John C. Sullivan, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Bernard Pratte, 
Thomas F. Riddick. 

Washington. — John Rice Jones, Samuel Perry, John Hutchings. 
Wayne. — Elijah Bettis. 

On the 13th of November, 1820, Congress met again, and on the 
sixth of the same month Mr. Scott, the delegate from Missouri, pre- 
sented to the House the Constitution as framed by the convention. 


The same was referred to a select committee, who made thereon a 
favorable report. 

The admission of the State, however, was resisted, because it was 
claimed that its constitution sanctioned slavery, and authorized the 
Legislature to pass laws preventing free negroes and mulattoes from 
settling in the State. The report of the committee to whom was 
referred the Constitution of Missouri was accompanied by a preamble 
and resolutions, offered by Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina. The 
preamble and resolutions were stricken out. 

The application of the State for admission shared the same fate in 
the Senate. The question Avas referred to a select committee, who, 
on the 29th of November, reported in favor of admitting the State. 
The debate, which followed, continued for two weeks, and finally Mr. 
Eaton, of Tennessee, offered an amendment to the resolution as fol- 
lows : — 

*' Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as 
to give the assent of Congress to any provision in the Constitution of 
Missouri, if any such there be, which contravenes that clause in the 
Constitution of the United States, which declares that the citizens of 
each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of 
citizens in the several States." 

The resolution, as amended, was adopted. The resolution and 
proviso were again taken up and discussed at great length, when the 
committee agreed to report the resolution to the House. 

The question on agreeing to the amendment, as reported from the 
committee of the whole, was lost in the House. A similar resolution 
afterward passed the Senate, but was again rejected in the House. 
Then it was that that great statesman and pure patriot, Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, feeling that the hour had come when angry discussions 
should cease, 

" With grave 

Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd 

A pillar of state ; deep on his front engravei 

Deliberation sat and public care ; 

And princely counsel in his face yet shone 

Majestic" •♦•**• 

proposed that the question of Missouri's admission be referred to a. 
committee consisting of twenty-three persons (a number equal to the 
number of States then composing the Union), be appointed to act in 
conjunction with a committee of the Senate to consider and report 
whether jNIissouri should be admitted, etc. 


The motion prevailed ; the committee was appointed and Mr, Clay 
made its chairman. The Senate selected seven of its members to act 
with the committee of twenty-three, and on the 26th of February the 
following report was made by that committee : — 

*' Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled : That Missouri shall 
be admitted into the Union, on an equal footing with the original 
States, in all respects whatever, upon the fundamental condition that 
the fourth clause, of the twenty-sixth section of the third article of 
the Constitution submitted on the part of said State to Congress, shall 
never be construed to authorize the passage of any law, and that no 
law shall be passed in conformity thereto, by which any citizen of 
either of the States in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoy- 
ment of any of the privileges and immunities to which such citizen is 
entitled, under the Constitution of the United States ; provided. That 
the Legislature of said State, by a Solemn Public Act, shall declare 
the assent of the said State, to the said fundamental condition, and 
shall transmit to the President of the United States, on or before the 
fourth Monday in November next, an authentic copy of the said act ; 
upon the receipt whereof, the President, by proclamation, shall an- 
nounce the fact ; whereupon, and without any further proceeding on 
the part of Congress, the admission of the said State into the Union 
shall be considered complete." 

This resolution, after a brief debate, was adopted in the House, and 
passed the Senate on the 28th of February, 1821. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in St. Charles, in June 
following, a Solemn Public Act was adopted, giving its assent to the 
conditions of admission, as expressed in the resolution of Mr. Clay. 
August 10th, 1821, President Monroe announced by proclamation the 
admission of Missouri into the Union to be complete. 




First Election for Governor and other State Officers — Senators and Eepresentatives to 
General Assembly — Sheriffs and Coroners — U. S. Senators — Representatives in 
Coagress — Supreme Court Judges — Counties Organized — Capital Moved to St. 
Charles — Official Record of Territorial and State Officers. 

By the Constitution adopted by the Convention on the 19th of July, 
1820, the General Assembly was required to meet in St. Louis on the 
third Monday in September of that year, and an election was ordered 
to be held on the 28th of August for the election of a Governor and 
other State officers, Senators and Representatives to the General 
Assembly, Sheriffs and Coroners, United States Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress. 

It will be seen that Missouri had not as yet been admitted as a 
State, but in anticipation of that event, and according to the provi- 
sions of the constitution, the election was held, and the General As- 
sembly convened. 

William Clark (who had been Governor of the Territory) and 
Alexander McNair were the candidates for Governor. McNair re- 
ceived 6,576 votes, Clark 2,556, total vote of the State 9,132. There 
were three candidates for Lieutenant-Governor, to wit : William H. 
Ashley, Nathaniel Cook and Henry Elliot. Ashley received 3,907 
votes, Cook 3,212, Elliot 931. A Representative was to be elected 
for the residue of the Sixteenth Congress and one for the Seventeenth. 
John Scott who was at the time Territorial delegate, was elected to 
both Congresses without opposition. 

The General Assembly elected in August met on the 19th of Sep- 
tember, 1820, and organized by electing James Caldwell, of Ste. 
Genevieve, speaker, and John McArthur clerk ; William H. Ashley, 
Lieutenant-Governor, President of the Senate ; Silas Bent, President, 
pro tern. 

Mathias McGirk, John D. Cook, and John R. Jones were appointed 
Supreme Judges, each to hold office until sixty-five years of age. 

Joshua Barton was appointed Secretary of State ; Peter Didier, 
State Treasurer ; Edward Bates, Attorney-General, and William 
Christie, Auditor of Public Accounts. 



David Barton and Thomas H. Benton were elected by the General 
Assembly to the United States Senate. 

At this session of the Legislature the counties of Boone, Callaway, 
Chariton, Cole, Gasconade, Lillard, Perry, Ralls, Ray and Saline 
were organized. 

We should like to give in details the meetings and proceedings of 
the different Legislatures which followed ; the elections for Govern- 
ors and other State officers ; the elections for Congressmen and United 
States Senators, but for want of space we can only present in a con- 
densed form the official record of the Territorial and State officers. 


Frederick Bates, Secretary and William Clark . . 

Acting-Governor .... 




Alexander McNair 1820-24 

Frederick Bates 1824-25 

Abraham J. Williams, vice 

Bates 1825 

John Miller, vice Bates . . . 1826-28 

John Miller 1828-32 

Daniel Dunklin, (1832-36) re- 
signed; appointed Surveyor 
General of the U. S. Lilburn 

W. Boggs, vice Dunklin . . 1836 

Lilburn W. Boggs 1836-40 

Thomas Reynolds (died 1844), . 1840-44 
M. M. Marmaduke vice Rey- 
nolds— John C. Edwards" . 1844-48 
Austin A. King . ... 1848-52 

Sterling Price 1852-56 

Trusten Polk (resigned) . . . 1856-57 

Hancock Jackson, vice Polk . 1857 

Robert M. Stewart, vice Polk . 1857-60 
C. F. Jackson (1860), office va- 
cated by ordinance; Hamil- 
ton R. Gamble, vice Jackson ; 
Gov. Gamble died 1864. 

Willard P. Hall, vice Gamble . 1864 

Thomas C. Fletcher .... 1864-68 

Joseph W. McClurg .... 1868-70 

B. Gratz Brown 1870-72 

Silas Woodson 1872-74 

Charles H. Hardin 1874-76 

John S. Phelps 1876-80 

Thomas T. Crittanden (now 

Governor) 1880 

William H. Ashley 
Benjamin H. Reeves 
Daniel Dunklin . . 
Lilburn W. Boggs . 
Franklin Cannon . 
M. M. Marmaduke . 
James Young . . 
Thomas L Rice. 
Wilson Brown . . 
Hancock Jackson . 
Thomas C. Reynolds 
Willard P. Hall . 
George Smith . . 
Edwin O. Sianard 
Joseph J. Gravelly. 
Charles P. .Johnson 
Norman J. Coleman 
Henry C. Brockmeyer 
Robert A. Campbell (present 
incumbent) . . 

Secretaries of State, 

Joshua Barton . . 

William G. Pettis . 

Hamilton R. Gamble 

Spencer Pettis . . 

P. H. McBride . . 

John C. Edwards (term expired 

1835, reappointed 1837, re 

signed 1837) . . 
Peter G. Glover . 
James L. Minor . 









P. H. Martin 

Ephraim B. Ewing . . .. 
John M. Richardson .... 
Benjsimin F. Massey (re-elected 

1860, for four years). . . . 

Mordecai Oliver 

Francis Rodman (re-elected 18G8 

for two years) 

Eugene F. Weigel, (re-elected 

1872, for two years) .... 
Michael K. McGrath (present 


State Treasurers. 

Peter Didier 

Nathaniel Sinionds .... 

James Earickson 

John Walker 

Abraham McClellan .... 
Peter G. Glover 

A. W. Morrison 

George 0. Bingham .... 

William Bishop 

William Q. Dallmeyer . . . 

Samuel Hays 

Harvey W. Salmon .... 

Joseph W. Mercer 

Elijah Gates 

Phillip E. Chappell (present in- 

A ttorney- Geneva Is, 

Edward Bates 

Kufus Easton 

Robt. W. Wells 

William B. Napton .... 
S. M. Bay 

B. F. Stringfellow 

William A. Robards .... 
James B. Gardenhire .... 
Ephraim W. Ewing .... 

James P. Knott 

Aikman Welch 

Thomas T. Crittenden . . . 

Robert F. Wingate 

Horace P. Johnson 

A. J. Baker 

Henry Clay Ewing 

John A. Hockaday 

Jackson L. Smith 

D. H. Mclntire (present in- 









































Auditors of Public Accounts. 

William Christie 1820-21 

William V. Rector .... 1821-23 

Elias Barcroft 1823-33 

Henry Shurlds 1833-35 

Peter G. Glover 1835-37 

Hiram H. Baber 1837-45 

William Monroe 1845 

J. R. McDermon 1845-48 

George W. Miller 1848-49 

Wilson Brown 1849-52 

William H. Buffington . . . 1852-60 

William S. Moseley .... 1860-64 

Alonzo Thompson 1864-68 

Daniel M. Draper 1868-72 

George B. Clark 1872-74 

Thomas Holladay . . . , . 187 -80 
John Walker (present incum- 
bent) 1880 

Judges of Supreme Court. 

Matthias McGirk 1822-41 

John D. Cooke 1822-23 

John R. Jones 1822-24 

Rufus Pettibone 1823-25 

Geo. Tompkins 1824-45 

Robert Wash 1825-37 

John C. Edwards 1837-39 

W^m. Scott, (appointed 1841 till 
meeting of General Assem- 
bly in place of McGirk, re- 
signed; reappointed . . . 1843 

P. H. McBride 1845 

Wm. B. Napton 1849-52 

John F. Ryland 1849-51 

John H. Birch 1849-51 

Wm. Scott, John F. Ryland, 
and Hamilton R. Gamble 
(elected by the people, for six 

years) 1851 

Gamble (resigned) 1854 

Abiel Leonard elected to fill va- 
cancy of Gamble. 
Wm. B. Napton (vacated by 

failure to file oath). 
Wm. Scott and John C. Rich- 
ardson (resigned, elected Au- 
gust, for six years) .... 1857 
E. B. Ewing, (to fill Richard- 
son's resignation) .... 1859 
Barton Bates (appointed) . . 1862 
W. V. N. Bay (appointed) . . 1862 



John D. S. Drvden (appointed) 

Barton Bates 

W. V. N. Bay (elected) . . . 
John D. S. Dryden (elected) . 
David Wagner (appointed) . . 
"Wallace L. Lovelace (appoint- 

Nathaniel Holmes (appointed) 
Thomas J. C. Fagg (appointed) 
James Baker (appointed) . . 
David Wagner (elected) . . . 

Philemon Bliss 

Warren Currier 

Washington Adams (appointed 
to flu Currier's place, whore- 

Ephraim B. Ewing (elected) . 
Thomas A. Sherwood (elected) 
W. B. Napton (appointed in 
place of Ewing, deceased) . 
Edward A. Lewis (appointed, 
in place of Adams, resigned) 
Warwick Hough (elected) . . 
William B. Napton (elected) . 

John W. Henry 

Robert D. Ray succeeded Wm. 

B. Napton in 

Elijah H. Norton (appointed in 

1876), elected 

T. A. Sherwood (re-elected) 

United States Senators. 

T. H. Benton 

D. Barton 

Alex. Buckner 


D. R. Atchison 

H. S. Geyer 

James S. G-reen 

T. Polk 

Waldo P. Johnson 

Robert Wilson 

B. Gratz Brown (for unexpired 
term of Johnson) .... 

J. B. Henderson 

Charles D. Drake 

Carl Schurz 

D. F. Jewett fin place of Drake, 


P. P. Blair 

L. V.Bogy 

James Shields (elected for unex- 
pired term of Bogy) . . . 


































D. H. Armstrong appointed for 

unexpired term of Bogy. 

F. M. Cockrell (re-elected 1881) 1875-81 

George G. Vest 1879 

Representatives to Congress. 

John Scott 1820-26 

Ed. Bates 1826-28 

Spencer Pettis 1828-31 

William H. Ashley .... 1831-36 

John Bull 1832-34 

Albert G. Harrison 1834-39 

John Miller 1836-42 

John Jameson (re-elected 1846 

for two years) 1839-44 

John C. Edwards 1840-42 

James M. Hughes 1842-44 

James H.Relfe 1842-46 

James B. Bowlin 1842-50 

Gustavus M. Bower .... 1842-44 

Sterling Price 1844-46 

William McDaniel 1846 

Leonard H. Sims 1844-46 

John S. Phelps 1844-60 

James S. Green (re-elected 

1856, resigned) 1846-50 

Will ard P. Hall 1846-53 

William V. N. Bay .... 1848-61 

John F. Darby 1850-53 

Gilchrist Porter 1850-57 

John G. Miller 1850-56 

Alfred W. Lamb ..... 1852-54 

Thomas H. Benton 1852-54 

Mordecai Oliver 1852-57 

James J. Lindlej- 1852-66 

Samuel Caruthers 1852-58 

Thomas P. Akers (to fill unex- 
pired term of J. G. Miller, 

deceased) 1855 

Francis P. Blair, Jr. (re-elected 

1860, resigned) 1856 

Thomas L. Anderson .... 1856-60 

James Craig 1856-60 

Samuel H. Woodson .... 1856-60 

John B. Clark, Sr 1857-61 

J. Richard Barrett 1860 

John W. Noel 1858-63 

James S. Rollins 1860-64 

Elijah H. Norton 1860-63 

JohnW.Reid 1860-61 

William A. Hall 1862-64 

Thomas L. Price (in place of 

Reid, expelled) 1862 




Henry T. Blow 

Sempronius T. Boyd, (elected in 

1862, and again in 1868, for 

two years.) 
Joseph W. McClurg .... 

Austin A. King 

Benjamin F. Loan 

John G. Scott (in place of Noel, 


John Hogan .... . . 

Thomas F. Noel 

John R. Kelsoe 

Robert T. Van Horn . . . 

John F. Benjamin 

George W. Anderson .... 

William A. Pile 

C. A. Newcomb 

Joseph J. Gravelly 

James R. McCormack . . . 
John H. Stover (in place of 

McClurg, resigned) • . 

Erastus Wells 

G. A. Finklenburg ... 

Samuel S. Burdett 

Joel F. Asper 

David P. Dyer 

Harrison E. Havens .... 

Isaac G. Parker 

James G. Blair 

Andrew King 

Edwin 0. Stanard 

William H. Stone 

Robert A. Hatcher (elected) . 

Richard B. Bland 

Thomas T. Crittenden . . . 

Ira B. Hyde 

John B. Clark, Jr. 

John M. Glover 
































Aylett H. Buckner 1872 

Edward C. Kerr 1874-78 

Charles H. Morgan .... 1874 

John F. Philips 1874 

B. J. Franklin 1874 

David Rea 1874 

Rezin A. De Bolt 1874 

Anthony Ittner 1876 

Nathaniel Cole 1876 

Robert A. Hatcher 1876-78 

R. P. Bland 1876-78 

A. H. Buckner 1876-78 

J. B. Clark, Jr 1876-78 

T. T. Crittenden 1876-78 

B. J. Franklin 1876-78 

John M. Glover 1876-78 

Robert A Hatcher 1876-78 

Chas. H. Morgan 1876-78 

L. S. Metcalf 1876-78 

H.M. Pollard 1876-78 

David Rea 1876-78 

S.L. Sawyer 1878-80 

N. Ford 1878-82 

G. F. Rothwell 1878-82 

John B. Clark, Jr 1878-82 

W. H. Hatch 1878-82 

A. H. Buckner 1878-82 

M. L. Clardy 1878-82 

R.G.* Frost 1878-82 

L. H.Davis 1878-82 

R. P. Bland 1878-82 

J. R. Waddell 1878-80 

T.Allen 1880-82 

R. Hazeltine 1880-82 

T.M.Rice 1880-82 

R. T. Van Horn 1880-82 

Nicholas Ford 1880-82 

J. G. Burrows 1880-82 


Adair January 29, 

Andrew January 29, 

Atchison January 14, 

Audrain December 17, 

Barry January 5, 

Barton December 12, 

Bates January 29, 

Benton Januarys, 

Bollinger March 1, 

Boone November 16, 

Buchanan February 10, 



Caldwell .December 26, 1836 

Callaway November 25, 1820 

Camden January 29, 1841 

Cape Girardeau October 1, 1812 

Carroll January 3, 1833 

Carter March 10, 1859 

Cass September 11, 1835 

Cedar February 14, 1845 

Chariton November 16, 1820 

Christian March 8, 1860 

Clark December 15. 1818 




Butler February 27, 1849 

Clay January 2, 1822 

Clinton January 16, 1833 

Cole November 16, 1820 

Cooper. December 17, 1818 

Crawford January 23, 1829 

Dade January 29, 1841 

Dallas December 10, 1844 

Daviess December 29, 1836 

DeKalb February 25, 1845 

Dent February 10, 1851 

Douglas October 19, 1857 

Dunklin February 14, 1845 

Franklin December 11, 1818 

Gasconade November 25, 1820 

Gentry February 12, 1841 

Greene , January 2. 1833 

Grundy January 2, 1843 

Harrison February 14, 1845 

Henry December 13, 1834 

Hickory February 14, 1845 

Holt February 15, 1841 

Howard January 23, 1816 

Howell March 2, 1857 

Iron February 17, 1857 

Jackson December 15, 1826 

Jasper January 29, 1841 

Jefferson December 8, 1818 

Johnson December 13, 1834 

Knox February 14, 1845 

Laclede February 24, 1849 

Lafayette November 16, 1820 

Lawrence February 25, 1845 

Lewis January 2, 1833 

Lincoln December 14, 1818 

Linn January 7, 1837 

Livingston January 6, 1837 

McDonald March 3, 1849 

Macon January 6, 1837 

Madison December 14, 1818 

Maries March 2, 1855 

Marion December 23, 1826 

Mercer February 14, 1845 

Miller ..February 6, 1837 

Mississippi.... February 14, 1845 

Moniteau February 14, 1S45 

Monroe January 6, 1831 

Montgomery December 14, 1818 

Morgan January 5, 1833 

New Madrid October 1, 1812 

Newton December 81, 1838 

Nodaway February 14, 1845 

Oregon February 14, 1845 

Osage January 29, 1841 

Ozark January 29, 1841 

Pemiscot February 19, 1861 

Perry November 16, 1820 

Pettis January 26, 1833 

Phelps November 13, 1857 

Pike December 14, 1818 

Platte December 81, 1838 

Polk March 13, 1835 

Pulaski December 15, 1818 

Putnam February 28, 1845 

Ealls November 16, 1820 

Randolph January 22, 1829 

Ray. November 16, 1820 

Reynolds February 25, 1845 

Ripley January 6, 1833 

St. Charles October 1, 1812 

St. Clair January 29, 1841 

St. Francois December 19, 1821 

Ste. Genevieve October 1, 1812 

St. Louis October 1, 1812 

Saline November 25, 1820 

Schuyler ..February 14, 1845 

Scotland January 29, 1841 

Scott December 28, 1821 

Shannon January 29, 1841 

Shelby January 2, 1836 

Stoddard January 2, 1835 

Stone February 10, 1851 

Sullivan February 16, 1845 

Taney January 16, 1837 

Texas February 14, 1835 

Vernon February 17, 1851 

Warren January 5, 1833 

Washington August 21, 1813 

Wayne December 11, 1818 

Webster March 3, 1855 

Worth February 8, 1861 

Wright January 29, 1841 



Fort Sumter fired upon — Call for 75,000 men — Gov. Jackson refuses to furnish a 
man — U. S. Arsenal at Liberty, Mo., seized — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — 
General Order No. 7 — Legislature convenes — Camp Jackson organized — Sterling 
Price appointed Major-General — Frost's letter to Lyon — Lyon's letter to Frost — 
Surrender of Camp Jackson — Proclamation of Gen. Harney — Conference between 
Price and Harney — Harney superseded by Lyon — Second Conference — Gov. Jack- 
son burns the bridges behind him — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — Gen. Blair 
takes possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of Lyon — Lyon at Springfield — 
State offices declared vacant — Gen. Fremont assumes command — Proclamation of 
Lieut.-Gov. Reynolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson and Gov. Jackson — Death 
of Gen. Lyon — Succeeded by Sturgis — Proclamation of McCulloch and Gamble — 
Martial law declared — Second proclamation of Jeff. Thompson — President modi- 
fies Fremont's order — Fremont relieved by Hunter — Proclamation of Price — Hun- 
ter's Order of Assessment — Hunter declares Martial Law — Order relating to 
Nevrspapers — Halleck succeeds Hunter — Halleck's Order 81 — Similar order by 
Halleck — Boone County Standard confiscated — Execution of prisoners at Macon 
and Palmyra — Gen. Ewing's Order No. 11 — Gen. Rosecrans takes command — Mas- 
sacre at Centralia — Death of Bill Anderson — Gen. Dodge succeeds Gen. Rose- 
crans — List of Battles. 

" Lastly stood war — 
With visage grim, stern looks, and blaclily hued, 

* » * * m * 

Ah I why will kings forget that they are men? 
And men that they are brethren? Why delight 
In human sacrifice? Why burst the ties 
Of nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one soft bond of amity and love?" 

Fort Sumter was fired upon April 12, 1861. On April ISth, Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 men, from the 
the militia of the several States, to suppress combinations in the South- 
ern States therein named. Simultaneously therewith, the Secretary of 
War sent a telegram to all the governors of the States, excepting 
those mentioned in the proclamation, requesting them to detail a cer- 
tain number of militia to serve for three mont)is, Missouri's quota 
being four reoriments. 

In response to this telegram. Gov. Jackson sent the following answer : 

Executive Department of Missouri, 
Jefferson City, April 17, 1861. 
To the Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary/ of War, Washington, D.O.: 
Sir: Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for 


four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There 
can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a 
part of the President's army to make war upon the people of the 
seceded States. Your requisition, in my judgment, is illegal, unconsti- 
tutional, and can not be complied with. Not one man will the State of 
Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy war. 

C. F. Jackson, 

Governor of Missouri. 

April 21,. 1861. U. S. Arsenal at Liberty was seized by order of 
Governor Jackson. 

April 22, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation convening 
the Legislature of Missouri, on May following, in extra session, to take 
into consideration the momentous issues which were presented, and 
the attitude to be assumed by the State in the impending struggle. 

On the 22nd of April, 1861, the Adjutant-General of Missouri issued 
the following military order : 

Headquarters Adjutant-General's Office, Mo., 
Jefferson City, April 22, 1861. 
{General Orders No. 7.) 

I. To attain a greater degree of efficiency and perfection in organ- 
ization and discipline, the Commanding Officers of the several Military 
districts in this State, having four or more legally organized compa- 
nies therein, whose armories are within fifteen miles of each other, will 
assemble their respective commands at some place to be by them sever- 
ally designated, on the 3rd day of May, and to go into an encampment 
for a period of six days, as provided by law. Captains of companies 
not organized into battalions will report the strength of their compa- 
nies immediately to these headquarters, and await further orders. 

II. The Quartermaster-General will procure and issue to Quarter- 
masters of Districts, for these commands not now provided for, all 
necessary tents and camp equipage, to enable the commanding officers 
thereof to carry the foregoing orders into efiect. 

III. The Light Battery now attached to the Southwest Battalion, 
and one company of mounted riflemen, including all officers and sol- 
diers belonging to the First District, will proceed forthwith to St. Louis, 
and report to Gen. D. M. Frost for duty. The remaining companies 
of said battalion will be disbanded for the purpose of assisting in the 
organization of companies upon that frontier. The details in the exe- 


cution of the foregoing are intrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel John S. 
Bowen, commanding the Battalion. 

IV. The strength, organization, and equipment of the several com- 
panies in the District will be reported at once to these Headquarters, 
and District Inspectors will furnish all information which may be ser- 
viceable in ascertaining the condition of the State forces. 
By order of the Governor. 

Warwick Hough, 
Adjutant- General of Missouri. 

May 2, 1861. The Legislature convened in extra session. Many 
acts were passed, among which was one to authorize the Governor to 
purchase or lease David Ballentine's foundry at Boonville, for the man- 
ufacture of arms and munitions of war ; to authorize the Governor to 
appoint one Major-General ; to authorize the Governor, when, in his 
opinion, the security and welfare of the State required it, to take pos- 
session of the railroad and telegraph lines of the State ; to provide for 
the organization, government, and support of the military forces ; to 
borrow one million of jdollars to arm and equip the militia of the State 
to repel invasion, and protect the lives and property of the people. 
An act was also passed creating a "Military Fund," to consist of all 
the money then in the treasury or that might thereafter be received 
from the one-tenth of one per cent, on the hundred dollars, levied by 
act of November, 1857, to complete certain railroads ; also the pro- 
ceeds of a tax of fifteen cents on the hundred dollars of the assessed 
value of the taxable property of the several counties in the State, and 
the proceeds of the two-mill tax, which had been theretofore appro- 
priated for educational purposes. 

May 3, 1861. *< Camp Jackson" was organized. 

May 10, 1861. Sterling Price appointed Major-General of State 

May 10, 1861. General Frost, commanding '* Camp Jackson," ad- 
dressed General N. Lyon, as follows : — 

Headquarters Camp Jackson, Missouri Militia, May 10, 1861. 
Capt. N. Lyon, Commanding U. S. Troops in and about St. Louis 

Sir : I am constantly in receipt of information that you contem- 
plate an attack upon my camp, whilst I understand that you are im- 
pressed with the idea that an attack upon the Arsenal and United 
States troops is intended on the part of the Militia of Missouri, I am 


greatly at a loss to know what could justify you in attacking citizens 
of the United States, who are in lawful performance of their duties, 
devolvino" upon them under the Constitution in organizing and instruct- 
ino- the militia of the State in obedience to her laws, and, therefore, 
have been disposed to doubt the correctness of the information I have 

I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any 
truth in the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So 
far as re^-ards any hostility being intended toward the United States, 
or its property or representatives by any portion of my command, or, 
as far as I can learn (and I think I am fully informed), of any other 
part of the State forces, I can positively say that the idea has never 
been entertained. On the contrary, prior to your taking command of 
the Arsenal, I proffered to Major Bell, then in command of the very 
few troops constituting its guard, the services of myself and all my 
command, and, if necessary, the whole power of the State, to protect 
the United States in the full possession of all her property. Upon 
General Harney taking command of this department, I made the same 
proffer of services to him, and authorized his Adjutant-General, Capt. 
Williams, to communicate the fact that such had been done to the 
War Department. I have had no occasion since to change any of the 
views I entertained at the time, neither of my own volition nor through 
orders of my constitutional commander. 

1 trust that after this explicit statement that we may be able, by 
fully understanding each other, to keep far from our borders the mis- 
fortunes which so unhappily affect our common country. 

This communication will be handed you by Colonel Bowen, my 
Chief of Staff, who will be able to explain anything not fully set forth 
in the foregoing. 

I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient servant. 

Brigadier-General D. M, Frost, 
Commanding Camp Jackson, M. V. M. 

May 10, 1861. Gen. Lyon sent the following to Gen. Frost: 

Headquarters United States Troops, 
St. Louis, Mo., May 10, 1861. 
Gen. D. M. Frost, Commanding Camp Jackson: 

Sir: Your command is regarded as evidently hostile toward the 
Government of the United States. 

It is, for the most part, made up of those Secessionists who have 


openly avowed their hostility to the General Government, and have 
been plotting at the seizure of its property and the overthrow of its 
authority. You are openly in communication with the so-called 
Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with the United States, 
and you are receiving at your camp, from the said Confederacy and 
under its flag, large supplies of the material of war, most of which is 
known to be the property of the United States< These extraordinary 
preparations plainly indicate none other than the well-known purpose 
of the Governor of this State, under whose orders you are acting, and 
whose communication to the Legislature has just been responded to 
by that body in the most unparalleled legislation, having in direct 
view hostilities to the General Government and co-operation with its 

In view of these considerations, and of your failure to disperse in 
obedience to the proclamation of the President, and of the imminent 
necessities of State policy and warfare, and the obligations imposed 
upon me by instructions from Wasiiington, it is my duty to demand, 
and I do hereby demand of you an immediate surrender of your com- 
mand, with no other conditions than that all persons surrendering 
under this command shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believing 
myself prepared to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before 
doing so will be allowed for your compliance therewith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. Lyon, 
Captain Second Infantry^ Commanding Troops. 

May 10, 1861. Camp Jackson surrendered and prisoners all 
released excepting Capt. Emmet McDonald, who refused to subscribe 
to the parole. 

May 12, 1861. Brigadier-General Wm. S. Harney issued a procla- 
mation to the people of Missouri, saying " he would carefully abstain 
from the exercise of any unnecessary powers," and only use "the 
military force stationed in this district in the last resort to preserve 

May 14, 1861. General Harney issued a second proclamation. 

May 21, 1861. General Harney held a conference with General 
Sterling Price, of the Missouri State Guards. 

May 31, 1861. General Harney superseded by General Lyon. 

June 11, 1861. A second conference was held between the National 
and State authorities in St. Louis, which resulted in nothing. 


June 11, 1861. Gov. Jackson left St. Louis for Jefferson City, 
burning the railroad bridges behind him, and cutting telegraph wires. 

June 12, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling 
into active service 50,000 militia, *'to repel invasion, protect life, 
property," etc. 

June 15, 1861. Col. F. P. Blair took possession of the State Capi- 
tal, Gov. Jackson, Gen. Price and other officers having left on the 13th 
of June for Boonville. 

June 17, 1861. Battle of Boonville took place between the forces 
of Gen. Lyon and Col. John S. Marmaduke. 

June 18, 1861. General Lyon issued a proclamation to the people 
of Missouri. 

July 5, 1861. Battle at Carthage between the forces of Gen. Sigel 
and Gov. Jackson. 

July 6, 1861. Gen. Lyon reached Springfield. 

July 22, 1861. State convention met and declared the offices of 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State vacated. 

July 26, 1861. Gen. John C. Fremont assumed command of the 
Western Department, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

July 31, 1861. Lieutenant-Governor Thomas C. Reynolds issued 
a proclamation at New Madrid. 

August 1, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation at 

August 2, 1861. Battle of Dug Springs, between Captain Steele's 
forces and General Rains. 

August 5, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation at New 

August 5, 1861. Battle of Athens. 

August 10, 1861. Battle of Wilson's Creek, between the forces 
under General Lyon and General McCulloch. In this engagement 
General Lyon was killed. General Sturgis succeeded General Lyon. 

August 12, 1861. McCulloch issued a proclamation, and soon left 

August 20, 1861. General Price issued a proclamation. 

August 24, 1861. Governor Gamble issued a proclamation calling 
for 32,000 men for six months to protect the property and lives of the 
citizens of the State. 

August 30, 1861. General Fremont declared martial law, and 
declared that the slaves of all persons who should thereafter take an 
active part with the enemies of the Government should be free. 


September 2, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation 
in response to Fremont's proclamation. 

September 7, 1861. Battle at Drywood Creek. 

September 11, 1861. President Lincoln modified the clause in Gen. 
Fremont's declaration of martial law, in reference to the confiscation 
of property and liberation of slaves. 

September 12, 1861. General Price begins the attack at Lexing- 
ton on Colonel Mulligan's forces. 

September 20, 1861. Colonel Mulligan with 2,640 men surren- 

October 25, 1861. Second battle at Springfield. 

October 28, 1861. Passage by Governor Jackson's Legislature, 
at Neosho, of an ordinance of secession. 

November 2, 1861. General Fremont succeeded by General David 

November 7, 1861. General Grant attacked Belhiont. 

November 9, 1861. General Hunter succeeded by General Halleck, 
who took command on the 19th of same month, with headquarters in 
St. Louis. 

November 27, 1861. General Price issued proclamation calling for 
50,000 men, at Neosho, Missouri. 

December 12, 1861. General Hunter issued his order of assess- 
ment upon certain wealthy citizens in St. Louis, for feeding and cloth- 
ing Union refugees. 

December 23-25. Declared martial law in St. Louis and the 
country adjacent, and covering all the railroad lines. 

March 6, 1862. Battle at Pea Ridge between the forces under Gen- 
erals Curtis and Van Dorn. 

January 8, 1862. Provost Marshal Farrar, of St. Louis, issued the 
following order in reference to newspapers : 

Office of the Provost Marshal, \ 

General Department of Missouri, > 
St. Louis, January 8, 1862. ) 
(General Order No. 10.) 

It is hereby ordered that from and after this date the publishers of 
newspapers in the State of Missouri (St. Louis City papers excepted), 
furnish to this office, immediately upon publication, one copy of each 
issue, for inspection. A failure to comply with this order will render 
the newspaper liable to suppression. 


Local Provost [Marshals will furnish the proprietors with copies of 
this order, and atleiid to its immediate enforcement. 

Bernard G. Farrar, 
Provost Marshal General. 

January 26, 1862. General Halleck issued order (No. 18) which 
forbade, among other things, the disi)lay of Secession flags in the 
hands of women or on carriages, in the vicinity of the military prison 
in McDowell's College, the carriages to be confiscated and the ofiend- 
ing women to be arrested. 

February 4, 1862. General Halleck issued another order similar to 
Order No. 18, to railroad companies and to the professors and direct- 
ors of the State University at Columbia, forbidding the funds of the 
institution to be used " to teach treason or to instruct traitors." 

February 20, 1862. Special Order No. 120 convened a military 
commission, which sat in Columbia, March following, and tried Ed- 
mund J. Ellis, of Columbia, editor and proprietor of *' The Boone 
County Standard," for the publication of information for the benefit 
of the enemy, and encouraging resistance to the United States Gov- 
ernment. Ellis was found guilty, was banished during the war from 
Missouri, and his printing materials confiscated and sold. 

April, 1862. General Halleck left for Corinth, Mississippi, leaving 
General Schofield in command. 

June, 1862. Battle at Cherry Grove between the forces under 
Colonel Joseph C. Porter and Colonel H. S. Lipscomb. 

June, 1862. Battle at Pierce's Mill between the forces under Major 
John Y. Clopper and Colonel Porter. 

July 22, 1862. Battle at Florida. 

July 28, 1862. Battle at Moore's Mill. 

August 6, 1862. Battle near Kirksville. 

August 11, 1862. ' Battle at Independence. 

August 16, 1862. Battle at Lone Jack. 

September 13, 1862. Battle at Newtonia. 

September 25, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners were executed at 
Macon, by order of General Merrill. 

October 18, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners executed at Palmyra, 
by order of General McNeill. 

January 8, 1863. Battle at Springfield between the forces of Gen- 
eral Marmaduke and General E. B. Brown. 

April 26, 1863. Battle at Cape Girardeau. 


August — , 1863. General Jeff. Thompson captured at Pocahontas, 
Arkansas, with his staff. 

August 25, 1863. General Thomas Ewing issued his celebrated 
Order No. 11, at Kansas City, Missouri, which is as follows: — 

Headquarters District of the Border, 
Kansas City, Mo., August 25, 1863. 
(General Order No. 11.) 

First. — All persons living in Cass, Jackson and Bates Counties, 
Missouri, and in that I3art of Vernon included in this district, except 
those living within one mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's 
Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harrisonville, and except those in that part 
of Kaw Township, Jackson County, north of Brush Creek and west 
of the Big Blue, embracing Kansas City and Westport, are hereby 
ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen 
days from the date hereof. 

Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfac- 
tion of the commanding officer of the military station nearest their 
present place of residence, will receive from him certificates stating 
the fact of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses by whom it 
can be shown. All who receive such certificate will be permitted to 
remove to any military station in this district, or to any part of the 
State of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern borders of the 
State. All others shall remove out of this district. Officers com- 
manding companies and detachments serving in the counties named, 
will see that this paragraph is promptly obeyed. 

Second. — All grain and hay in the field, or under shelter, in the 
district from which the inhabitants are required to remove within reach 
of military stations, after the 9th day of September next, will be 
taken to such stations and turned over to the proper officer there, and 
report of the amount so turned over made to district headquarters, 
specifying the names of all loyal owners and the amount of such 
produce taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district 
after the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, 
Avill be destroyed. 

Third. — The provisions of General Order No. 10, from these 
headquarters, will at once be vigorously executed by officers com- 
manding in the parts of the district, and at the stations not subject to 
the operations of paragraph First of this Order — and especially in 
the towns of Independence. Westport and Kansas City. 



Fourth. — Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all 
who have borne arms against the Government in the district since 
August 20, 1863. 

By order of Brigadier-General Ewing : 

H. Hannahs, Adjutant. 

October 13. Battle of Marshall. 

Januarv, 1864. General Rosecrans takes command of the Depart- 

September, 1864. Battle at Pilot Knob, Harrison and Little Mo- 
reau River. 

October 5, 1864. 

October 8, 1864. 

October 20, 1864. 

September 27, 1864. 

October 27, 1864. Captain Bill Anderson killed. 

December — , 1864. General Rosecrans relieved 
Dodge appointed to succeed him. 

Nothing occurred specially, of a military character, in the State after 
December, 1864. We have, in the main, given the facts as they 
occurred without comment or entering into details. Many of the 
minor incidents and skirmishes of the war have been omitted because 
of our limited space. 

It is utterly impossible, at this date, to give the names and dates of 
all the battles fought in Missouri during the Civil War. It Avill be 
found, however, that the list given below, which has been arranged for 
convenience, contains the prominent battles and skirmishes which took 
place within the State : — 

Battle at Prince's Ford and James Gordon's 

Battle at Glasgow. 
Battle at Little Blue Creek. 

Massacre at Centralia, by Captain Bill An- 

and General 

Potosi, May 14, 1861. 
Boonville, June 17, 1861. 
Carthage, July 5, 1861. 
Monroe Station, July 10, 1801. 
Overton's Run, July 17, 1861. 
Dug Spring, August 2, 1861. 
Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861. 
Athens, August 5, 1861. 
Moreton, August 20, 1861. 
Bennett's Mills, September — , 1861. 
Drywood Creek, September 7, 1861. 
Norfolk, September 10, 1861. 
Lexington, September 12-20, 1861. 

Blue Mills Landing, September 17, 1861. 
Glasgow Mistake, September 20, 1861. 
Osceola, September 25, 1861. 
Shanghai, October 13, 1861. 
Lebanon, October 13, 1861. 
Linn Creek, October 16, 1861. 
Big River Bridge, October 15, 1861. 
Fredericktown, October 21, 1861, 
Springfield, October 25, 1861. 
Belmont, November 7, 1861. 
Piketon, November 8, 1861. 
Little Blue, November 10, 1861. 
Clark's Station, November 11, 1861, 



Mt. Zion Church, December 28, 1861. 
Silver Creek, January 15, 18C2, 
New Madrid, February 28, 1862. 
Pea Ridge, March 6, 1862. 
Neosho, April 22, 1862. 
Rose Hill, July 10, 1862. 
Chariton River, July 30, 1862. 
Cherry Grove, June — , 1862. 
Pierce's Mill, June — , 1862. 
Florida, July 22, 1862. 
Moore's Mill, July 28, 1862. 
Kirksville, August 6, 1862. 
Compton's Ferry, August 8, 1862. 
Yellow Creek, August 13, 1862. 
Independence, August 11, 1862. 

Lone Jack, August 16, 1862. 
Newtonia, September 13, 1862. 
Springfield, January 8, 1863. 
Cape Girardeau, April 29, 1863. 
Marshall, October 13, 1863. 
Pilot Knob, September — , 1864. 
Harrison, September — , 1864. 
Moreau River, October 7, 1864. 
Prince's Ford, October 5, 1864. 
Glasgow, October 8, 1864, 
Little Blue Creek, October 20, 1864. 
Albany, October 27, 1864. 
Near Rocheport, September 23, 1864. 
Centralia, September 27, 1864. 



Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War. 

On the fourteenth day of May, 1832, a bloody engagement took 
place between the regular forces of the United States, and a part of 
the Sacs, Foxes, and Winnebago Indians, commanded by Black 
Hawk and Keokuk, near Dixon's Ferry in Illinois. 

The Governor (John Miller) of Missouri, fearing these savages 
would invade the soil of his State, ordered Major-General Richard 
Gentry to raise one thousand volunteers for the defence of the fron- 
tier. Five companies were at once raised in Boone county, and in 
Callaway, Montgomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, Pike, Marion, Ralls, 
Clay and Monroe other companies were raised. 

Two of these companies, commanded respectively by Captain John 
Jamison of Callaway, and Captain David M. Hickman of Boone 
county, were mustered into service in July for thirty days, and put 
under command of Major Thomas W. Conyers. 

This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry, arrived at Fort 
Pike on the 15th of July, 1832. Finding that the Indians had not 
crossed the Mississippi into Missouri, General Gentry returned to 
Columbia, leaving the fort in charge of Major Conyers. Thirty days 
having expired, the command under Major Conyers was relieved by two 



other companies under Captains Sinclair Kirtley, cf Boone, and Patrick 
Ewing, of Callaway. This detachment was marched to Fort Pike by 
Col. Austin A. King, w^ho conducted the two companies under Major 
Conyers home. Major Conyers was left in charge of the fort, where 
he remained till September following, at w^hich time the I)idian troub- 
les, so far as Missouri was concerned, having all subsided, the frontier 
forces were mustered out of service. 

Black Hawk continued the war in Iowa and Illinois, and was finally 
defeated and captured in 1833. 


In 1832, Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons, and the choseu 
prophet and apostle, as he claimed, of the Most High, came with 
many followers to Jackson county, Missouri, where they located and 
entered several thousand acres of laud. 

The object of his coming so far West — upon the very outskirts of 
civilization at that time — was to more securely establish his church, 
and the more effectively to instruct his followers in its peculiar tenets 
and practices. 

Upon the present town site of Independence the Mormons located 
their *'Zion," and gave it the name of ** The New Jerusalem." 
They published here the Evening Star^ and made themselves gener- 
ally obnoxious to the Gentiles, who were then in a minority, by their 
denunciatory articles through their paper, their clannishness and their 
polygamous practices. 

Dreading the demoralizing influence of a paper which seemed to be 
inspired only with hatred and malice toward them, the Gentiles 
threw the press and type into the Missouri River, tarred and feathered 
one of their bishops, and otherwise gave the Mormons and their lead- 
era to understand that they must conduct themselves in an entirely 
different manner if they wished to be let alone. 

After the destruction of their paper and press, they became fu- 
riously incensed, and sought many opportunities for retaliation. Mat- 
ters continued in an uncertain condition until the 31st of October, 
1833, when a deadly conflict occurred near Westport, in which two 
Gentiles and one Mormon were killed. 

On the 2d of October following the Mormons were overpoweredj 
and compelled to lay down their arms and agree to leave the county 
with their families by January 1st on the condition that the owner 
would be paid for his printing press. 


Leaving Jackson county, they crossed the Missouri and located in 
Clay, Carroll, Caldwell and other counties, and selected in Caldwell 
county a town site, which they called " Far West," and where they 
entered more land for their future homes. 

Through the influence of their missionaries, who were exertinw 
themselves in the East and in different portions of Europe, converts 
had constantly flocked to their standard, and " Far West," and other 
Mormon settlements, rapidly prospered. 

In 1837 they commenced the erection ot a magnificent temple, but 
never finished it. As their settlements increased in numbers, they 
became bolder in their practices and deeds of lawlessness. 

During the summer of 1838 two of their leaders settled in the town 
of De Witt, on the Missouri River, having purchased the land from 
an Illinois merchant. De Witt was in Carroll county, and a good 

point from which to forward goods and immigrants to their town 

Far West. 

Upon its being ascertained that these parties were Mormon leaders 
the Gentiles called a public meeting, which was addressed by some of 
the prominent citizens of the county. Nothing, however, was done at 
this meeting, but at a subsequent meeting, which was held a few days 
afterward, a committee of citizens was appointed to notify Col. Hin- 
kle (one of the Mormon leaders at De Witt), what they intended to 

Col. Hinkle upon being notified by this committee became indig- 
nant, and threatened extermination to all who should attempt to molest 
him or the Saints. 

In anticipation of trouble, and believing that the Gentiles would 
attempt to force them from De Witt, Mormon recruits flocked to the 
town from every direction, and pitched their tents in and around the 
town in great numbers. 

The Gentiles, nothing daunted, planned an attack upon this en- 
campment, to take place on the 21st day of September, 1838, and, 
accordingly, one hundred and fifty men bivouacked near the town on 
that day. A conflict ensued, but nothing serious occurred. 

The Mormons evacuated their works and fled to some loo- houses 
where they could the more successfully resist the Gentiles, who had 
in the meantime returned to their camp to await reinforcements. 
Troops from Saline, Ray and other counties came to their assist- 
ance, and increased their number to five hundred men. 

Congreve Jackson was chosen Brigadier- General; Ebenezer Price, 



Colonel ; Singleton Viiughan, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Sarshel Woods, 
Major. After some days of discipline, this brigade prepared for an 
assault, but before the attack was commenced Judge James Earickson 
and William F. Dunnica, influential citizens of Howard county, asked 
permission of General Jackson to let them try and adjust the difficul- 
ties without any bloodshed. 

It was finally agreed that Judge Earickson should propose to the 
Mormons, that if they would pay for all the cattle they had killed be- 
longing to the citizens, and load their wagons during the night and be 
ready to move by ten o'clock next morning, and make no further 
attempt to settle in Carroll county, the citizens would purchase at 
first cost their lots in De Witt and one or two adjoining tracts of 

Col. Hinkle, the leader of the Mormons, at first refused all attempts 
to settle the difficulties in this way, but finally agreed to the proposi- 

In accordance therewith, the Mormons without further delay, 
loaded up their wagons for the town of Far West, in Caldwell county. 
Whether the terms of the agreement were ever carried out, on the 
part of the citizens, is not known. 

The Mormons had doubtless suffered much and in many ways — the 
result of their own acts — but their trials and suflerings were not at 
an end. 

In 1838 the discord between the citizens and Mormons became so 
great that Governor Boggs issued a proclamation ordering Major- 
General David E. Atchison to call the militia of his division to enforce 
the laws. He called out a part of the first brigade of the Missouri 
State Militia, under command of Gen. A. W. Doniphan, who pro- 
ceeded to the seat of war. Gen. John B. Clark, of Howard county, 
was placed in command of the militia. 

The Mormon forces numbered about 1,000 men, and were led by 
G. W. Hinkle. The first engagement occurred at Crooked river, 
where one Mormon was killed. The principal fight took place at 
Haughn's Mills, where eighteen Mormons were killed and the balailce 
captured, some of them being killed after they had surrendered. 
Only one militiaman was wounded. 

In the month of October, 1838, Joe Smith surrendered the town of 
Far West to Gen. Doniphan, agreeing to his conditions, viz. ; That 
they should deliver up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders 
for trial, and the remainder of the Mormons should, with their 



families, leave the State. Indictments were found against a number 
of these leaders, including Joe Smith, who, while being taken to 
Boone county for trial, made his escape, and was afterward, in 1844, 
killed at Carthage, Illinois, with his brother Hiram. 


In September, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on 
Governor Boggs, of Missouri, for six hundred volunteers for service 
in Florida against the Seminole Indians, with whom the Creek nation 
had made common cause under Osceola. 

The first regiment was chiefly raised in Boone county by Colonel 
Richard Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel ; John W. Price, of 
Howard county, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Harrison H. Hughes, also of 
Howard, Major. Four companies of the second regiment were raised 
and attached to the first. Two of these companies were composed of 
Delaware and Osage Indians. 

October 6, 1837, Col. Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the seat 
of war, stopping on the way at Jefferson barracks, where they were 
mustered into service. 

Arriving at Jackson barracks, New Orleans, they were from thence 
transported in brigs across the Gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. Gen- 
eral Zachary Taylor, who then commanded in Florida, ordered Col. 
Gentry to march to Okee-cho-bee Lake, one hundred and thirty-five 
miles inland by the route traveled. Having reached the Kissemmee 
river, seventy miles distant, a bloody battle ensued, in which Col. 
Gentry was killed. The Missourians, though losing their gallant 
leader, continued the fight until the Indians were totally routed, leav- 
ing many of their dead and wounded on the field. There being no 
further service required of the Missourians, they returned to their 
homes in 1838. 


Soon after Mexico declared war, against the United States, on the 
8th and 9th of May, 1846, the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma were fought. Great excitement prevailed throughout the 
country. In none of her sister States, however, did the fires of 
patriotism burn more intensely than in Missouri. Not waiting for the 
call for volunteers, the " St. Louis Legion " hastened to the field of 
conflict. The " Legion " was commanded by Colonel A. R. Easton. 
During the month of May, 1846, Governor Edwards, of Missouri, 



called for volunteers to join the **Army of the West," an expedition 
to Siinte Fe — under command of General Stephen W. Kearney 

Fort Leavenworth was the appointed rendezvous for the volunteers. 
By the 18th of June, the full complement of companies to compose 
the first regiment had arrived from Jackson, Lafayette, Clay, Sa- 
line, Franklin, Cole, Howard and Callaway counties. Of this regi- 
ment, A. W. Doniphan was made Colonel ; C. F. Ruff, Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and Wm. Gilpin, Major. The battalion of light artillery 
from St. Louis was commanded by Captains R. A. Weightman and 
A. W. Fischer, with Major M. L. Clark as field officer; battalions of 
infantry from Platte and Cole counties commanded by Captains 
Murphy and W. Z. Augney respectively, and the " Laclede Rangers," 
from St. Louis, by Captain Thomas B. Hudson, aggregating all told, 
from Missouri, 1,658 men. In the summer of 1846 Hon. Sterling 
Price resigned his seat in Congress and raised one mounted regiment, 
one mounted extra battalion, and one extra battalion of Mormon in- 
fantry to reinforce the "Army of the West." Mr. Price 'was made 
Colonel, and D. D. Mitchell Lieutenant-Colonel. 

In August, 1847, Governor Edwards made another requisition for 
one thousand men, to consist of infantry. The regiment was raised 
at once. John Dougherty, of Clay county, was chosen Colonel, but 
before the regiment marched the President countermanded the order. 

A company of mounted volunteers was raised in Ralls county, com- 
manded by Captain Wm. T. Lafland. Conspicuous among the en- 
gagements in which the Missouri volunteers participated in Mexico 
were the battles of Bracito, Sacramento, Canada, El Embudo, Taos 
and Santa Cruz de Rosalcs. The forces from Missouri were mustered 
out in 1848, and will ever be remembered in the history of the Mexi- 
can war, for 

"A thousand glorious actions that might claim 
Triumphaul laurels and immortal fame. 




Missouri as an Agricultural State — The Different Crops — Live Stock — Horses — 
Mules — Milch Cows — Oxen and other Cattle — Sheep — Hogs— Comparisons — 
Missouri adapted to Live Stock — Cotton — Broom-Corn and other Products- 
Fruits- Berries— Grapes— Railroads — First Neigh of the " Iron Horse " in Mis- 
souri — Names of Railroads — Manufactures — Great Bridge at St. Louis. 

Agriculture is the greatest among all the arts of man, as it is the 
first in supplying his necessities. It favors and strengthens popula- 
tion ; it creates and maintains manufactures ; gives employment to 
navigation and furnishes materials to commerce. It animates every 
species of industry, and opens to nations the safest channels of 
wealth. It is the strongest bond of well regulated society, the surest 
basis of internal peace, and the natural associate of correct morals. 
Among all the occupations and professions of life, there is none more 
honorable, none more independent, and none more conducive to health 
and happiness. 

" In ancient times the sacred plovp employ'd 
The kings, and awful fathers of mankind; 
And some, with whom compared your insect tribes 
4re but the beings of a summer's day. 

Have held the scale of empire, rulod the storm 

Of mighty war with unwearied hand, 

Disdaining little delicacies, seized 

The plow and greatly independent lived." 

As an agricultural region, Missouri is not surpassed by any State in 
the Union. It is indeed the farmer's kingdom, where he always reaps 
an abundant harvest. The soil, in many portions of the State, has 
an open, flexible structure, quickly absorbs the most excessive rains, 
and retains moisture with great tenacity. This being the case, it is 
not so easily aifected by drouth. The prairies are covered with sweet, 
luxuriant grass, equally good for grazing and hay ; grass not sur- 
passed by the Kentucky blue grass — the best of clover and timothy 
in growing and fattening cattle. This grass is now as full of life-giv- 
ing nutriment as it was when cropped by the buffalo, the elk, the an- 
telope, and the deer, and costs the herdsman nothing. 


No State or territory has a more complete and rapid system of nat- 
ural drainage, or a more abundant supply of pure, fresh water than 
Missouri. Both man and beast may slake their thirst from a thousand 
perennial fountains, which gush in limpid streams from the hill-sides, 
and w^end their way through verdant valleys and along smiling prai- 
ries, varyino- in size, as they onward flow, from the diminutive brooklet 
to the giant river. 

Here, nature has generously bestowed her attractions of climate, 
soil and scenery to please and gratify man while earning his bread in 
the sweat of his brow. Being thus munificently endowed, Missouri 
offers superior inducements to the farmer, and bids him enter her 
broad domain and avail himself of her varied resources. 

"We present here a table showing the product of each principal crop 
in Missouri for 1878 : — 

Indian Corn 93,062,000 bushela. 

Wheat 20,196,000 " 

Rye 732,000 •• 

Oats - 19,584,000 '* 

Buckwheat 46.400 " 

Potatoes 5,415,000 " 

Tobacco 23,023,000 pounds. 

Hay ~ 1,620,000 tons. 

There were 3,552,000 acres in corn; wheat, 1,836,000; rye, 
48,800; oats, 640,000; buckwheat, 2,900; potatoes, 72,200; to- 
bacco, 29,900; hay, 850,000. Value of each crop: corn, $24,196,- 
224; wheat, $13,531,320; rye, $300,120; oats, $3,325,120; buck- 
wheat, $24,128; potatoes, $2,057,700; tobacco, $1,151,150; hay, 

Average cash value of crops per acre, $7.69 ; average yield of corn 
per acre, 26 bushels ; wheat, 11 bushels. 

Next in importance to the corn crop in value is live stock. The fol- 
lowing table shows the number of horses, mules, and milch cows in 
the different States for 1879 : — 





New Hampshire. 



Rhode Island 


New York 

New Jersey 



Maryland , 


North Carolina... 
South Carolina... 









West Virginia 


Ohio '. 












Nevada, Colorado, and Territories. 























59, BOO 



























































It will be seen from the above table, that Missouri is thQ fifth State 
iu the number of horses ; fifth in number of milch cows, and the 
leading State in number of mules, having 11,700 more than Texas, 
which produces the next largest number. Of oxen and other cattle, 
Missouri produced in 1879, 1,632,000, which was more than any other 
State produced excepting Texas, which had 4,800,00. In 1879 Mis- 
souri raised 2,817,600 hogs, which was more than any other State 
produced, excepting Iowa. The number of sheep was 1,296,400. 
The number of hogs packed in 1879, by the different States, is as 
follows : — 




















211 o2 





210 11 


From the above it will be seen that Missouri annually packs more 
hogs than any other State excepting Illinois, and that she ranks third 
in the average vveiirht. 

We see no reason why Missouri should not be the foremost stock- 
raising State of the Union. In addition to the enormous yield of 
corn and oats upon which the stock is largely dependent, the climate 
is well adapted to their growth and health. Water is not only inex- 
haustible, but everywhere convenient. The ranges of stock are 
boundless, affording for nine months of the year, excellent pasturage 
of nutritious wild grasses, which grow in great luxurianoe upon the 
thousand prairies. 

Cotton is grown successfully in many counties of the southeastern 
portions of the State, especially in Stoddard, Scott, Pemiscot, Butler, 
New Madrid, Lawrence and Mississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are produced in abundance and are not only sure 
but profitable. 

Broom corn, sorghum, castor beans, wh,ite beans, peas, hops, thrive 
well, and all kinds of garden vegetables, are produced in great abun- 
dance and are found in the markets during all seasons of the year. 
Fruits of every variety, including the apple, pear, peach, cherries, 
apricots and nectarines, are cultivated with great success, as are also, 
the strawberry, gooseberry, currant, raspberry and blackberry. 

The grape has not been produced with that success that was at first 
anticipated, yet the yield of wine for the year 1879, was nearly half a 
million gallons. Grapes do well in Kansas, and we see no reason 
why they should not be as surely and profitably grown in a similar 
climate and soil in Missouri, and particularly in many of the counties 
north and east of the Missouri River. 


Twenty-nine years ago, the neigh of the ♦* iron horse " was heard 
for the first time, within the broad domain of Missouri. His coming 
presaged the dawn of a brighter and grander era in the history of the 


State. Her fertile prairies, and more prolific valleys would soon be 
of easy access to the oncoming tide of immigration, and the ores and 
minerals of her hills and mountains would be developed, and utilized 
in her manufacturing and industrial enterprises. 

Additional facilities would be opened to the marts of trade and 
commerce ; transportation from the interior of the State would be se- 
cured ; a fresh impetus would be given to the growth of her towns 
and cities, and new hopes and inspirations would be imparted to all 
her people. 

Since 1852, the initial period of railroad building in Missouri, be- 
tween four and five thousand miles of track have been laid ; addi- 
tional roads are now being constructed, and many others in contem- 
plation. The State is already well supplied with railroads which 
thread her surface in all directions, bringing her remotest districts 
into close connection with St. Louis, that great center of western 
railroads and inland commerce. These roads have a capital stock aa;- 
gregating more than one hundred millions of dollars, and a funded 
debt of about the same amount. 

The lines of roads which are operated in the State are the follow- 

Missouri Pacific — chartered May 10th, 1850; The St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern Railroad, which is a consolidation of the Arkan- 
sas Branch ; The Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Railroad ; The Cairo & 
Fulton Railroad; The Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway; St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railway ; The Chicago, Alton & St. Louis 
Railroad ; The Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad ; The Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas Railroad ; The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council BliilFa 
Railroad ; The Keokuk & Kansas City Railway Company ; The St. 
Louis, Salem & Little Rock Railroad Company ; The Missouri & 
Western ; The St. Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern Railroad ; The St. 
Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad ; The Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska 
Railway ; The Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad ; The Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railway; The Burlington & Southwestern 


The natural resources of Missouri especially fit her for a great man- 
ufacturing State. She is rich in soil ; rich in all the elements which 
supply the furnace, the machine shop and the planing mill ; rich in 
the multitude and variety of her gigantic forests ; rich in her marble, 
stone and granite quarries ; rich in her mines of iron, coal, lead and 


zinc ; rich in strong arms and willing hands to apply the force ; rich 
in water power and river navigation ; and rich in her numerous and 
well-built railroads, whose numberless engines thunder along their 
multiplied track-ways. 

Missouri contains over fourteen thousand manufacturing establish- 
ments, 1,965 of which are using steam and give employment to 
80,000 hands. The capital employed is about $100,000,000, the 
material annually used and worked up, amounts to over $150,000,- 
000, and the value of the products put upon the markets $250,000,000, 
while the wages paid are more than $40,000,000. 

The leading manufacturing counties of the State, are St. Louis, 
Jackson, Buchanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Greene, Lafay- 
ette, Platte, Cape Girardeau, and Boone. Three-fourths, however, of 
the manufacturing is done in St. Louis, which is now about the second 
manufacturing city in the Union. Flouring mills produce annually 
about $38,194,000 ; carpentering $18,763,000 ; meat-packing $16,- 
769,000 ; tobacco $12,496,000 ; iron and castings $12,000,000 ; liquors 
$11,245,000; clothing $10,022,000; lumber $8,652,000; bagging 
and bags $6,914,000, and many other smaller industries in propor- 


Of the many public improvements which do honor to the State and 
reflect great credit upon the genius of their projectors, we have space 
only, to mention the great bridge at St. Louis. 

This truly wonderful construction is built of tubular steel, total 
length of which, with its approaches, is 6,277 feet, at a cost of nearly 
$8,000,000. The bridge spans the Mississippi from the Illinois to 
the Missouri shore, and has separate railroad tracks, roadways, and 
foot paths. In durability, architectural beauty and practical utility, 
there is, perhaps, no similar piece of workmanship that approximates 

The structure of Darius upon the Bosphorus ; of Xerxes upon the 
Hellespont ; of Csesar upon the Rhine ; and Trajan upon the Danube, 
famous in ancient history, were built for military purposes, that over 
them might pass invading armies with their munitions of war, to de- 
stroy commerce, to lay in waste the provinces, and to slaughter the 

But the erection of this was for a higher and nobler purpose. Over 
it are coming the trade and merchandise of the opulent East, and 
thence are passing the untold riches of the West. Over it are crowd- 


ing legions of men, armed not with the weapons of war, but with the 
implements of peace and industry ; men who are skilled in all the arts 
of agriculture, of manufacture and of mining ; men who will hasten 
the day when St. Louis shall rank in population and importance, sec- 
ond to no city on the continent, and when Missouri shall proudly fill 
the measure of greatness, to which she is naturally so justly entitled. 



Pnbllc School System — Public School System of Missouri — Lincoln Institute — Ofl3- 
cers of Public School System — Certificates of Teachers — Uuiversity of Missouri — 
Schools — Colleges — Institutions of Learning — Location — Libraries — Newspa- 
pers and Periodicals — No. of School Children — Amount expended — Value of 
Grounds and Buildings — *• The Press." 

The first constitution of Missouri provided that ♦♦one school or more 
shall be established in each township, as soon as practicable and neces- 
sary, where the poor shall be taught gratis." 

It will be seen that even at that early day (1820) the framers of the 
constitution made provision for at least a primary education for the 
poorest and the humblest, taking it for granted that those who were 
able would avail themselves of educational advantages which were not 

The establishment of the public-school system, in its essential fea- 
tures, was not perfected until 1839, during the administration of Gov- 
ernor Boggs, and since that period the system has slowly grown into 
favor, not only in Missouri, but throughout the United States. The 
idea of a free or public school for all classes was not at first a popular 
one, especially among those who had the means to patronize private 
institutions of learning. In upholding and maintaining public schools 
the opponents of the system felt that they were not only compromis- 
ing their own standing among their more wealthy neighbors, but that 
they were, to some extent, bringing opprobrium upon their children. 
Entertaining such prejudices, they naturally thought that the training 
received at public schools could not be otherwise than defective ; hence 
many years of probation passed before the popular mind was prepared 


to appreciate the benefits and blessings which spring from these insti- 

Every year only adds to their popularity, and commends them the 
more earnestly to the fostering care of our State and National Legis- 
latures, and to the esteem and favor of all classes of our people. 

We can hardly conceive of two grander or more potent promoters of 
civilization than the free school and free press. They would indeed 
seem to constitute all that was necessary to the attainment of the hap- 
piness and intellectual growth of the Republic, and all that was neces- 
sary to broaden, to liberalize and instruct. 

«« Tis education forms the common mind; 


For noble youth there is nothing so meet 
As learning is, to know the good from ill ; 
To know the tongues, and perfectly indite, 
And of the laws to have a perfect skill, 
Things to reform as right and justice will; 
For honor is ordained for no cause 
But to see right maintained by the laws." 

All the States of the Union have in practical operation the public- 
school system, governed in the main by similar laws, and not differing 
materially in the manner and methods by which they are taught : but 
none have a wiser, a more liberal and comprehensive machinery of 
instruction than Missouri. Her school laws, since 1839, have under- 
gone many changes, and always for the better, keeping pace with the 
most enlightened and advanced theories of the most experienced edu- 
cators in the land. But not until 1875, when the new constitution was 
adopted, did her present admirable system of public instruction go 
into effect. 

Provisions were made not only for white, but for children of African 
descent, and are a part of the organic law, not subject to* the caprices 
of unfriendly legislatures, or the whims of political parties. The Lin- 
coln Institute, located at Jefferson City, for the education of col- 
ored teachers, receives an annual appropriation from the General 

For the support of the public schools, in addition to the annual 
income derived from the public school fund, which is set apart by law, 
not less than twenty-five per cent, of the State revenue, exclusive of 
the interest and sinking fund, is annually applied to this purpose. 

The officers having in charge the public school interests are the State 
" Board of Education," the State Superintendent, County Commission- 


ers, County Clerk and Treasurer, Board of Directors, City and Town 
School Board, and Teacher. The State Board of Education is composed 
of the State Superintendent, the Governor, Secretary of State, and the 
Attorney-General, the executive officer of this Board being the State Su- 
perintendent, who is chosen by the people every four years. His duties 
are numerous. He renders decisions concerning the local application of 
school law ; keeps a record of the school funds and annually distributes 
the same to the counties ; supervises the work of county school officers ; 
delivers lectures ; visits schools ; distributes educational information ; 
grants certificates of higher qualifications, and makes an annual report 
to the General Assembly of the condition of the schools. 

The County Commissioners are also elected by the people for two 
years. Their work is to examine teachers, to distribute blanks, and 
make reports. County clerks receive estimates from the local direct- 
ors and extend them upon the tax-books. In addition to this, they 
keep the general records of the county and township school funds, and 
return an annual report of the financial condition of the schools of 
their county to the State Superintendent. School taxes are gathered 
with other taxes by the county collector. The custodian of the school 
funds belono-ing to the schools of the counties is the county treasurer, 
except in counties adopting the township organization, in which case 
the township trustee discharges these duties. 

Districts organized under the special law for cities and towns are 
o-overned by a board of six directors, two of whom are selected annu- 
ally, on the second Saturday in September, and hold their office for 
three years. 

One director is elected to serve for three years in each school dis- 
trict, at the annual meeting. These directors may levy a tax not 
exceeding forty cents on the one hundred dollars' valuation, pro- 
vided such annual rates for school purposes may be increased in dis- 
tricts formed of cities and towns, to an amount not exceeding one 
dollar on the hundred dollars' valuation, and in other districts to an 
amount not to exceed sixty-five cents on the one hundred dollars' val- 
uation, on the condition that a majority of the voters who are tax-pay- 
ers, votino- at an election held to decide the question, vote for said 
increase. For the purpose of erecting public buildings in school dis- 
tricts, the rates of taxation thus limited may be increased when the 
rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended shall 
have been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the 


qualified voters of such school district voting at such election shall 
vote therefor. 

Local directors may direct the management of the school in respect 
to the choice of teachers and other details, but in the dischars:e of 
all important business, such as the erection of a school house or the 
extension of a term of school beyond the constitutional period, they 
simply execute the will of the people. The clerk of this board may 
be a director. He keeps a record of the names of all the children and 
youth in the district between the ages of five and twenty-one ; records 
all business proceedings of the district, and reports to the annual 
meeting, to the County Clerk and County Commissioners. 

Teachers must hold a certificate from the State Superintendent or 
County Commissioner of the county where they teach. State certifi- 
cates are granted upon personal written examination in the common 
branches, together with the natural sciences and higher mathematics. 
The holder of such certificate may teach in any public school of the 
State without further examination. Certificates granted by County 
Commissioners are of two classes, with two grades in each class. Those 
issued, for a longer term than one year, belong to the first class and are 
susceptible of two grades, ditfering both as to length of time and attain- 
ments. Those issued for one year may represent two grades, marked by 
qualification alone. The township school fund arises from a grant of 
land by the General Government, consisting of section sixteen in each 
congressional township. The annual income of the township fund is ap- 
propriated to the various townships, according to their respective 
proprietary claims. The support from the permanent funds is supple- 
mented by direct taxation laid upon the taxable property of each dis- 
trict. The greatest limit of taxation for the current expenses is one 
per cent ; the tax permitted for school house building cannot exceed 
the same amount. 

Among the institutions of learning and ranking, perhaps, the first 
in importance, is the State University located at Columbia, Boone 
County. When the State was admitted into the Union, Congress 
granted to it one entire township of land (46,080 acres) for the sup- 
port of "A Seminary of Learning." The lands secured for this pur- 
pose are among the best and most valuable in the State. These 
lands were put into the market in 1832 and brought $75,000, which 
amount was invested in the stock of the old bank of the State of Mis- 
souri, where it remained and increased by accumulation to the sum of 
1100,000. In 1839, by an act of the General Assemblv, five commis- 


Bioners were appointed to select a site for the State University, the 
site to contain at least fifty acres of land in a compact form, within 
two miles of the county seat of Cole, Cooper, Howard, Boone, Calla- 
way or Saline. Bids were let among the counties named, and the 
county of Boone having subscribed the sum of $117,921, some 
$18,000 more than any other county, the State University was located 
in that county, and on the 4th of July, 1840, the corner-stone was 
laid with imposing ceremonies. 

The present annual income of the University is nearly $65,000. 
The donations to the institutions connected therewith amount to 
nearly $400,000. This University with its different departments, 
is open to both male and female, and both sexes enjoy alike its 
rights and privileges. Among the professional schools, which form a 
part of the University, are the Normal, or College of Instruction in 
Teaching ; Agricultural and Mechanical College ; the School of Mines 
and Metallurgy ; the College of Law ; the Medical College ; and the 
Department of Analytical and Applied Chemistry. Other departments 
are contemplated and will be added as necessity requires. 

The following will show the names and locations of the schools and 
institutions of the State, as reported by the Commissioner of Education 
in 1875: — 


Christian University Canton. 

St. Vincent's College C:ipe Girardeau, 

University of Missouri Columbia. 

Central College Fayette. 

"Westminster College Fulton. 

Lewis College Glasgow. 

Pritchett School Institute Glasgow. 

Lincoln College GreeTiwood. 

Hannibal College HannibaU 

Woodland College Independence. 

Thayer College Kidder. 

La Grange College La Grange. 

William Jewell College Liberty. 

Baptist College Louisiana. 

St Joseph College St Joseph. 

College of Christian Brothers St Louis. 

St Louia University St Louis. 

Washington University St Louis. 

Drury College Springfield- 
Central Wesleyan College Warrenton. 


St Joseph Female Seminary St Joseph. 

Christian College Columbia. 


Stephens' College Columbia. 

Howard College Fayette. 

Independence Female College Independence. 

Central Female College Lexington. 

Clay Seminary Liberty. 

Ingleside Female College Palmyra. 

Lindenwood College for Young Ladies St. Charles. 

Mary Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis. 

Ursuline Academy. St. Louis. 


Arcadia College Arcadia. 

St. Vincent's Academy Cape Girardeau. 

Chillicothe Academy Chillicothe. 

Grand River College Edinburgh. 

Marionville Collegiate Institute MarionviUe. 

Palmyra Seminary Palmyra. 

St. Paul's College Palmyra. 

Van Rensselaer Academy Rensselaer, 

Shelby High School Shelbyville. 

Stewartaville Male and Female Seminary Stewartsville. 


Missouri Agricultural and Mechanical College (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Schools of Mines and Metallurgy (University of Missouri) Rolla. 

Polytechnic Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 


St. Vincent's College (Theological Department) Cape Girardeau. 

Westminster College (Theological School). Fulton. 

Vardeman School of Theology (William Jewell College) Liberty. 

Concordia College St. Louis. 


Law School of the University of Missouri Columbia. 

Law School of the Washington University St Louis. 


Medical College, University of Missouri Columbia 

College of Physicians and Surgeons St. Joseph. 

Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons Kansas City, 

Hospital Medical College St. Joseph. 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis. 

Northwestern Medical College Su Joseph. 

St Louis Medical College St. Louis. 

Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri St. Louis. 

Missouri School of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children St. Louis. 

Missouri Central College St Louis, 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy St Louis. 





St, Vincent's College 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School 

University of Missouri 

Athenian Society 

Union Literary Society 

Law College 

Westminster College 

Lewis College 

Mercantile Librar}- 

Library Association 

Fruitland Normal Institute. 

State Library 

Fetterman's Circulating Library 

Law Library. 

"Whittemore's Circulating Library 

North Missouri State Normal School 

"William Jewell College 

St. Paul's College 

Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy 

St. Charles Catholic Library 

Carl Frielling'a Library 

Law Library 

Public School Library 

Walworth & Colt's Circulating Library 

Academy of Science 

Academy of Visitation 

College of the Christian Brothers 

Deutsche Institute 

German Evangelical Lutheran, Concordia College. 

Law Library Association 

Missouri Medical College 

Mrs. Cuthbert's Seminary (Young Ladies) 

Odd Fellow's Library 

Public School Library 

St Louis Medical College 

St. Louis Mercantile Library 

St. Louis Seminary 

St. Louis Turn Verein 

St. Louis University 

St. Louis University Society Libraries 

Ursuline Academy 

Washington University 

St. Louis Law School 

Young Men's Sodality 

Library' Association 

Public School Library 

Drury College 


Cape Girardeau. 
Cape Girardeau. 










Jefferson City... 

Kansas City 

Kansas City 

Kansas City 





St, Charles 

St. Joseph 

St. Joseph 

St Joseph 

St Joseph 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St Loui? 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis 





6, 500 






IN 1880. 
Newspapers and Periodicals 481 


State Asylum for Deaf and Dumb 

St Bridget's Institution for Deaf and Dumb 

Institution for the Education of the Blind 

State Asylum for Insane 

State Asylum for the Insane 


..St Louis. 
..St Louis. 


.St Louis. 



Normal Institute Bolivar. 

Boutheast Missouri State JSormal Cichoul Cape Girardeau. 

Normal School (University of Missouri) ....Columbia. 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson. 

Lincoln Institute (for colored) ...Jefferson City. 

City Normal School ~ St. Louis. 

Missouri State Normal School Warrensburg. 

IN 1880. 
Number of school children 

IN 1878. 

Estimated value of school property $8,321,399 

Total receipts for public schools 4,207,617 

Total expenditures 2,406,139 


Male teachers 6,239; average monthly pay $36.36 

Female teachers 5,060; average monthly pay 28.09 

The fact that Missouri supports and maintains four hundred and 

eeventy-one newspapers and periodicals, shows that her inhabitants 

are not only a reading and reflecting people, but that they appreciate 

** The Press," and its wonderful influence as an educator. The poet 

has well said : — 

But mightiest of the mighty means, 
On •which the arm of progress leans, 
Man's noblest mission to advance. 
His woes assuage, his weal enhance, 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress — 
Mightiest of mighty Is the Press. 



Baptist Church — Its History — Congregational — When Founded, — Its History- 
Christian Church — Its History — Cumberland Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Methodist Episcopal Church — Its History — Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Protestant Episcopal Church — Its History — United Presbyterian Church — Its 
History — Unitarian Church — Its History — Roman Catholic Church — Its History. 

The first representatives of religions thought and training, who 
penetrated the Missouri and Mississippi Valleys, were Pere Marquette, 
La Salle, and others of Catholic persuasion, who performed missionary 


labor among the Indians. A century afterward came the Protestants. 
At that early period 

" A church In every grove that spread 
Its living roof above their heads," 

constituted for a time their only house of worship, and yet to them 

" No Temple built with hands could vie 
In glory with its majesty." 

In the course of time, the seeds of Protestantism were scattered 
ah)ng the shores of the two great rivers whicli form the eastern and 
western boundaries of the State, and still a little later they were sown 
upon her hill-sides and broad prairies, where they have since bloomed 
and blossomed as the rose. 


The earliest anti-Catholic religious denomination, of which there is 
any record, was organized in Cape Girardeau county in 1806, through 
the efforts of Eev. David Green, a Baptist, and a native of Virginia. 
In 1816, the first association of Missouri Baptists was formed, which 
was composed of seven churches, all of which were located in the 
southeastern part of the State. In 1817 a second association of 
churches was formed, called the Missouri Association, the name being 
afterwards changed to St. Louis Association. In 1834 a general con- 
Tention of all the churches of this denomination, was held in Howard 
county, for the purpose of effecting a central organization, at which 
time was commenced what is now known as the *• General Association 
of Missouri Baptists." 

To this body is committed the State mission work, denominational 
education, foreign missions and the circulation of religious literature. 
The Baptist Church has under its control a number of schools and 
colleges, the most important of which is William Jewell College, 
located at Liberty, Clay county. As shown by the annual report for 
1875, there were in Missouri, at that date, sixty-one associations, one 
thousand four hundred churches, eight hundred and twenty-four min- 
isters and eighty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty church members. 


The Congregationalists inaugurated their missionary labors in the 
State in 1814. Rev. Samuel J. Mills, of Torringford, Connecticut, 
and Rev. Daniel Smith, of Bennington, Vermont, were sent west by 
the Massachusetts Congregational Home Missionary Society during 


that year, and in November, 1814, they preached the first regular 
Protestant sermons in St. Louis. Eev. Samuel Giddings, sent out 
under the auspices of the Connecticut Congregational Missionary 
Society, organized the first Protestant church in the city, consisting 
of ten members, constituted Presbyterian. The churches organized 
by Mr. Giddings were all Presbyterian in their order. 

No exclusively Congregational Church was founded until 1852, 
when the '• First Trinitarian Congregational Church of St. Louis " 
was organized. The next church of this denomination was organized 
at Hannibal in 1859. Then followed a Welsh church in New Cambria 
in 1864, and after the close of the war, fifteen churches of the same 
order were formed in different parts of the State. In 1866, Pilgrim 
Church, St. Louis, was organized. The General Conference of 
Churches of Missouri was formed in 1865, which was changed in 1868, 
to General Association. In 1866, Hannibal, Kidder, and St. Louis 
District Associations were formed, and following these were the Kan- 
sas City and Springfield District Associations. This denomination in 
1875, had 70 churches, 41 ministers, 3,363 church members, and had 
also several schools and colleges and one monthly newspaper. 


The earliest churches of this denomination were organized in Cal- 
laway, Boone and Howard Counties, some time previously to 1829. 
The first church was formed in St. Louis in 1836 by Elder E. B. 
Fife. The first State Sunday School Convention of the Christian 
Church, was held in Mexico in 1876. Besides a number of private 
institutions, this denomination has three State Institutions, all of 
which have an able corps of professors and have a good attendance of 
pupils. It has one religious paper published in St. Louis, ♦* Tlie Chris- 
tian,''* which is a weekly publication and well patronized. The mem- 
bership of this church now numbers nearly one hundred thousand in 
the State and is increasing rapidly. It has more than five hundred 
organized churches, the greater portion of which are north of the 
Missouri Eiver. 


In the spring of 1820, the first Presbytery of this denomination 
west of the Mississippi, was organized in Pike County. This Pres- 
bytery included all the territory of Missouri, western Illinois and 
Arkansas and numbered only four ministers, two of whom resided at 


that time in Missouri, There are now in the State, twelve Presby- 
teries, three Synods, nearly three hundred ministers and over twenty 
thousand members. The Board of Missions is located at St. Louis. 
They have a number of High Schools and two monthly papers pub- 
lished at St. Louis. 


In 1806, Rev. John Travis, a young Methodist minister, was sent 
out to the *' Western Conference," which then embraced the Missis- 
sippi Valley, from Green County, Tennessee. During that year Mr. 
Travis ors^anized a number of small churches. At the close of his 
conference year, he reported the result of his labors to the Western 
Conference, which was held at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1870, and showed 
an ao;o;reorate of one hundred and six members and two circuits, one 
called Missouri and the other Meramec. In 1808, two circuits had 
been formed, and at each succeeding year the number of circuits and 
members constantly increased, until 1812, when what was called the 
Western Conference was divided into the Ohio and Tennessee Confer- 
ences, Missouri falling into the Tennessee Conference. In 1816, 
there was another division when the Missouri Annual Conference was 
formed. In 1810, there were four traveling preachers and in 1820, fif- 
teen travelling preachers, with over 2,000 members. In 1836, the terri- 
tory of the Missouri Conference was again divided when the Missouri 
Conference included only the State. In 1840 there were 72 traveling 
preachers, 177 local ministers and 13,992 church members. Between 
1840 and 1850, the church was divided by the organization of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1850, the meml)ership of the 
M. E. Church was over 25,000, and during the succeeding ten years 
the church prospered rapidly. In 1875, the M. E. Church reported 
274 church edifices and 34,156 members; the M. E. Church South, 
reported 443 church edifices and 49,588 members. This denomina- 
tion has under its control several schools and colleges and two weekly 


The Presbyterian Church dates the beginning of its missionary 
efforts in the State as far back as 1814, but the first Presbyterian 
Church was not organized until 1816 at Bellevue settlement, eight 
miles from St. Louis. The next churches were formed in 1816 and 
1817 at Bonhomme, Pike County. The First Presbyterian Church 
was organized in St. Louis in 1817, by Rev. Salmon Gidding. The 



first Presbytery was organized in 1817 by the Synod of Tennessee 
with four ministers and four churches. The first Presbyterian house 
of worship (which was the first Protestant) was commenced in 1819 
and completed in 1826. In 1820 a mission was formed among the 
Osage Indians. In 1831, the Presbytery was divided into three: 
Missouri, St. Louis, and St. Charles. These were erected with a 
Synod comprising eighteen ministers and twenty-three churches. 

The church was divided in 1838, throughout the United States. In 
1860 the rolls of the Old and New School Synod together showed 109 
ministers and 146 churches. In 1866 the Old School Synod was di- 
-vided on political questions springing out of the war — a part form- 
ing the Old School, or Independent Synod of Missouri, who are con- 
nected with the General Assembly South. In 1870, the Old and New 
School Presbyterians united, since which time this Synod has steadily 
increased until it now numbers more than 12,000 members with more 
than 220 churches and 150 ministers. 

This Synod is composed of six Presbyteries and has under its con- 
trol one or two institutions of learning and one or two newspapers. 
That part of the original Synod which withdrew from the General 
Assembly remained an independent body until 1874 when it united 
with the Southern Presbyterian Church. The Synod in 1875 num- 
bered 80 ministers, 140 churches and 9,000 members. It has under 
its control several male and female institutions of a high order. The 
St. Louis Preahj/terian, a weekly paper, is the recognized organ of 
the Synod. 


The missionary enterprises of this church began in the State in 
1819, when a parish was organized in the City of St. Louis. In 1828, 
an agent of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, visited the 
city, who reported the condition of things so favorably that Rev. 
Thomas Horrell was sent out as a missionary and in 1825, he began 
his labors in St. Louis. A church edifice was completed in 1830. In 
1836, there were five clergymen of this denomination in Missouri, 
who had organized congregations in Boonville, Fayette, St. Charles, 
Hannibal, and other places. In 1840, the clergy and laity met in 
convention, a diocese was formed, a constitution, and canons adopted, 
and in 1844 a Bishop was chosen, he being the Rev. Cicero S. 
Hawks. Through the efforts of Bishop Kemper, Kemper College was 
founded near St. Louis, but was afterward given up on account of 


pecuniary tronliles. In 1847, the Clark Mission began and in 1849 
the Orphans' Home, a charitable institution, was founded. In 1865, 
St. Luke's Hospital was established. In 1875, there were in the city 
of St. Louis, twelve parishes and missions and twelve clergymen. 
This denomnation has several schools and colleges, and one newspaper. 


This denomination is made up of the members of the Associate and 
Associate Reformed churches of the Northern States, which two 
bodies united in 1858, taking the name of the United Presbyterian 
Church of Noi-th America. Its members were generally bitterly 
opposed to the institution of slavery. The first congregation was 
organized at Warrensburg, Johnson County, in 1867. It rapidly 
increased in numbers, and had, in 1875, ten ministers and five hundred 


This church was formed in 1834, by the Rev. W. G. Eliot, in St. 
Louis. The churches are few in number throughout the State, the 
membership being probably less than 300, all told. It has a mission 
house and free school, for poor children, supported by donations. 


The earliest written record of the Catholi^ Church in Missouri shows 
that Father Watrin performed ministerial services in Ste. Genevieve, 
in 1760, and in St. Louis in 1766. In 1770, Father Menrin erected a 
small log church in St. Louis. In 1818, there were in the State four 
chapels, and for Upper Louisiana seven priests. A college and semi- 
nary were opened in Perry County about this period, for the 
education of the young, being the first college west of the Mississippi 
River. In 1824, a college was opened in St. Louis, which is now 
known as the St. Louis University. In 1826, Father Rosatti was 
appointed Bishop of St. Louis, and through his instrumentality the 
Sisters of Charity, Sisters of St. Joseph and of the Visitation were 
founded, besides other benevolent and charitable institutions. In 
1834 he completed the present Cathedral Church. Churches were 
built in difierent portions of the State. In 1847 St. Louis was created 
an arch-diocese, with Bishop Kenrick, Archbishop. 

In Kansas City there were five parish churches, a hospital, a con- 
vent and several parish schools. In 1868 the northwestern portion of 
the State was erected into a separate diocese, with its seat at St. Joseph, 


aTid Right-Keverend John J. Hogan appointed Bishop. There were, 
in 1875, in the city of St. Louis, 34 churches, 27 schools, 5 hospitals, 
3 colleges, 7 orphan asylums and 3 female protectorates. There were 
also 105 priests, 7 male and 13 female orders, and 20 conferences of 
St. Vincent de Paul, numbering 1,100 members. In the diocese, out- 
side of St. Louis, there is a college, a male protectorate, 9 convents, 
about 120 priests, 150 churches and 30 stations. In the diocese of 
St. Joseph there were, in 1875, 21 priests, 29 churches, 24 stations, 
1 college, 1 monastery, 5 convents and 14 parish schools : 

Number of Sunday Schools in 1878 , . 2,067 

Number of Teachers in 1878 ... , . . 18,010 

Number of Pupils In 1878 . 139,578 


Instruction preparatory to ministerial work is given in connection 
with collegiate study, or in special theological courses, at: 

Central College (M. E. South) . Fayette. 

Central Wesleyan College (M. E. Church) , Warrenton. 

Christian University (Christian) Canton. 

Concordia College Seminary CEvangelical Lutheran) . . . . St. Louis. 

Lewis College (M. E. Church) Glasgow. 

St. Vincent College (Roman Catholic) Cape Girardeau. 

Vardeman School of Theology (Baptist) . . . . . • Liberty. 

The last is connected with William Jewell College. 



Nomination and election of Thomas T. Crittenden — Personal Mention — Marmaduke*s 
candidacy — Stirring events — Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — Death of Jesse 
James — The Fords — Pardon of the Gamblers. 

It is the purpose in this chapter to outline the more important 
events of Governor Crittenden's unfinished administration, stating 
briefly the facts in the case, leaving comment and criticism entirely to 
the reader, the historian having no judgment to express or prejudice 
to vent. 

Thomas T. Crittenden, of Johnson county, received the Demo- 
cratic nomination for Governor of Missouri at the convention at Jeffer- 



son City, July 22d, 1880. Democratic nomination for a State office in 
Missouri is always equivalent to election, and the entire State ticket 
was duly elected in November. Crittenden's competitors before the 
convention were Gen. John S. Marmaduke, of St. Louis, and John 
A. Hockaday, of Callaway county. Before the assembling of the 
convention many persons who favored Marmaduke, both personally 
and politically, thought the nomination of an ex-Confederate might 
prejudice the prospects of the National Democracy, and therefore, as 
a matter of policy, supported Crittenden. 

His name, and the fame of his family in Kentucky — Thomas T. 
being a scion of the Crittendens of that State, caused the Democracy 
of Missouri to expect great things from their new Governor. This, 
together with the important events- which followed his inauguration, 
caused some people to overrate him, while it prejudiced others against 
him. The measures advocated by the Governor in his inaugural 
address were such as, perhaps, the entire Democracy could endorse, 
especially that of refunding, at a low interest, all that part of the State 
debt that can be so refunded ; the adoption of measures to relieve the 
Supreme Court docket ; a compromise of the indebtedness of some of 
the counties, and his views concerning repudiation, which he con- 


By a series of legislative acts, beginning with the act approved 
February 22, 1851, and ending with that of March 26, 1881, the 
State of* Missouri aided with great liberality in the construction of a 
system of railroads in this State. 

Among the enterprises thus largely assisted was the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph Railroad, for the construction of which the bonds of the 
State, to the amount of $3,000,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per 
annum, payable semi-annually, were issued. One half of this amount 
was issued under the act of 1851, and the remainder under the act of 
1855. The bonds issued under the former act were to run twenty 
years, and those under the latter act were to run thirty years. Some 
of the bonds have since been funded and renewed. Coupons for the 
interest of the entire $3,000,000 were executed and made payable in 
New York. These acts contain numerous provisions intended to 
secure the State against loss and to require the railroad company to 
pay the interest and principal at maturity. It was made the duty of 
the railroad company to save and keep the State from all loss on 
account of said bonds and coupons. The Treasurer of the State was 


to be exonerated from any advance of money to meet either principal 
or interest. Tlie State contracted with the raih'oad company for com- 
plete indemnity. She was required to assign her statutory morto-ao-e 
lien only upon payment into the treasury of a sum of money equal to 
all indebtedness due or owing by said company to the State by reason 
of having issued her bonds and loaned them to the company. 

In June, 1881, the raih-oad, through its attorney, Geo. W. Easley, 
Esq., paid. to Phil. E. Chajjpell, State Treasurer, the sum of $3,000,- 
000, and asked for a receipt in full of all dues of the road to the 
State. The Treasurer refused to give such a receipt, but instead gave 
a receipt for the sum <' on account." The debt was not yet due, but 
the authorities of the road sought to discharge their obligation pre- 
mdturely, in order to save interest and other expenses. The railroad 
company then demanded its bonds of the State, which demand the 
State refused. The company then demanded that the $3,000,000 be 
paid back, and this demand was also refused. 

The railroad company then brought suit in the United States Court 
for an equitable adjustment of the matters in controversy. The $3, 
000,000 had been deposited by the State in one of the banks, and was 
drawing interest only at the rate of one-fourth of one per cent. It 
was demanded that this sum should be so invested that a larger rate 
of interest might be obtained, which sum of interest should be allowed 
to the company as a credit in case any sum should be found due from 
it to the State. Justice Miller, of the United States Supreme Court, 
who heard the case upon preliminary injunction in the spring of 1882, 
decided that the unpaid and unmatured coupons constituted a liability 
of the State and a debt owing, though not due, and until these were 
provided for the State was not bound to assign her lien upon the road. 

Another question which was mooted, but not decided, was this: 
That, if any, what account is the State to render for the use of the 
$3,000,000 paid into the treasury by the complainants on the 20th of 
June? Can she hold that large sum of money, refusing to make any 
account of it, and still insist upon full payment by the railroad 
company of all outstanding coupons ? 

Upon this subject Mr. Justice Miller, in the course of his opinion, 
said : " I am of the opinion that the State, having accepted or got this 
money into her possession, is under a moral obligation (and I do not 
pretend to commit anybody as to how far its legal obligation goes) to 
so use that money as, so far as possible, to protect the parties who 
have paid it against the loss of the interest which it might accumulate, 


and which would go to extinguish the interest on the State's obliga- 

March 26, 1881, the Legislature, in response to a special message of 
Gov. Crittenden, dated February 25, 1881, in which he informed 
the Legislature of the purpose of the Hannibal and St. Joseph com- 
pany to discharge the full amount of what it claims is its present 
indebtedness as to the State, and advised that provision be mad© 
for the " profitable disposal" of the sum when paid, passed an act, 
the second section of which provided. 

♦* Sec. 2. Whenever there is sufficient money in the sinkiug fund to 
redeem or purchase one or more of the bonds of the State of Missouri, 
such sum is hereby appropriated for such purpose, and the Fund 
Commissioners shall immediately call in for payment a like amount 
of the option bonds of the State, known as the ** 5-20 bonds," 
provided, that if there are no option bonds which can be called in for 
payment, they may invest such money in the purchase of any of the 
bonds of the State, or bonds of the United States, the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph railroad bonds excepted." 

On the 1st of January, 1882, the regular semi-annual payment of 
interest on the railroad bonds became due, but the road refused to 
pay, claiming that it had already discharged the principal, and of 
course was not liable for the interest. Thereupon, according to the 
provisions of the aiding act of 1855, Gov. Crittenden advertised the 
road for sale in default of the payment of interest. The company 
then brought suit before U. S. Circuit Judge McCrary at Keokuk, 
Iowa, to enjoin the State from selling the road, and for such other 
and further relief as the court might see fit and proper to grant. 
August 8, 1882, Judge McCrary delivered his opinion and judgment, 
as follows : 

^*First. That the payment by complainants into the treasury of the 
State of the sum of $3,000,000 on the 26th of June, 1881, did not 
satisfy the claim of the State in full, nor entitle complainants to an 
assignment of the State's statutory mortgage. 

**/Second. That the State was bound to invest the principal sum 
of $3,000,000 so paid by the complainants without unnecessary delay 
in the securities named in the act of March 26, 1881, or some of 
them, and so as to save to the State as large a sum as possible, 
which sum so saved would have constituted as between the State and 
complainants a credit pro tanto upon the unmatured coupons now in 



**Th{rd. That the rights and equity of the parties are to be deter- 
mined upon the foregoing principles, and the State must stand 
charged with what would have been realized if the act of March, 
1881, had been complied with. It only remains to consider what the 
rights of the parties are upon the principles here stated. 

«* In order to save the State from loss on account of the default of 
the railroad company, a further sum must be paid. In order to deter- 
mine what that further sum is an accounting must be had. The ques- 
tion to be settled by the accounting is, how much would the State 
have lost if the provisions of the act of March, 1881, had been 
complied with ? * * • * I think a perfectly fair basis of settle- 
ment would be to hold the State liable for whatever could have been 
saved by the prompt execution of said act by taking up such 5-20 
option bonds of the State as were subject to call when the money was 
paid to the State, and investing the remainder of the fund in the 
bonds of the United States at the market rates. 

*♦ Upon this basis a calculation can be made and the exact sum still to 
be paid by the complainant in order to fully indemnify and protect the 
State can be ascertained. For the purpose of stating an account 
upon this basis and of determining the sum to be paid by the com- 
plainants to the State, the cause will be referred to John K. Cravens, 
one of the musters of this court. In determining the time when the 
investment should have been made under the act of March, 1881, the 
master will allow a reasonable period for the time of the receipt of the 
said sum of $3,000,000 by the Treasurer of the State — that is to say, 
such time as would have been required for that purpose had the offi- 
cers charged with the duty of making said investment used reason- 
able diligence in its discharge. 

*♦ The Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad is advertised for sale for the 
amount of the instalment of interest due January 1, 1882, which 
instalment amounts to less than the sum which the company must pay 
in order to discharge its liabilities to the State upon the theory of this 
opinion. The order will, therefore, be that an injunction be granted 
to enjoin the sale of the road upon the payment of the said instal- 
ment of interest due January 1, 1882, and if such payment is made 
the master will take it into account in making the computation above 


The occurrence during the present Governor's administration which 
did most to place his name in everybody's mouth, and even to herald 



it abroad, causing the European press to teem with leaders announcing 
the fact to the continental world, was the "removal" of the famous 
Missouri brigand, Jesse W. James. The career of the James boys, 
and the banditti of whom they were the acknowledged leaders, is too 
well-known and too fully set forth in works of a more sensational 
character, to deserve further detail in these pages ; and the ♦' removal " 
of Jesse will be dealt with only in its relation to the Governor. 

It had been long conceded that neither of the Jameses would ever be 
taken alive. That experiment had been frequently and vainly tried, 
to the sorrow of good citizens of this and other States. It seems to 
have been one of the purposes of Gov. Crittenden to break up this 
band at any cost, by cutting off its leaders. Soon after the Winston 
train robbery, on July 15, 1881, the railroads combined in empower- 
ing the Governor, by placing the money at his disposal, to offer heavy 
rewards for the capture of the two James brothers. This was ac- 
cordingly done by proclamation, and, naturally, many persons were 
on the lookout to secure the large rewards. Gov. Crittenden worked 
quietly, but determinedly, after offering the rewards, and by some 
means learned of the availability of the two Ford boys, young men 
from Ray county, who had been tutored as juvenile robbers by the 
skillful Jesse. An understanding was had, when the Fords declared 
they could find Jesse — that they were to "turn him in." Robert 
Ford and brother seem to have been thoroughly in the confidence of 
James, who then (startling as it was to the entire State) resided in 
the city of St Joseph, with his wife and two children 1 The Fords 
went there, and when the robber's back was turned, Robert shot him 
dead in the hack of the head! The Fords told their story to the 
authorities of the city, who at once arrested them on a charge of mur- 
der, and they, when arraigned, plead guilty to the charge. Promptly, 
however, came a full, free and unconditional pardon from Gov. Crit- 
tenden, and the Fords were released. In regard to the Governor's 
course in ridding the State of this notorious outlaw, people were 
divided in sentiment, some placing him in the category with the Ford 
boys and bitterly condemning his action, while others — the majority 
of law-abiding people, indeed, — though deprecating the harsh meas- 
ures which James* course had rendered necessary, still upheld th 
Governor for the part he played. As it was, the "Terror of Mis- 
souri " was effectually and finally " removed," and people were glad 
that he was dead. Robert Ford, the pupil of the dead Jesse, had 


been selected, and of all was the most fit tool to use in the extermina- 
tion of his preceptor in crime. 

The killing of James would never have made Crittenden many ene- 
mies among the better class of citizens of this State ; but, when it 
came to his 


The case was different. Under the new law making gaminghouse- 
keeping a felony, several St. Louis gamblers, with Robert C. Pate at 
their head, were convicted and sentenced to prison. The Governor, 
much to the surprise of the more rigid moral element of the State, 
soon granted the gamblers a pardon. This was followed by other 
pardons to similar offenders, which began to render the Governor quite 
unpopular which one element of citizens, and to call forth from some 
of them the most bitter denunciations. The worst feature of the case, 
perhaps, is the lack of explanation, or the setting forth of sufficient 
reasons, as is customary in issuing pardons, This, at least, is the bur- 
den of complaint with the faction that opposes him. However, it 
must be borne in mind that his term of office, at this writing, is but 
half expired, and that a full record can not, therefore, be given. Like 
all mere men, Gov. Crittenden has his good and his bad, is liked by 
some and disliked by others. The purpose of history is to set forth 
the facts and leave others to sit in judgment; this the historian has 
tried faithfully to do, leaving all comments to those who may see fit to 
make them. 





Introductory — What Time has Done — Importance of Early Beginnings — First Set- 
tlements made in the Timber — Who the First Settlers were — Additional Names 
of Old Settlers — Postal and Mill Facilities — County Organized and Named — The 
Name — John Kandolph. 


History "is but a record of the life and career of peoples and na- 
tions." The historian, in rescuing from oblivion the life of a nation, 
or a particular people, should *' nothing extenuate, nor set down aught 
in malice." Myths, however beautiful, are but fanciful; traditions, 
however pleasing, are uncertain ; and legends, though the very essence 
of poesy and song, are unauthentic. The novelist will take the most 
fragile thread of romance, and from it weave a fabric of surpassing 
beauty. But the historian should put his feet on the solid rock of 
truth, and turning a deaf ear to the allurements of fancy, he should 
sift with careful scrutiny the evidence brought before him, from which 
he is to give the record of what has been. Standing down the stream 
of time, far removed from its source, he must retrace with patience 
and care, its meanderings, guided by the relics of the past which lie 
upon its shores, growing fainter, and still more faint and uncertain as 
he nears its fountain, ofttimes concealed in the debris of ages, and the 
mists of impenetrable' darkness. Written records grow less and less 
explicit, and finally fail altogether, as he approaches the beginning of 

1 (87) 


the community whose lives he is seeking to rescue from the gloom of 
a rapidly receding past. 

Memory, wonderful as are its powers, is yet frequently at fault, and 
only by a comparison of its many aggregations can he be satisfied that 
he is pursuing stable-footed truth in his researches amid the early 
paths of his subject. It cannot then be unimportant or uninteresting 
to trace the progress of Randolph county from its embryotic period to 
its present proud position among its sister counties. To this end, 
therefore, we have endeavored to gather the scattered and loosening 
threads of the past into a compact web of the present, trusting that 
the harmony and perfect ness of the work may speak with no uncertain 
sound to the future. 


Fifty-four years have passed since Randolph county was organized. 
Most wonderful have been the changes, and mighty have been the 
events and revolutions, the discoveries and inventions that have oc- 
curred within this time. 

Perhaps since " God formed the earth and the world," and tossed 
them from the hollow of his hand into space, so many great things 
have not been accomplished in any fifty-four years. Reflection cannot 
fail to arouse wonder, and awaken thankfulness, that God has ap- 
pointed us the place we occupy in the eternal chain of events. Ten- 
nyson and Browning, Bryant and Whittier, Lowell and Longfellow 
have sung. The matchless Webster, the ornate Sumner, the eloquent 
Clay, the metaphysical Calhoun and Seward have since reached the 
culmination of their powers and passed into the grave. Macauley, 
Theirs, Gizot and Froude have written in noble strains the history of 
their lands ; and Bancroft and Prescott and Hildreth and Motley have 
won high rank among the historians of the earth. Spurgeon and 
Beecher and Moody have enforced with most persuasive eloquence, 
the duties of morality and religion. Carlyle and Emerson, Stuart 
Mill and Spencer have given the results of their speculations in high 
philosophy to the world. Mexico has been conquered ; Alaska has 
been purchased ; the center of population has traveled more than 250 
miles along the thirty-ninth parallel, and a majority of the States com- 
posing the American Union have been added to the glorious constella- 
tion on the blue field of our flag. Great cities have been founded and 
populous countries developed ; and the stream of emigration is still 
tending westward. Gold has been discovered in the far West, and 
the o;reat Civil War — the bloodiest in all the annals of time — has 


been fought. The telegraph, the telephone and railroad have been 
added to the list of the most important inventions. In fact, during 
this time, our country has increased in popuhition from a few millions 
of people to fifty millions. From a weak, obscure nation it has be- 
come strong in all the elements of power and influence, and is to-day 
the most marvelous country for its age that ever existed. 


Every nation does not possess an authentic account of its origin. 
Neither do all communities have the correct data whereby it is possi- 
ble to accurately predicate the condition of their first beginnings. 
Nevertheless, to be intensely interested in such things is characteristic 
of the race, and it is particularly the province of the historian to 
deal with first causes. Should these facts be lost in the mythical 
traditions of the past, as is often the case, the chronicler invades the 
realm of the ideal and compels his imagination to paint the missing 
picture. The patriotic Eoman was not content until he had found 
the " first settlers," and then he was satisfied, although they were 
found in the very undesirable company of a wolf, and located on a 
drift, which the receding waters of the Tiber had permitted them to 

One of the advantages pertaining to a residence in a new country, 
and one seldom appreciated, is the fact that we can go back to the 
first beginning. We are thus enabled to not only trace results to 
their causes, but also to grasp the facts which have contributed to 
form and mold these causes. We observe that a State or county 
has attained a certain position, and we at once try to trace out the 
reasons for this position in its settlement and surroundings, in the 
class of men by whom it was peopled, and in the many chances and 
changes which have wrought out results, in all the recorded deeds of 
mankind. In the history of Randolph county we may trace its early 
settlers to their homes in the Eastern States and in the countries of 
the Old World. We may follow the course of the hardy backwoods- 
man, from the " Buckeye " or " Hoosier " State, and from Kentucky 
and Virginia on his way West, "to grow up with the country," 
trusting only to his strong arm and willing heart to work out his 
ambition for a home for himself and wife, and a competence for his 
children. Again, we will see that others have been animated with 
the impulse to move on, after making themselves a part of the com- 
munity, and have sought the newer portions of the extreme West, 


where civilization had not penetrated, or returned to their native 

We shall find something of that distinctive New England character, 
which has contributed so many men and women to other portions of 
the West. We shall also find many an industrious native of Germany, 
as well as a number of the sons of the Emerald Isle, all of whom have 
contributed to modify types of men already existing here. Those who 
have noted the career of the descendants of these brave, strong men, 
in subduing the wilds and overcoming the obstacles and hardships of 
early times, can but admit they are worthy sons of illustrious sires. 
They who in the early dawn of Western civilization first " bearded 
the lion in his den," opened a path through the wilderness, drove out 
the wild beast and tamed the savage Indian, are entitled to one of the 
brightest pages in all the records of the past. 

The old pioneers of Eandolph county — the advance guard of West- 
ern civilization — have nearly all passed away ; those remaining may 
be counted on the fingers of one hand. A few more years of waiting 
and watching, and they, too, will have joined — 

"The innumerable caravan, that moves 
To that mysterious realm, where each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death." 

Fresh hillocks in the cemetery will soon be all the marks that will 
be left of a race of .giants who grappled nature in her fastnesses, and 
made a triumphant conquest in the face of the greatest privations, 
disease and difliculty. The shadows that fall upon their tombs as time 
recedes are like the smoky haze that enveloped the prairies in the 
early days, saddening the memory and giving to dim distance only a 
faint and phantom outline, to which the future will often look back 
and wonder at the great hearts that lie hidden under the peaceful 


The first settlements in the county were invariably made in the tim- 
ber or contiguous thereto. The early settlers did so as a matter of 
necessity and convenience. The presence of timber aided materially 
in bringing about an early settlement, and it aided in two ways ; first, 
the county had to depend on emigration from the older settled States 
of the East for its population, and especially Kentucky and Tennessee. 
These States originally were almost covered with dense forests, and 
farms were made by clearing off certain portions of the timber. Al- 
most every farm there, after it became thoroughly improved, still re- 


tained a certain tract of timber commonly known as "the woods." 
*' The woods " was generally regarded as the most important part of the 
farm, and the average farmer regarded it as indispensable. When he 
emigrated to the West, one objection was the scarcity of timber, and he 
did not suppose that it would be possible to open up a farm on the bleak 
prairie. To live in a region devoid of the familiar sight of timber 
seemed unendurable, and the average Kentuckian could not entertain 
the idea of founding a home away from the familiar forest trees. Then 
again the idea entertained by the early immigrants to Missouri, that 
timber was a necessity, was not simply theoretical. The early settler 
must have a house to live in, fuel for cooking and heating purposes, 
and fences to inclose his claim. At that time there were no railroads 
by which lumber could be transported. No coal mine had yet been 
opened, and few if any had been discovered. Timber was an absolute 
necessity, without which material improvement was an impossibility. 
No wonder that a gentleman from the East, who in early times came 
to the prairie region of Missouri on a prospecting tour, with a view of 
permanent location, returned home in disgust and embodied his views 
of the country in the following rhyme : — 

"Oh! lonesome, windy, grassy place, 

Where buffalo and snakes prevail; 
The first with di-eadful looking face, 

The last with dreadful sounding tail! 
I'd rather live on camel hump, 

And be a Yankee Doodle beggar, 
Than where I never see a stump, 

And shake to death with fever'n ager." 

The most important resource in the development of this Western 
country was the belts of timber which skirted the streams ; and the 
settlers who first hewed out homes in the timber, while at present 
not the most enterprising and progressive, were, nevertheless, an 
essential factor in the solution of the problem. 

Along either side of the various streams which flow across the 
country, were originally belts of timber ; at certain places, generally 
near the mouths of the smaller tributaries, the belt of timber widened 
out, thus forming a grove, or what was frequently called a point, and 
at these points or groves were the first settlements made ; here were 
the first beginnings of civilization ; here "began to operate those 
forces which have made the wilderness a fruitful place and caused the 
desert to bud and blossom as the rose." 

Much of the primeval forest has been removed for the building of 
houses and the construction of fences ; other portions, and probably 


the largest part, have been ruthlessly and improvidently destroyed. 
This destruction of timber has been somewhat compensated for by 
the planting of artificial groves. 


The early settlers in Randolph county were generally from Ken- 
tucky, Virginia and North Carolina, the emigrants from the first 
named State predominating in number. Many of these pioneers 
located first in Howard county, but coming into Randolph on hunting 
expeditions, they were so favorably impressed with its diversified 
scenery, its fertile hills and valleys, its bountiful supply of timber, 
and water courses, they returned at once with their families and 
hewed out homes for themselves and their little ones in this new land 
of promise. Here they and their descendants have lived to see that 
tide of emigration which has since penetrated every nook and corner 
of Randolph county. They have seen civilization and enlightenment 
take the place of savage ferocity and indolence, and have watched with 
proud satisfaction each new development of material wealth which 
has marked the advancement of the county. 

That portion of Randolph county which borders upon Howard 
county was first settled, and is now known as Silver Creek and 
Moniteau townships. From the best and most reliable information 
that can be obtained, the first white man to permanently pitch his 
tent in what is now known as Randolph county, was William Holman, 
who emigrated to Missouri in 1817, from Madison county, Kentucky, 
and located in Howard county, where he remained until the following 
year (1818) and then moved to Randolph county and settled in 
Silver Creek township. 

We take the following from the Macon True Democrat, which gives 
something of a sketch of the life of William Holman, and some early 
facts in connection with the history of the pioneer times in the first 
settlement of Randolph county : — 


Squire Holman was born in Madison county, Ky., October 31, 
1807, and with his lather's family emigrated to the Territory of Mis- 
souri in 1817. They settled just a few miles below Old Franklin, in 
Howard county, and from thence moved in the spring of 1818 to 
Silver Spring, in what is now Randolph county. His father (Wm. 
Holman), James Dysart (the father of Rev. James Dysart, of Macon), 
and Joseph Holman (the uncle of Squire Holman) were the first 
settlers of Randolph county. 


When Randolph county was organized, it included Macon and all 
the territory north to the Iowa line or Indian Territory. 

The Indians were numerous and frequently came into the settle- 
ments. Huntsville was laid out shortly after Squire Holman was 
grown, but he does not remember the lirst officers. The early settlers 
had frequently to beat their corn in wooden mortars, and when they 
went to mill had to go to Snoddy's mill, near Glasgow. 

The first school ever taught, as far as he recollects, in Randolph 
oounty, was by Jack Dysart, who afterwards became Colonel of the 
militia (and was father of B. R. Dysart, of Macon), about 1822. 
This school was kept in a log house seven or eight miles south-west of 
the present town of Huntsville, on Foster's Prairie. 

The first church was a log house, used by the Old School Baptist, 
near Silver Creek, and the first sermon preached was by Elder Merri- 
man, between the years 1822 and 1825, the early settlers pre- 
viously going to Mount Ararat, in Howard county, to hear Elder 
Edward Turner. For a number of years the settlers of Randolph 
went to Fayette for such groceries and dry goods as they absolutely 
needed. The settlers, male and female, wore home-made clothes. 
Many beautiful young ladies were married in home-made striped 
cotton, and handsome young men in their home-made jeans. 

Mr. Holman remembers when the early settlers of what is now 
Randolph had to go to Fayette to court, where Gen. Owens 
kept tavern. The General use to laugh and say that he could always 
tell a Randolphian by the color of his clothes. The early male set- 
tlers generally wore jeans dyed with walnut bark. They would have 
passed during the war for No. 1 Butternuts. 

Squire Holman was married to Arathusa Barnes, in Randolph county 
in 1832, and of their twelve children raised nearly all. 

Mr. Holman had been a member of the Old School Baptist church 
some thirty years, and an elder twenty-five years. 

Mr. Holman believes that the first store over opened in Randolph 
county was by Daniel G. Davis, near the residence of Willian Goggins, 
which site was afterwards made Huntsville. He did not remember the 
first post-office, but said that the mail was carried on horseback. 

The first mill was Hickman's horse mill, between Silver Creek and 

The father of Mr. Holman also had a horse mill and cotton gin. In 
those days the settlers raised their own cotton for all domestic 

When Mr. Holman's father settled in what is now Randolph county 
the government had not offered any land for sale. The emigrant 
selected his land and settled on it, and when the land came into 
market purchased it of the government at Franklin, where a land office 
was opened. 

Squire Holman served twelve days under Gen. Owens in burying 
the dead that were killed near Kirksville in the Indian fight, of which 
Mr. Blackwell and Mr. Myers have already given an account. 



He also served sixty days in the Black Hawk War under Gen. John 
B. Clark, for which he got from the United States a 160-acre land 
warrant. He was in no fight. 

Many years before Macon county was organized Mr. Holman came to 
the Loe settlement, and kept hogs on the mast. This was below where 
Rose's mill on the Chariton river was afterwards built, on the 
Bloomington and Linneus road. At that time there were no settle- 
ments north of the Loes and Morrows. 

The wolves were very numerous, both gray and prairie. At nio-ht 
he stopped in a hut that he supposed had once been used as an IndTan 
wigwam. At night the wolves would keep up a regular howl, that 
was not very pleasant to a lone man far from any friend except his 
dog. The dog would yelp them away, but as soon as he would start 
back to the hut the wolves would return. He had no gun with him. 

One night he was scarce of wood to make a fire to keep the wolves 
away, and it looked as though they would come in anyhow. He had 
brought with him an ancient bugle horn, and he concluded he would 
try the effect of music on the ravenous animals. He took it up and 
blew a few shrill blasts that, strange to say, sent the wolves skedadlino- 
in a hurry. The horn was worth more than a gun to him that nio-htt 

The wolves became so troublesome that a premium was offered, "and 
his father killed and took the scalps that brought several hundred 
dollars. They were good for paying taxes. 

About the year 1833 Mr. Holman, with several others, made a trip 
for honey between the Chariton and Grand river, and in three weeks 
time took eight barrels of strained honey, and left fifteen bee trees 
standing, having no need of packing more. He remembers when elk 
were plenty within the present limits of Macon, and bears and cata- 
mounts were numerous. 

Mr. Holman's father was a great hunter ; he delighted in bear hunt- 
mg ; he had a famous bear dog, who could scent them at a oreat 
distance. About the year 1818 his father was out on a bear hunt,1iear 
the Sweet Spring, in Randolph county, when the dogs began to yelp 
after one. The dogs soon came up with it, when the bear turned on 
them and killed several of them before Mr. Holman came up ; he fired 
at It, and then he rode back and got another gun from one of the party 
fired, and finally killed the bear. It was so large that they had to take 
skids to pull it up on the horse. When this was done the horse sank 
under the weight ; they finally got it home ; he does not remember the 

Squire Holman was no particular hunter. Deer and other game 
were so plenty that it did not raise any curiosity in him ; his father 
always kept a supply of venison and other fresh meat on hand. The 
guns used were rifles and muskets ; the old settlers prided themselves 
on the use of the rifle. 

In 1832 Mr. Holman was taking provisions to Gen. Clark's army, 
and in passing up the Chariton divide, near old Winchester, three 
miles west of Bloomington, shot at a deer's head, 150 yards off, and 
struck it. This was the best shot ever made. 


In 1858 he settled in Macon county, about three miles north of 
Callao and about four miles west of Bloomington, where he died in 
the spring of 1875. He left many relatives and friends to mourn his 
death. He was an elder in the Regular Baptist Church. 

After the settlement made by Holman, then came Iverson Sears, 
John Sears, Asa Kerby, Hardy Sears, David R. Denny, Younger 
Rowland, John Rowland, Archie Rowland, Sam'l Humphreys, Wright 
Hill, Rev. James Barnes, Uriah Davis, Abraham Goss, Isaiah Hum- 
phreys, Rev. S. C. Davis, James Davis,^ John Viley, Jacob Medley, 
Thomas Mayo, Sr., Charles Mathis, Tillman Bell, James Beattie, 
Charles Finnell, Val. Mayo, Charles Baker, Sr., Jos. M. Baker, Charles 
M. Baker, Jr., Dr. W. Fort, Jer. Summers, John Whelden, Wm. El- 
liott, Neal Murphy, Wm. Cross, Nat. Hunt, Blandermin Smith, 
George Burckhartt, John C. Reed, Capt. Robert Sconce, James Good- 
ring, Elijah Hammett, John J. Turner, Joseph Wilcox, James Coch- 
ran, Thomas Gorham, Sr., T. R. C. Gorham, Daniel Hunt, William 
Goggin, Reuben Samuel, Thomas J. Samuel, John Head, Robert Bou- 
cher, Joseph M. Hammett, Dr. W. B. McLean, Chas. McLean, F. K. 
Collins, Paul Christian, Sr., Jos. Cockrill and Robert W. Wells and 
Nathan Hunt. 


James Head, Robert Wilson,^ James Wells, Archibald Shoemaker, 
John Peeler, Elisha McDaniel, Thomas Bradley, John Dysart, Abra- 
ham Goodding, Nathaniel Floyd, David Floyd, William Drinkard, 
John McCully, Benj. Hardester, Samuel McCully, Terry Bradley, 
Thos. J. Gorham, Geo. Shirley, Rob't Gee, Phoebe Whelden, Gabriel 
Johnson, Abraham Summers, George W. Green, Jacob Maggard,^ 
Samuel Eason, James Davis, John Harvey, Elijah Hammett, Joseph 
Goodding, Fielding Cockerill, Edwin T. Hickman, Nicholas S. Dy- 
sart, Benj. F. Wood, Hancock Jackson,* S. Brockman, Elias Fort, 
Aaron Fray, John Welden, John M. Patton, Wm. Harris, Wm. Patton, 
Isaac Harris, James Wells, Henry Lassiter, Mark Noble, William B. 
Tompkins, John Garshwiler, Sandy Harrison, Thomas Adams, May 
Burton, James Burton, Josiah Davis, David Proffit, Joseph Higbee, 
Ambrose Medley, Henry T. Martin, John Loe, Thoret Rose, 

1 Still living, 

^ At one time U. S. S. from Mo. 

3 Magj»ard often took his gun to church, and would kill a deer on the way and 
leave his son to watch it until he returned. 
* Lieut.-Governor of Mo, 


Charles Baker, William Baker, John Clarkson, William Holeman,^ 
John Bagley, John Taylor, George Q. Thomson, Thomas Griffin, 
Thomas Prather, John Kirley, John Littrell, James Pipes, James Viv- 
ion, Wiley Ferguson, Robert Ash, Hiram Summers, Nicholas W. Tut- 
tle, Noah Baker, Richard Wells, Phillip Dale, Isaac Waldon, Felix G. 
Cockerill, Frederick Rowland, James Howard, Rachel Crawford, Wm. 
H. Davis, Isam Rials, Anthony Head, Jesse Jones, Robert Cornelius, 
Jno. Biswell, Luke Mathis, Wm. Robertson, Wm. H. Brooks, Adam 
Wilson, Benj. Hardin, Wm. Blue, WyattMcFadden, W. M. Dameron, 
Wm. Lockridge, Gideon Wright, John Ball, Thomas H. Benton, 
John D. Reed, Moses Kimbrough, Aaron Kimbrough, -James Emer- 
son, Edward Stephenson, Evan Wright, Stephen Scoby, James Ves- 
tals, John J. Rice, Waddy T. Currin,'^ Derling Wright, William Up- 
ton, William Myers, Lewis Collier, William B. Tompkins, William 
Oliver, Samuel Gash, Abijah Goodding, Martin Fletcher, Edmund 
Chapman, John Thompson, David Peeler, John Tooley, Toland Ma- 
goffin, James S. Ingram, Adam Everly, Uriel Sebree, Robert Payne, 
John Nanson, Jonathan Dale, Michael Daly, Benjamin Skinner, Will- 
iam Cooley, Henry Wilkinson, Mark H. Kirkpatrick, John Bull, 
George Watts, Justin Rose, Noah Baker, Simpson Foster, Richard 
Goodding, Andrew Goodding, William Sears, George Dawkins, Jona- 
than RatlifF, Henry Scritchtield, Benjamin Hardin,^ Liberty Noble, 
Richard Rout, E. D. Vest, Henry Austin, William B. Means, Jubal 
Hart, John Dunn, William Lindse}^ Branton Carton, William Ram- 
sey, Zepheniah Walden, Lewis S. Jacobs, William Cristal, John Col- 
lins, Stanton Carter, Charles Hatfield, Reynold Green, James Mitchell, 
John Rowton, Garland Crenshaw, William Smoot, Thomas Tudor, 
Thomas K. White, William W. Walker, Isaac L. Yealock, Walker 
Austin, Daniel Lay, John McDavitt, Henry Smith, Thomas Phipps, 
Joshua Phipps, Owen Singleton, Samuel T. Crews, Richard Routt, 
John A. Pitts, Tilman W. Belt, Joseph Sharon, Dabney Finley, 
Aaron W. Lane, Reuben Small, William Banks, John Parker, Henry 
Hines, Abner Brasfield, Lucinda Dalton, Thomas Partin, Russell 
Shoemaker, Jesse Harrison, John B. Sampkin, William C. Dickerson, 
John D. Bowen, Andrew King, Samuel Hodge, James Hodge, Byrd 
Pyle, Bright Gillstrap, David James, Tucker W. Lewis, William 
Wear, C. F. Burckhartt, Squire S. Winn, Samuel Richmond, John 
Kane, Gabriel Maupin, Philip B. Hodgkin, Michael Wate, Peter Gulp, 

^ Put up the first still house iu the county. 

^ One of the first merchants iu Fayette, Howard county, Mo. 

'Related to old Ben. Hardin, of Kentucky. 


Sydney J. Svvetnam, Wm. Fray, James H. Bean, Ebenezer Enyait, 
Edmund Bartlett, Nathan Minter, James Hinson, Major Wallis, Rob- 
ert Steele, Eichard Banter, James T. Haly,IshamP. Embree, P. Sam- 
uel, Wm. H. Mansfield, Lewis Bumgardner, Waller Head, Edward R. 
Bradley, Yancy Gray, Abner Vickry, Waitman Summers, William 
Eagan, Barnaby Eagan, Chas. W. Cooper, G. W. Richey, Joseph D. 
Rutherford, Loverance Evans, Clark Banning, Levi Fawks, James 
Fray, John Wilks, Samuel Belshe, Hugh C. Dobbins, Fisher Rice, 
Nathan Decker, Leonard Dodson, Silas Phipps.^ 


The early settlers of the county, for several years after they built 
their cabins, had neither postal nor mill facilities, and were compelled 
to travel from 25 to 50 miles in order to reach a post-office, or to get 
their meal. Their usual way of sending or receiving tidings from 
their friends and the news of the great world, which lay towards the 
east and south of them, was generally by the mouth of the stranger 
coming in, or by the settler who journeyed back to his old home, in 
Kentucky or Virginia. Those who did not grate their corn, or grind 
it upon a hand mill, took it either to Howard or Chariton county, 
whither they also occasionally went to obtain their mail. Postage at 
that time was very high, and if the old settler sent or received two or 
three letters during the year, he considered himself fortunate. His 
every-day life in the wilds of the new country to which he had come 
to better his condition, was so much of a sameness that he had, 
indeed, but little to communicate. His wants were few, and these 
were generally supplied by his rod and his gun, the latter being con- 
sidered an indispensable weapon of defense, as well as necessary to the 
support and maintenance of himself and family. No w^onder that the 
pioneer loved his " old flint lock," and his faithful dog, whose honest 
bark would so often — 

" Bay deep-mouth'd welcome as he drew near home." 

Randolph county was organized in 1829, out of territory taken 
from Howard county, and named after John Randolph, of Roanoke, 


A great dramatist intimates there is nothing in a name ; but a name 
sometimes means a great deal. In many instances it indicates, in a 

1 The above named pioneers settled in Kandolph county prior to 1829. 


measure, the character of the people who settle the country, and have 
given to it its distinctive characteristics. Names are sometimes given to 
towns and countries by accident ; sometimes they originate in the 
childish caprice of some one individual, whose dictate, by reason of 
some real or imaginary superiority, is law. Whether the policy of 
naming counties after statesmen and generals be good or bad, the 
Missouri Legislature has followed the practice to such an extent that 
fully three-fourths of the counties composing the State bear the 
names of men who are more or less distinguished in the history of the 

In this instance, the county of Randolph was not named by acci- 
dent, but the christening took place after mature deliberation. 

The man after whom the county was named was bold and fearless 
in his character, and possessed, as did the early pioneers of old Ran- 
dolph, many of the sterling characteristics of a noble manhood. Be- 
lieving that a brief sketch of the distinguished gentleman for whom 
the county was named will be read with interest, we here insert it ; — 


an American orator, born at Cawsons, Chesterfield county, Virginia, 
June 2, 1773, died in Philadelphia, June 24, 1833. He was educated 
at Princeton, at Columbia College, New York, and at the college of 
Mary and William, and studied law at Philadelphia, but never prac- 
ticed. In 1799, he was elected a Representative in Congress, and 
soon became conspicuous, in the language of Hildreth, as " a singular 
mixture of the aristocrat and the Jacobin." He was re-elected in 1801, 
and was made chairman of the committee of ways and means. In 
1803, as chairman of a committee, he reported against a memorial 
from Indiana, for permission to introduce slaves into the territory in 
spite of the prohibition of the ordinance of 1787, which he pronounced 
to be " wisely calculated to promote the happiness and prosperity of 
the north-western country. In 1804 he was chief manager in the trial 
of Judge Samuel Chase, impeached before the Senate. In 1806 he 
assailed President Jefferson and his supporters with great virulence. 
He attacked Madison's administration, and opposed the declaration 
of war against Great Britain in 1812. His opposition caused his de- 
feat at the next election. He was re-elected in 1814, and again in 1818, 
havinoj declined to be a candidate in 1816. In the Conojress of 1819- 
20 he opposed the Missouri Compromise, stigmatizing the northern 
members, by whose co-operation it was carried, as " doughfaces," an 
epithet adopted into the political vocabulary of the United States. 




In 1822, and again in 1824, he visited England. From 1825 to 1827 
he was a Senator of the United States, and during that time fought a 
duel with Henry Clay. He supported Gen. Jackson for President in 
1828. In 1829 he was a member of the convention to revise the con- 
stitution of Virginia, and in 1830 was appointed a minister to Russia, 
but soon after his reception by the Emperor Nicholas, he departed 
abruptly for England, where he remained for nearly a year, and re- 
turned home without revisiting Russia. He was again elected to 
Congress, but was too ill to take his seat. Exhausted with consump- 
tion, he died in a hotel at Philadelphia, whither he had gone on his 
way to take passage again across the ocean. During his life, his 
speeches were more fully reported and more generally read than those 
of any other member of Congress. He was tall and slender, with 
long, skinny fingers, which he was in the habit of pointing and shak- 
ing at those against whom he spoke. His voice was shrill and piping, 
but under perfect command, and musical in its lower tones. His in- 
vectives, sarcasm, and sharp and wreckless wit, made him a terror to 
his opponents in the house. At the time of his death he owned 318 
slaves, whom by his will he manumitted, bequeathing funds for their 
settlement and maintenance in a free State. His '« Letters to a Young 
Relative" appeared in 1834. 



The Pioneers' Peculiarities — Conveniences and Inconveniences — The Historical 
Log Cabin — Agricultural Implements — Household Furniture — Pioneer Corn- 
bread — Hand Mills and Hominy Blocks — Going to Mill — Trading Points — 
Bee Trees — Shooting Matches and Quiltings. 

The people in the early history of Eandolph county took no care to 
preserve history— they were too busily engaged in making it. 
Historically speaking, those were the most important years of the 
county, for it was then the foundation and corner-stones of all the 
county's history and prosperity were laid. Yet this history was not 
remarkable for stirring events. It was, however, a time of self-reli- 
ance and brave, persevering toil ; of privations cheerfully endured 
through faith in a good time coming. The experience of one settler 
was just about the same as that of others. Nearly all of the settlers 
were poor; they faced the sanie hardships and stood generally on an 
equal footing. 

All the experience of the early pioneers of this county goes far to 
confirm the theory that, after all, happiness is pretty evenly balanced 
in this world. They had their privations and hardships, but they had 
also their own peculiar joys. If they were poor, they were free from 
the burden of pride and vanity ; free also from the anxiety and care 
that always attends the possession of wealth. Other people's eyes 
cost them nothing. If they had few neighbors, they were on the best 
of terms with those they had. Envy, jealousy and strife had not 
crept in. A common interest and a common sympathy bound them 
together with the strongest ties. They were a little world to them- 
selves, and the good feeling that prevailed was all the stronger because 
they were so far removed from the great world of the East. 

Among these pioneers there was realized such a community of iu-^ 
terest that there existed a community of feeling. There were no 
castes, except an aristocracy of benevolence, and no nobility, except 
a nobility of generosity. They were bound together with such a 
strong bond of sympathy, inspired by the consciousness of common 
hardship, that they were practical.y communists. 


Neighbors did not even wait for an invitation or request to help one 
anotlier. Was a settler's cabin burned or blown down? No sooner 
was the fact known throughout the neighborhood than the settlers as- 
sembled to assist the unfortunate one to rebuild his home. They came 
with as little hesitation, and with as much alacrity, as though they 
were all members of the same family and bound together by ties of 
blood. One man's interest was every other man's interest. Now, 
this general state of feeling among the pioneers was by no means 
peculiar to these counties, although it was strongly illustrated here. 
It prevailed generally throughout the West during the time of the 
early settlement. The very nature of things taught the settlers the 
necessity of dwelling together in this spirit. It was their only protec- 
tion. They had come far away from the well established reign of law, 
and entered a new country, where civil authority was still feeble, and 
totally unable to afibrd protection and redress grievances. Here the 
settlers lived some little time before there was an officer of the law in 
the county. Each man's protection was in the good will and friend- 
ship of those about him, and the thing that any man might well dread 
was the ill will of the community. It was more terrible than the law. 
It was no uncommon thing in the early times for hardened men, who 
had no fears of jails or penitentiaries, to stand in great fear of the in- 
dignation of a pioneer community. Such were some of the character- 
istics of Kandolph county. 


The first buildings in the county were not just like the log cabins that 
immediately succeeded them. The latter required some help and a 
great deal of labor to build. The very first buildings constructed 
Avere a cross between " hoop cabins " and Indian bark huts. As soon 
as enough men could be got together for a " cabin raising," then log 
cabins were in style. Many a pioneer can remember the happiest time 
of his life as that when he lived in one of these homely but comforta- 
ble old cabins. 

A window with sash and glass was a rarity, and was an evidence of 
wealth and aristocracy which but few could support. They were often 
made with greased paper put over the window, which admitted a little 
light, but more often there was nothing whatever over it, or the 
cracks between the logs, without either chinking or daubing, were the 
dependence for light and air. The doors were fastened with old- 
fashioned wooden latches, and for a friend, or neighbor, or traveler, 
the string always hung out, for the pioneers of the West were hospi- 


table and entertained visitors to the best of their ability. It is notice- 
able with what affection the pioneers speak of their old log cabins. It 
may be doubted whether palaces ever sheltered happier hearts than 
those homely cabins. The following is a good description of those 
old landmarks, but few of which now remain : — 

" These were of round logs, notched together at the corners, ribbed 
with poles and covered with boards split from a tree. A puncheon 
floor was then laid down, a hole cut in the end and a stick chimney 
run up. A clapboard door is made, a window is opened by cutting 
out a hole in the side or end two feet square, and finished vvithout 
glass or transparency. The house is then < chinked ' and ' daubed ' 
with mud. The cabin is now ready to go into. The household and 
kitchen furniture is adjusted, and life on the frontier is begun in 

*' The one-legged bedstead, now a piece of furniture of the past, 
was made by cutting a stick the proper length, boring holes at one end 
one and a half inches in diameter, at right angles, and the same sized 
holes corresponding with those in the logs of the cabin the length and 
breadth desired for the bed, in which are inserted poles. 

"Upon these poles the clapboards are laid, or linn bark is inter- 
woven consecutively from pole to pole. Upon this primitive structure 
the bed is laid. The convenience of a cook stove was not thought of, 
but instead, the cooking was done by the faithful housewife in pots, 
kettles, or skillets, on and about the big fire-place, and very fre- 
quently over and around, too, the distended pedal extremities of the 
legal sovereign of the household, while the latter was indulging in the 
luxuries of a cob-pipe and discussing the probable results of a con- 
templated deer hunt on the Chariton river or some one of its small 

These log cabins were really not so bad after all. 

The people of to-day, familiarized with "Charter Oak" cooking 
stoves and ranges, would be ill at home were they compelled to pre- 
pare a meal with no other conveniences than those provided in a pioneer 
cabin. Rude fire-places were built in chimneys composed of mud and 
sticks, or, at best, undressed stone. These fire-places served for heat- 
ing and cooking purposes ; also, for ventilation. Around the cheerful 
blaze of this fire the meal was prepared, and these meals were not so 
bad, either. As elsewhere remarked, they were not such as would 
tempt an epicure, but such as afforded the most healthful nourishment 
for a race of people who were driven to the exposure and hardships 
which were their lot. We hear of few dyspeptics in those days. An- 


other advantage of these cookinsi: arrano-ements was that the stove- 
pipe never fell clown, and the pioneer was spared being subjected to 
the most trying of ordeals, and one probably more productive of pro- 
fanity than any other. 

Before the country became supplied with mills which were of easy 
access, and even in some instances afterward, hominy-blocks were 
used. They exist now only in the memory of the oldest settlers, but 
as relics of the " long ago," a description of them will not be unin- 
teresting : — 

A tree of suitable size, say from eighteen inches to two feet in 
diameter, was selected in the forest and felled to the ground. If a 
cross-cut saw happened to be convenient, the tree was " butted," that 
is, the kerf end was sawed off, so that it would stand steady when 
ready for use. If there was no cross-cut saw in the neighborhood, 
strong arms and sharp axes were ready to do the work. Then the 
proper length, from four to five feet, was measured off and sawed or 
cut square. When this was done the block was raised on end and the 
work of cutting out a hollow in one of the ends was commenced. 
This was generally done with a common chopping ax. Sometimes a 
smaller one was used. When the cavity was judged to be large 
enough, a fire was built in it, and carefully watched till the ragged 
edges were burned away. When completed the hominy-block some- 
what resembled a druggist's mortar. Then a pestle, or something to 
crush the corn, was necessary. This was usually made from a suitably 
sized piece of timber, with an iron wedge attached, the large end 
down. This completed the machinery, and the block was ready for 
use. Sometimes one hominy-block accommodated an entire neigh- 
borhood and was the means of staying the hunger of many mouths. 

In giving the bill of fare above we should have added meat, for of 
this they had plenty. Deer would be seen daily trooping over the 
prairie in droves of from 12 to 20, and sometimes as many as 50 
would be seen grazing together. Elk were also found, and wild 
turkeys and prairie chickens without number. Bears were not un- 
known. Music of the natural order was not wanting, and every night 
the pioneers were lulled to rest by the screeching of panthers and the 
howling of wolves. When the dogs ventured too far out from the 
cabins at night, they would be driven back by the wolves chasing 
them up to the very cabin doors. Trapping wolves became a very 
profitable business after the State began to pay a bounty for wolf 

All the streams of water also abounded in fish, and a good supply 


of these could be procured by the expense of a little time and labor 
Those who years ago improved the fishing advantages of the country 
never tire telling of the dainty meals which the streams afforded. 
Sometimes large parties Avould get together, and, having been provided 
with cooking utensils and facilities for camping out, would go off some 
distance and spend weeks together. No danger then of being ordered 
oH a man's premises or arrested for trespass. One of the peculiar 
circumstances that surrounded the early life of the pioneers was a 
strange loneliness. The solitude seemed almost to oppress them. 
Months would pass during which they would scarcely see a human 
face outside their own families. 

On occasions of special interest, such as election, holiday celebra- 
tions, or camp-meetings, it was nothing miusual for a few settlers 
who lived in the immediate neighborhood of the meetins: to entertain 
scores of those who had come from a distance. 

Rough and rude thouo-h the surroundino;s mav have been, the 
pioneers were none the less honest, sincere, hospitable and kind in 
their relations. It is true, as a rule, and of universal application, that 
there is a greater degree of real humanity among the pioneers of any 
country than there is when the country becomes old and rich. If 
there is an absence of refinement, that absence is more than compen- 
sated in the presence of generous hearts and truthful lives. They are 
bold, industrious and enterprising. Generally speaking, they are 
earnest thinkers, and possessed of a diversified fund of useful, prac- 
tical information. As a rule the}' do not arrive at a conclusion by 
means of a course of rational reasoning, but, nevertheless, have a queer 
Avay at getting at the facts. They hate cowards and shams of every 
kind, and above all things, falsehoods and deception, and cultivate an 
integrity which seldom permits them to prostitute themselves to a 
narrow policy of imposture. Such were the characteristics of the 
men and women who pioneered the way to the country of the Sacs 
and Foxes. A few of them yet remain, and although some of their 
descendants are among the wealthy and most substantial of the people 
of the county, they have not forgotten their old time hospitality and 
free and easy ways. In contrasting the present social affairs with 
pioneer times, one has well said : — 

" Then, if a house was to be raised, every man ' turned out,' and 
often the women, too, and while the men piled up the logs that fash- 
ioned the primitive dwelling-place, the women prepared the dinner. 
Sometimes it was cooked by big log fires near the site where the cabin 
was building ; in other cases it was prepared at the nearest cabin, and 


at the proper hour was carried to where the men were at work. If 
one man in the neighborhood killed a beef, a pig or a deer, everj^ 
other family in the neighborhood was sure to receive a piece. 

" We were all on an equality. Aristocratic feelings were unknown, 
and would not have been tolerated. What one had we all had, and 
that was the happiest period of my life. J3ut to-day, if you lean 
against a neighbor's shade tree he Avill charge you for it. If you 
are poor and fall sick, you may lie and suffer almost unnoticed and 
unattended, and probably go to the poor-house; and just as like as 
not the man who would report you to the authorities as a subject of 
county care would charge the county for making the report." 

Of the old settlers, some are still living in the county in the enjoy- 
ment of the fortunes they founded in early times, " having reaped an 
hundredfold." Nearly all, however, have passed away. A few of 
them have gone to the far West, and are still playing the part of 
pioneers. But wherever they may be, whatever fate may betide 
them, it is but truth to say that they were excellent men as a class, 
and have left a deep and enduring impression upon the county and 
the State. " They builded better than they knew." They were, of 
course, men of activity and energy, or they would never have de- 
cided to face the trials of pioneer life. The great majority of them 
were poor, but the lessons taught them in the early days were of such 
a character that few of them have remained so. They made their 
mistakes in business pursuits like other men. Scarcely one of them 
but allowed golden opportunities, for pecuniary profit, at least, to pass 
by unheeded. What now are some of the choicest farms in Randolph 
county were not taken up by the pioneers, who preferred land of very 
much less value. They have seen many of their prophesies fulfilled, 
and others come to naught. Whether they have attained the success 
they desired, their own hearts can tell. 

To one looking over the situation then, from the standpoint now, 
it certainly does not seem very cheering, and yet, from the testimony 
of some old pioneers, it was a most enjoyable time, and Ave of the 
present live in degenerate days. 

At that time it certainly would have been much more difficult for 
those old settlers to understand how it could be possible that sixty- 
five years hence the citizens of the present age of the county's pro- 
gress would be complaining of hard times and destitution, and that 
they themselves, perhaps, would be among that number, than it is 
now for us to appreciate how they could feel so cheerful and contented 


with their meager means and humble lot of hardships and depriva- 
tions during those early pioneer days. 

The secret was, doubtless, that they lived within their means, 
however limited, not coveting more of luxury and comfort than their 
income would afford, and the natural result was prosperity and con- 
tentment, with always room for one more stranger at the fireside, and 
a cordial welcome to a place at their table for even the most hungry 
guest . 

Humanity, with all its ills, is, nevertheless, fortunately character- 
ized with remarkable flexibility, which enables it to accommodate 
itself to circumstances. After all, the secret of happiness lies in one's 
ability to accommodate himself to his surroundings. 

It is sometimes remarked that there were no places for public en- 
tertainment till latei' years. The truth is, there were many such places ; 
in fact, every cabin was a place of entertainment, and these hotels 
were sometimes crowded to their utmost capacity. On such occasions, 
when bedtime came, the first family would take the back part of the 
cabin, and so continue filling up by families until the limit was 
reached. The young men slept in the wagon outside. In the morn- 
ino", those nearest the do^r arose first and went outside to dress. 
Meals were served on the end of a wagon, and consisted of corn- 
bread, buttermilk, and fat pork, and occasionally coffee, to take away 
the morning chill. On Sundays, for a change, they had bread made 
of wheat "tramped out" on the ground by horses, cleaned with a 
sheet, and pounded by hand. This was the best the most fastidious 
could obtain, and this only one day in seven. Not a moment of time 
was lost. It was necessary that they should raise enough sod corn to 
take them through the coming winter, and also get as much breaking 
done as possible. They brought with them enough corn to give the 
horses an occasional feed, in order to keep them able for hard work, 
but in the main they had to live on prairie grass. The cattle got 
nothinof else than o-rass. 


An interesting comparison might be drawn between the conven- 
iences which now make the life of a farmer a comparatively easy one, 
and the almost total lack of such conveniences in early days. A brief 
description of the acommodations possessed by the tillers of the soil 
will now be given. 

Let the children of such illustrious sires draw their own corapari- 


sons, and may the results of these comparisons silence the voice of 
complaint which so often is heard in the laild. 

The only plows they had at first were what they styled " bull 
plows." The mold-boards were generally of wood, but in some 
cases they were half wood and half iron. The man who had one of 
the latter description was looked upon as something of an aristocrat. 
But these old "bull plows" did good service, and they must be 
awarded the honor of first stirring the, soil of Kandolph county, as well 
as that of the oldest counties of this State. 

The amount of money which some farmers annually invest in agri- 
cultural implements would have kept the pioneer farmer in farming 
utensils during a whole lifetime. The pioneer farmer invested little 
money in such things, because he had little money to spare, and then 
again because the expensive machinery now used would not have been 
at all adapted to the requirements of pioneer farming. The " bull 
plow " was probably better suited to the fields abounding in stumps 
and roots than would the modern sulkey plowh^ive been, and Uie old- 
fashioned wheat cradle did better execution than would a modern 
harvester under like circumstances. The prairies were seldom settled 
till after the pioneer period, and that portion of the country which 
was the hardest to put under cultivation, and the most difficult to 
cultivate after it was improved, first was cultivated ; it was well for 
the country that such was the case, for the present generation, famil- 
iarized as it is with farming machinery of such complicated pattern, 
would scarcely undertake the clearing off of dense forests and culti- 
vating the ground with the kind of implements their fathers used, and 
which they would have to use for some kinds of work. 


Notwithstanding the fact that some of the early settlers were ener- 
getic millwrights, who employed all their energy and what means 
they possessed, in erecting mills at a few of the many favorite mill- 
sites which abound in the county, yet going to mill in those days, 
when there were no roads, no bridges, no ferry boats, and scarcely 
any conveniences for traveling, was no small task, where so many 
rivers and treacherous streams were to be crossed, and such atrip was 
often attended with orreat dans-er to the traveler when these streams 
were swollen beyond their banks. But even under these circumstances, 
some of the more adventurous and more ingenious ones, in case of 
emergency, found the ways and means by which to cross the swollen 


streams, and succeed in making the trip. At other times again, all 
attempts failed them, and they were compelled to remain at home un- 
til the waters subsided, and depend on the generosity of their fortunate 

Some stories are related with regard to the danger, perils and hard- 
ships of forced travel to mills, and for provisions, which remind one 
of forced marches in military campaigns, and when we hear of the 
heroic and daring conduct of the hardy pioneers in procuring bread 
for their loved ones, we think that here were heroes more valiant than 
any of the renowned soldiers of ancient or modern times. 

During the first two years, and perhaps not until some time after- 
ward, there was not a public highway established and worked on 
which they could travel ; and as the settlers were generally far apart, 
and mills and trading points were at great distances, going from place 
to place was not only very tedious, but attended sometimes with great 
danger. Not a railroad had yet entered the State, and there Avas 
scarcely a thought in the minds of the people here of such a thing 
ever reaching the wild "West ; and, if thought of, people had no con- 
ception of what a revolution a railroad and telegraph line through the 
county would cause in its progress. Then there was no railroad in 
the United States, not a mile of track on the continent ; while now 
there are over 100,000 miles of railroad extending their trunks and 
branches in every direction over our land. 

Supplies in those days were obtained at Fayette and Glasgow. 
Mail was carried by horses and wagon transportation, and telegraph 
dispatches were transmitted by the memory and lips of emigrants 
coming in or strangers passing through. 

The first mill was built in the county in 1820, and was known as 
Hickman's mill. At first the mill only ground corn, which had to be 
sifted after it was ground, as there were no bolts in the mill. There 
was only one run of buhrs, which, as well as the mill irons, were 
brought from St. Louis. They were shipped up the Missouri river. 
The mill cost about $50. The mill had no gearing, the buhrs being 
located over the wheel, and running with the same velocity as the 
wheel. It was a frame mill, one story high, and had a capacity of 
50 bushels a day. People came from far and near, attracted by the 
reports of the completion of the mill, with their grists, so that, for 
days before it was ready for work, the creek bottom was dotted over 
with hungry and patient men, waiting until it was ready to do their 
work, so that they might return with their meal and flour to supply 
their families, and those of their neighbors, thus enduring the hard- 


ships of camp life in those early days in order that they might be able 
to secnre the simple necessaries of life, devoid of all luxuries. 


The sports and means of recreation were not so numerous and varied 
among the early settlers as at present, but they were more enjoyable 
and invio-orating than now. 

Hunters nowadays would only be too glad to be able to find and en- 
joy their favorable opportunity for hunting and fishing, and even travel 
many miles, counting it rare pleasure to spend a few weeks on the water 
courses and wild prairies, in hunt and chase and fishing frolics. There 
were a good many excellent hunters here at an early day, who enjoyed 
the sport as well as any can at the present time. 

Wild animals of almost every species known in the wilds of the West 
were found in great abundance. The prairies and woods and streams 
and various bodies of water were all thickly inhabited before the white 
man came, and for sometime afterward. Although the Indians slew 
many of them, yet the natural law prevailed here as well as elsewhere — 
*' wild man and wild beast thrive together." 

Serpents were to be found in such large numbers, and of such im- 
mense size, that some stories told by the early settlers would be 
incredible were it not for the large array of concurrent testimony, 
which is to be had from the most authentic sources. Deer, turkeys, 
ducks, geese, squirrels, and various other kinds of choice game were 
plentiful, and to be had at the expense of killing only. The fur animals 
were abundant ; such as the otter, beaver, mink, muskrat, raccoon, 
panther, fox, wolf, wild-cat and bear. 

An old resident of the county told us that, in 1809, while he was 
traveling a distance of six miles he saw as many as 73 deer, in herds of 
from six to ten. 


Another source of profitable recreation among the old settlers was 
that of hunting bees. The forests along the water courses were es- 
pecially prolific of bee trees. They were found in great numbers on 
the Chariton rivers and their confluents, and, in fact, on all the im- 
portant streams in the county. Many of the early settlers, during the 
late summer, would go into camp for days at a time, for the purpose of 
bunting and securing the honey of the wild bees, which was not only 
extremely rich and found in great abundance, but always commanded 
a good price in the home market. 


The Indians have ever regarded the honey bee as the forerunner of 
the white man, while it is a conceded fact that the quail always follows 
the footprints of civilization. 

The following passage is found in the <' Report of the Exploring 
Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, in the year 1842, by Captain John 
C. Fremont," page 69 : — 

" Here on the summit, where the stillness was absolute, unbroken 
by any sound, and the solitude complete, we thought ourselves beyond 
the regions of animated life ; but while we were sitting on the rocks 
a solitary bee came winging its flight from the eastern valley and lit on 
the knee of one of the men. We pleased ourselves with the idea that 
he was the first of his species to cross the mountain barrier, a solitary 
pioneer to foretell the advance of civilization." 

Gregg, in his " Commerce of the Prairies," page 178, Vol. I., says : 
♦♦ The honey bee appears to have emigrated exclusively from the east, 
as its march has been observed westward. The bee, among Western 
pioneers, is the proverbial precursor of the Anglo-American popula- 
tion. In fact, the aborigines of the frontier have generally corrobor- 
ated this statement, for they used to say that they knew the white man 
was not far behind when the bees appeared among them." 

There were other recreations, such as shooting matches and quilting 

parties, which prevailed in those days, and which were enjoyed to the 

fullest extent. The quilting parties were especially pleasant and 

agreeable to those who attended. The established rule in those days 

at these parties was to pay either one dollar in money or split one 

hundred rails during the course of the day. The men would generally 

split the rails, and the women w^ould remain in the house and do the 

quilting. After the day's work was done the night would be passed 

in dancing. 

AH the swains that there abide, 
With jigs and rural dance resort. 

When daylight came the music and dancing would cease, and the gal- 
lant young men would escort the fair ladies to their respective homes. 



One of the oldest pioneers tells us that for several years after he 
came to what is now known as Randolph county the wolves were very 
numerous, and that he paid his taxes for many years in wolf scalps. 
His cabin was in the edge of the timber that skirted Sweet Spring 



creek, and at night the howls of these animals were so loud and inces- 
sant that to sleep at times was almost impossible. 
Often at midnight, all 

" At once there rose so wild a yell, 
Within that dark and narrow dell, 
As all the fields from heaven that fell, 
Had pealed the banner cry of hell." 

At such times, the whole air seemed to be filled with the vibrations of 
their most infernal and diabolical music. The wolf was not only a 
midnight prowler here, but was seen in the day-time, singly or in 
packs, warily skulking upon the outskirts of a thicket, or sallying cau- 
tiously along the open path with a sneaking look of mingled cowardice 
and cruelty. 



First County Court — Its Proceedings — First Circuit Court — Early Marriages — 
First Recorded Will — Remarkable Deed — Public Buildings — First Court House — 
Second Court House — Third Court House — County Seat Question — Jails — 
County Poor Farm — Blanderman Smith. 

We plead guilty to possessing much of the antiquarian spirit, — 
" old wine, old books, old friends," are the best, you know. We 
love to sit at the feet of the venerable old pioneers of the country, 
and listen to the story of their early exploits, when the fire of youth 
beamed in their eyes, and the daring spirit of adventure quickened 
their pulses. How they fought with the savage Indians and prowl- 
ing beasts to wrest this goodly land from its primeval wilderness, as 
a rich heritage for the children to come after them ; how they hewed 
down the forests, turned " the stubborn glebe," watched and toiled, 
lost and triumphed, struggled against poverty and privation, to bring 
the country into subjection to civilization and enlightened progress, — 
all this has an absorbing interest to us. Much as modern literature 
delights us, we had rather talk an hour with one of these venerable 
gray-beards who are found here and there as the scattered repre- 
sentatives of a purer and more heroic age, than to revel in the most 
bewitching poem that ever flashed from the pen of a Byron or a Ten- 
nyson, or dream the time away in threading the mazes of the plot 
and imagery of the finest romance that ever was written. Moved by 
this kind of a spirit, we have been delving among the musty records 
of the county court, where we found many an interesting relic of the 
past history of the county, some of which we reproduce here. 


The first county court that convened in Randolph county, was 
held on the 2d day of February, 1829. The following is the record 
and proceedings of the first term of the said court : — 

State of Missouri, ) o 
County of Randolph, ) 

At a county court begun and held, for and within the county afore- 
said, at the house of Blandermin Smith, the place appointed by law 


for holding the courts of said county, James Head, Wm. Fort, and 
Joseph M. Baker, Esquires, produced from the Governor of the State 
commissions as justices of said court, who qualified on the 2d day 
of February, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine. 
Whereupon court was opened by proclamation. 

The court appoint James Head president of the court. 

The court appoint Kobert Wilson clerk ^;?'o tern, of this court. 

Ordered, That all applicants for office file with the clerk j9ro tern. 
their applications in writing. 

The court appoints Robert Wilson clerk of said court; whereupon 
he entered into bonds with satisfactory security, which is received by 
the court, and ordered to be certified to the Gov^ernor. 

Ordered, That court adjourn until to-morrow morning at ten 
o'clock. Wm. Fort, 

Joseph M. Baker. 

SECOND day's proceedings. 

Tuesday Morning, February 3d, 1829. 

The court met pursuant to adjournment. Present, Justices Head, 
Fort, and Baker. R. Wilson, Clerk, P. T. 

The court recommend to his excellency, the Governor of this State, 
the following named persons to be appointed justices of the peace, 
viz. : Blanderman Smith, James Wells, and Archibald Shoemaker, 
for Salt Spring township ; John Peeler and Elisha McDaniel, for Sugar 
Creek township ; Thomas Bradley, John Viley, and John Dysart, for 
Silver Creek township, and Charles McLean for Prairie township. 

The court then proceeded to divide the county into townships, as 
follows, viz. : The township of Silver Creek shall be bounded as fol- 
lows : Beginning at the south-west corner of Howard county ; thence 
running north with Randolph county line, to the township line, be- 
tween townships 53 and 54 ; thence east with said township line, to 
the range line, to the Howard county line ; thence west with said line 
to the beginning. 

The township of Prairie shall be bounded as follows, viz. : Begin- 
ning at the Howard county line, where the range line between ranges 
14 and 15 intersects the same ; thence north with said range line, to the 
line dividing townships 53 and 54 ; thence east with said township to 
the line dividing Randolph and Ralls counties ; thence south with said 
county line, to the Boone county line ; thence west with the line, 
dividing Randolph and Boone, and Randolph and Howard, to the be- 

The township of Salt Sprmg shall be bounded as follows, viz. : 
Beginning where the township line, dividing townships 53 and 54 on 
the west ; thence north with said county line to the north-west corner 
of the county ; thence east with the county line, to the range line be- 
tween ranges 14 and 15 ; thence south to the corner of Silver Creek 
township ; thence west with said line to the beginning. 


Ordered, That all territory lying north be attached to and form a 
part of said township. 

The township of Sugar Creek shall be bounded as follows, viz. : 
Beginning at the range line, between ranges 14 and 15, on the north- 
ern county line ; thence east to the north-east corner of the county ; 
thence south with the line dividing townships 53 and 54 ; thence west 
with said line to the corner of Silver Creek and Prairie townships. 

Ordered, That all the territory lying north of said township, be 
attached to and form a j^art thereof. 

The court appoint Thomas J. Gorhani surveyor of the .county of 
Randolph, whereupon he entered into bond conditioned &,s the law 
directs, with satisfactory security. 

The court appoint Terry Bradley assessor for the county of Ran- 
dolph, for the year 1829, and until his successor is duly elected and 
qualified. Whereupon, he entered into bond conditioned as the law 
directs, in the penal sum of five hundred dollars, with Thomas Brad- 
ley and Benjamin Cockerill his securities, which was received by the 

The court appoint Jacob Medley collector for the county of Ran- 
dolph, for the year 1829. Whereupon, he entered into duplicate 
bonds, conditioned as the law directs, in the penal sum of two thou- 
sand dollars, with James Head and Terry Bradley as his securities, 
fort the faithful performance of his duties in relation to State tax, which 
was received by the court, one of which was ordered to be forwarded 
to the auditor of public accounts ; he also took the oath prescribed by 

The court appoint Nathan Hunt constable of Salt Spring township. 
Whereupon, he entered into bond in the penal sum of eight hundred 
dollars, with Daniel Hunt and Abraham Goodding as his securities, 
which was received bv the court. 

The court appoint Nathan Floyd constable of Prairie township. 
Whereupon, he entered into bond in the penalty of eight hundred dol- 
lars, with David Floyd and William Drinkard as his securities, which 
were received by the court ; he then took the oath prescribed by law. 

The court appoint John McCully constable of Silver Creek township. 
Whereupon, he entered into bond in the penalty of eight hundred dol- 
lars, conditioned as the law directs, with Benjamin Hardester and 
Samuel McCully as his securities, and took the oath prescribed by law. 

The court appoint Abraham Goodding constable of Sugar Creek 
township. Whereupon, he entered into bond in the penalty of eight 
hundred dollars, conditioned as the law directs, with Terry Bradley 
and Robert Sconce as his securities, and took the oath prescribed by 

Ordered, By the court, that application be made to the clerk of 
Chariton county court, for copies of such records pertaining to the 
county of Randolph, as may be thought necessary. The court ap- 
point Robert Sconce, guardian of Luzetta Whelden, minor of John 
Whelden, deceased. Whereupon, he entered into bond conditioned 


as the law directs, in the penalty of one thousand dollars, with John 
J. Turner, and Thomas J. Gorham as his securities, which were re- 
ceived by the court as sufficient. 

Ordered, That court adjourn until court in course. 

William Fort, 
Joseph M. Baker. 

second term special term. 

State of Missouri, ) 
County of Randolph, s , . , ^ r 

At a county court begun and held for and within the county afore- 
said, by special appointment on the first day of March, 1829 ; pi^esent 
William Fort and Joseph M. Baker, justices of said court. Kobert 
Wilson, clerk, and Hancock Jackson, sheriff. 

Ordered, By the court, that the temporary seat of justice tor said 
county, be fixed at the house of William Goggin in said county; and 
it is further ordered that all courts of record, hereafter to be holden 
in said county, be held at the house of the said William Goggin, and 
that a copy of this order be furnished the judge of the circuit court. 
Ordered, That court adjourn until court in course. 

William Fort, 
Joseph M. Baker. 

The above constitutes the proceedings of the first and special terms 
of the county court. The second regular term of the court was held on 
the 4th day of May following, and we note the following proceedings : — 

Gabriel Johnson was recommended for justice of the peace for 
Silver Creek township, and George Burckhartt and Benjamin Hardin, 

for Prairie. , , * i -i „i/i 

The followino- gentlemen were appointed road overseers : Archibald 

Shoemaker, Blandermin Smith, Thomas Bradley, John Dysart, James 
Wells, Henry Lassiter, Mark Noble, William B. Thompkms, John 
Garshweiler, John M. Patton and Josiah Davis. 

The first county levy was made at the June term, and was ordered 
to be 50 per cent of the State levy, and in order to give some idea ot 
the kind of salaries our old-time officers received, it should be stated 
that the county assessor, Terry Bradley, - was allowed his account ot 
sixty-one dollars ^nA fifty -six and one-fourth cents, for thirty-five days 
service, postage, stationery," etc. Query-If such salaries as this 
were paid nowadays, would not electioneering grow small by degrees 
and beautifully less? 

The collector made settlement of his accounts for the county reve- 
nue November 3, 1829 ; it was as follows : — 

Resident list amounts to ^ 

Delinquent returned and allowed 

Allowed by law for collecting ^^ 

$21 45 


• Leaving a balance of two hundred and thirty-two dolUirs and fifteen 
cents in his hands, together with the sum of two dollars and ninety- 
nine cents, received by him on licenses, which is ordered to be paid to 
the county treasurer. Shades of the past ! Just think of that for a 
delinquent tax list ! — one dollar and twenty-five cents ! Wh}'^, the 
printer's bill alone for publishing the delinquent list in this year of 
our Lord 1884, will amount to several hundred dollars, or fully three 
times the whole revenue of the county then ! 

In August, 1830, the county court njade the following order : — 

The clerk is ordered to procure a seal for the county court, with the 
emblem of the American Eagle, provided the same can be had on reas- 
onable terms. 

Robert Wilson was appointed commissioner of the county seat. 
William Goggin and Nancy, his wife, and Gideon Wright and Re- 
becca, his wife, Daniel Hunt and wife, and Henry Winburn and wife 
all made deeds without compensation, conveying land to the county 
for the seat of justice. Each gave twelve and a half acres, aggregating 
50 acres. Reuben Samuel was appointed superintendent of public 

The first guardian appointed by the county court of Randolph 
county was John Harvey, who was appointed guardian of Drucilla 
Wheldon, minor child of John Wheldon, deceased. Davis and Currin 
were granted the first license to keep a tavern ; their stand was at the 
house of William Goggin. The license for the same cost them $10. 
John Taylor was the second tavern keeper. 

The first bridge of any importance, constructed in the county, was 
built over the east fork of the Chariton river, on the first high bank 
above Baker's ford, in 1829. The citizens paid half of the cost by 
subscription, and the county court subscribed the other half. Henry 
B. Owen was the contractor, and received $1.65 for building half of 
the bridge. In 1830 Nicholas Dysart was allowed the sum of $56 for 
assessing the county. 


The early records of the circuit court and recorder's office, espe- 
cially the record of deeds in the latter office, were destroyed by fire 
in 1882, at the time the court-house was burned; consequently we 
are forever precluded from knowing just exactly what they contained. 

The first circuit court within and for the county of Randolph, Avas 
held at the residence of William Goggin in 1829. The Hon. David 
Todd, of Boone county, was the presiding judge ; Robert Wilson was 
the clerk, Hancock Jackson, sheriff", and James Gordon, prosecuting 



attorney. The following persons composed the first grand jury : 
George Burckhartt, foreman ; Peter Gulp, Ambrose Medley, William 
Baker, Lawrence Evans, Terry Bradley, Edwin T. Hickman, Francis 
K. Collins, Levi Moore, Jeremiah Summers, Robert Boucher, Richard 
Blue, Henry Martin, Thomas Kimbrough, Moses Kimbrough, James 
Davis, John Bagby, John Dunn, William Upton, Robert Dysart, 
John Martin, William Pattin, Isaac Harris. These were all good men, 
of stern integrity, and we doubt whether a better jury could be 
selected now (1884) from the body of men in any county in the State. 
They closed their labors on the second day of the term, having found 
two indictments, — one against John Moore for "assault and 
battery," and one against John Cooley, for resisting legal process. 
The following attorneys were in attendance upon this court : Robert 
W. Wells, attorney-general ; John F. Ryland, Gen. John B. Clark, 
Joseph Davis, Thomas Reynolds, and Samuel Moore. Each one of 
the above named attorneys, excepting Moore, afterwards occupied 
honorable positions in the councils of the State. Wilson and Gen. 
Clark were in the Congress of the United States, the former being a 

On March 11th, 1830, the following Indians were arrested and 
held in custody until a grand jury could be impaneled to pass upon 
the charges which had been preferred against them for murder : Big 
Neck or Great Walker, Walking Cloud or Pumpkin, the chief ; Brave 
Snake, Young Knight, and One-That-Don't-Care. On March 13th 
the grand jury sitting upon their cases made the following report : 
"After examining all the witnesses, and maturely considering the 
charges for which the Iowa Indians are now in confinement, we find 
theni^not guilty, and they are at once discharged," thus showing that 
even a savage Indian would not be punished for an alleged ofiense, 
unless the proof of their guilt was ample. Justice and right seemed 
to be the guiding stars of these pioneers ; and so true were they to 
these principles, that it could be said of them — 

"They were resolved, and steady to their trust, 
Inflexible to ill, and obstinately just." 

This second grand jury was made up of John Dysart, foreman ; 
James Davis, John Owens, David Turner, William Mathis, Thomas 
Prather, William Kerby, Jacob Epperly, Nicholas Tuttle, Robert 
Elliott, George W. Green, Thorett Rose, Elisha McDaniel, John D. 
Reed, John Gross, James Cooley, John McCuUy, Dr. William Fort, 
Nathaniel Floyd, David Floyd. 



Cupid, the God of love, early manifested his presence in Eandolph 
county, as may be seen from the following verbatim copies of a few of 
the first recorded marriage certificates : — 

State of Missouri, 
County of Randolph. 

This is to certify that the undersigned, one of the justices of the 
peace, within and for the county aforesaid, did solemnize matrimony 
between Dulin Wright and Nancy Riley, of the county and State 
aforesaid, on the 23d of January, 1829. 

Blandermin Smith, J. P. 

Be it remembered that I, James Ratlifi", did, on the 26th day of 
February, 1829, in the county of Randolph, solemnize the rites of 
matrimony between William Roland and Sindy Boswell. Given under 
my hand, this, the 8th day of April, 1829. 

James Ratliff, M. G. 

State of Missouri, ) 
County of Randolph, s 

This is to certify that the undersigned justice of the peace, with- 
in and for the county aforesaid, on the 2d day of May, 1829, sol- 
emnized matrimony between Benjamin Hardister and Jane Jackson, of 
the county and State aforesaid. 

Blandermin Smith, J. P. 

State of Missouri, ) 
County of Randolph. 5 

This is to certify that I did solemnize matrimony between Ebenezer 
Best and Catherine Wheldon, of the county and State aforesaid, on 
the 26th day of November, 1829. Blandermin Smith. J. P. 

State of Missouri, 
County of Randolph. 

This is to certify that, on the 2d day of October last, I solemnized 
the rite of matrimony between John Grooms and Ann Courtney. 
Given under my hand this 12th day of November, 1829. 

Samuel C. Davis. 
State of Missouri, > 
County of Randolph. 5 

I, George Burckhartt, justice of the peace, for the county afore- 
said, certify, that on the 16th day of December, 18'29, I solemnized 
the vows of matrimony between Stephen N. Gowen and Gennetta Brooks 
in the county aforesaid. Certified under my hand and seal, this 13th 
day of January, 1830. George Burckhartt, J. P 


I do certify that on the 25th day of December, 1829, I solemnized 
the ceremony of matrimony between William Phipp and Vinah Vestal, 
this 25th day of December, 1829. Given under my hand and seal. 

George W. Green, J. P. 

State of Missouri, 
County of Randolph. 

I do hereby certify, that on the 5th day of November, 1829, I 
joined together James Loe and Maria S. Hinde,as husband and wife. 

John Loe, J. P. 

State of Missouri, > 
County of Randolph. > 

I do hereby certify, that the rites of marriage w^ere legally sol- 
emnized between Alva Shoemaker and Sally Mullinick, this 29th day 
of November, 1829. Given under my hand this 24th day of March, 
1830. Arch. Shoemaker, J. P. 

In 1829, 14 marriage certificates were recorded. 
In 1883, 230 marriage licenses were recorded. 

last will and testament. 

The following was the first will that was recorded in Randolph 

In the name of God, amen. I, Isam Rials, of Randolph county, 
in the State of Missouri, being sick and weak in body, but of sound 
and disposing mind, memory and understanding, considering the cer- 
tainty of death, and the uncertainty of the time thereof, and being de- 
sirous to settle my worldly afiairs, and thereby be the better prepared 
to leave this world, when it will please God to call me hence — do, 
therefore, make and publish, this, my last will and testament in man- 
ner and form following — that is to say: first and principally, I com- 
mit my soul into the hands of Almighty God, and my body to the 
earth, to be decently buried at the discretion of my administrator, 
hereinafter named, after my debts are paid, and the death of my com- 
panion Martha, I devise and bequeath as follows : — 

I give and bequeath unto Joseph Rials, Polly Rials and Nancy 
Rials, my youngest children, all of the county of Randolph, Missouri, 
all the property that I am possessed of, both real and personal, to be 
equally divided among the three aforesaid heirs after my death, and the 
death of my wife, as hereinbefore named. And lastly I do hereby 
constitute and appoint my son, Joseph Rials, to be sole administrator 
of this my last will and testament, revoking and annulling all former 
wills by me heretofore made, ratifying and confirming this, and none 
other, to be my last will and testament. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand, and affixed my 
seal, this first day of July, in the year of our Lord, one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty- nine. , • ^ '"'^^^ ^ 

Isam X Rials. < seal > 
„ mark. ( ) 



There is perhaps nothing in all the written records of this, or any 
other State in the Union, among all the recorded acts of men, that 
reads so strangely as the following deed, the grantee being no less a 
person than God, the Supreme Being. 

This indenture made and entered into this sixth day of June, A. D. 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty, between Johnson Wright, and 
Eliza Jane his wife, of the county of Randolph, and the State of Mis- 
souri of the first part, and the government the chief administrator, 
King of Righteousness, the Sun, the Fountain of Life, to the Gen- 
eral Assembly and church of the first born, which are written in 
Heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men 
made perfect, and to Jesus, Mediator of the New Covenant, and to 
the blood of sprinkling that speaketh better things than that of Abel, 
because he died for us — being in the county of Randolph and State 
of Missouri, to wit : The following tracts of land — the south-west 
qr. of the N. W. qr., also the north half of the south-west quarter of 
section twenty-eight, township fifty-six, range fifteen, containing one 
hundred and twenty acres of land, to have and to hold and its appur- 
tenances thereunto, and everything wherein there is breath or life. 
The first party, their heirs and assigns, do warrant and defend the 
title of said land, unto the second party, which is the Sun of Life, free 
and clear from all other claims by or through us or any other persons. 

In testimony whereunto, we, Johnson Wright and Eliza Jane, have 
hereunto set our hands and seals the day and year above written. 

Johnson Wright, 
Eliza Jane Wright. 

The above instrument was acknowledged and may be found 
recorded in book '< H " of the circuit court office of Randolph county. 

PUBLIC buildings. 

Notwithstanding the fact that a large number, probably a majority 
of people in every county, have very little practical experience in 
courts, and although they have the legal capacity to sue and be sued, 
never improve their opportunities, and never appear in court, unless 
it be on compulsion as witnesses and jurors ; yet, as the one great 
conservator of peace, and as the final arbiter in case of individual or 


neighborhood disputes, the court is distinguished above and apart 
from all and every other institution in the land, and not only the pro- 
ceedings of the court, but the place of holdino- court, is a matter of 
interest to the average reader. 

Not only so, but in many counties the court-house was the first, 
and usually the only public building in the county. The first court- 
houses were not very ehiborate buildings, to be sure, but they are 
enshrined in memories that the present can never know. 

Their uses were general rather than special, and so constantly were 
they in use, day and night, when the court was in session, and when 
it was not in session, for judicial, educational, religious and social 
purposes, that the doors of the old court-houses, like the gates of 
gospel grace, stood open night and day ; and the small amount in- 
vested in these old hewn logs and rough benches returned a much 
better rate of interest on the investment than do those stately piles of 
brick or granite, which have taken their places. The memorable 
court-house of early times was a house adapted to a variety of pur- 
poses, and had a career of great usefulness. School was taught, the 
Gospel was preached, and justice dispensed within its substantial 
walls. Then it served frequently as a resting place for weary travel- 
ers. And, indeed, its doors always swung on easy hinges. If the 
old settlers are to be believed, all the old court-houses, when first 
erected in this Western country, often rang on the pioneer Sabbath 
with a more stirring eloquence than that which enlivens the pulpit of 
the present time. Many of the earliest ministers officiated in their 
walls, and if they could but speak, they would doubtless tell many a 
strange tale of pioneer religion that is now lost forever. 

To those old court-houses, ministers came of different faiths, but 
all eager to expound the simple truths of the sublime and beautiful 
religion, and point out for comparisons the thorny path of duty, and 
the primrose way of dalliance. Often have those old walls given back 
the echoes of those who have sung the songs of Zion, and many a 
weary wanderer has had his heart moved to repentance thereby, more 
strongly than ever, by the strains of homel}'^ eloquence. With Mon- 
day morning, the old building changed in character, and men went 
thither, seeking not the justice of God, but the mercy of man. The 
scales were held with an even hand. Those who presided knew every 
man in the county, and they dealt out substantial justice, and the 
broad principles of natural equity prevailed. Children went there to 
school, and sat at the feet of teachers who knew little more than 
themselves; but, however humble the teacher's acquirements, he was 


hailed as a wise man and a benefactor, and his lessons were heeded 
with attention. 

The old people of the settlement went there to discuss their own 
affairs, and learn from visiting attorneys the news from the great, 
busy world, so far away to the southward and eastward. In addition 
to the orderly assemblies which formerly gathered there, other meet- 
ings no less notable occurred. 

It was a sort of a forum, whither all classes of people went, for the 
purpose of loafing and gossiping and telling and hearing some new 
thing. As a general thing, the first court-house, after having served 
the purpose of its erection, and served that purpose well, is torn 
down and conveyed to the rear of some remote lot, and thereafter is 
made to serve the purpose of an obscure cow-stable on some dark alley. 

There is little of the romantic or poetic in the make up of Western 
society, and the old court-house, after the building of the new one, 
ceased to be regarded with reverence and awe. In a new country, 
where every energy of the people is necessarily employed in the prac- 
tical work of earning a living, and the always urgent and ever present 
question of bread and butter is up for solution, people cannot be ex- 
pected to devote much time to the poetic and ideal. It therefore fol- 
lows that nothino- was retained as a useless relic that could be turned 
to some utility ; but it is a shame that the people of modern times 
have such little reverence for the relics of former days. After these 
houses ceased to be available for business purposes they should have 
been preserved to have at least witnessed the semi-centennial of the 
county's history. It is sad, in their hurry to grow rich, so few even 
have a care for the work of their own hands. How many of the first 
settlers have preserved their first habitations? The sight of that 
humble cabin would be a source of much consolation in old age, as it 
reminded the owner of the trials and triumphs of other times, and its 
presence would go far toward reconciling the coming generation with 
their lot, when comparing its lowly appearance with the modern resi- 
dence whose extensive apartments are beginning to be too unpreten- 
tious for the enterprising and irrepressible " Young Americans." 


The contract for building the first court-house was let on the 13th 
of June, 1831, and the building was completed some time in the fall 
of the next year. It was a brick structure, two stories high, built in 
a square form, one room below used as the court-room and three above 


used as jury rooms. One of those small rooms was for a number of 
years used as a Masonic hall, and it was there that the first Masonic 
meeting in Huntsville was held. Many of the old citizens will remem- 
ber this old building as the scene of the greatest religious revival ever 
held in the county. This was in August, 1839, and the meeting was 
conducted by the distinguished and lamented A. P. Williams, in the 
immediate interest of the Baptist brotherhood, and continued about 
three weeks. The interest was intense, and a deep religious sentiment 
was then awakened that needs but a mere mention of the event now 
to thrill the pulses of those who were present. Crowds of people 
were here from all parts of the county, as well as from adjoining 
counties, and groups of praying believers and penitents could be seen 
in the groves contiguous to the town, making the air vocal with their 
songs and prayers. This building cost $2,400, and when it was con- 
demned and torn down in the winter of '58 or the spring of '59, the 
brick were purchased by the members of the Christian congregation 
in this place, and now do good service in their church building. They 
were honest men in those days, and made good brick. 


The second court-house was completed in 1860, by Henry Austin, 
who was the contractor. The building was a two-story brick, and 
cost $15,000. It was burned August 12, 1882. Steps were immedi- 
ately taken to build another and a 


which was commenced during the fall of 1883 and finished in April, 
1884. J. M. Hammett, W. T. Rutherford, E. P. Kerby, John N. 
Taylor, G. W. Taylor and R. E. Lewis were the contractors, and 
James McGrath, of St. Louis, was the architect. The building is a 
two-story brick, contains eleven rooms, and cost about $35,000. It 
is surmounted with a dome of symmetrical proportions, which is seen 
for many miles in almost every direction from Huntsville. This dome 
contains a town clock, whose intonations can be heard distinctly within 
the corporate limits of the city. 


In this connection and at this place we shall briefly refer to a ques- 
tion which has caused, as it always does, much bitterness of feeling — 
we mean the county-seat question — and shall simply give the vote of 


the county at the two different elections which have been held to test 
the sense of the people in reference thereto. The city of Moberly 
was the rival claimant for the county seat against Huntsville, the 
former and present seat of justice. 

The first contest upon the question of removal occurred in 1876, 
with the following result; For removal, 2,453; against removal, 
2,271. The second and last contest took place in 1882, with the fol- 
lowing result: For removal, 3,481 ; against removal, 3,068. 

It required a two-thirds vote to remove the county seat. 

The second jail was erected in 1865, but was considered unsafe and 
torn down in 1871, the material being used in part for the construc- 
tion of the present jail, which is built of brick and stone. The front 
portion of the jail is brick, and is the residence of the jailer. 


The county poor farm is situated on the west half of the south-west 
quarter of section 31, township 54, range 14, and was purchased in 
March, 1878, from John H. Austin, for $2,000. The poor farm 
building is made of brick, and that, with outbuildings, afford room 
for about fifty paupers. 

[Note. — The Blandermiu Smith, referred to in this chapter, served for many years 
as justice of the peace, and was quite eccentric, but was a great stickler for justice, 
and was upright and honorable in all his dealings, and wanted everyone else to be so. 
Whenever a man was brought before hira, or had a case in his court, and he became 
satisfied that he was attempting to defraud, or take advantage of any technicality of 
the law, or evade the payment of his just debts, Uncle Blandy, as he was familiarly 
called, would show him no quarter; and many funny anecdotes are told in regard to 
his rulings and decisions. Among the many, it is told of him, and vouched for by 
living witnesses at the present day, that a tailor sued a dandy for the making of a 
eoat. The plea was put up by the defendant that the coat did not fit, and the cloth 
was spoiled; consequently he would not pay for it. The tailor proved the making of 
the coat, and the price charged was customary and usual. The defendant had several 
witnesses ready to prove that the coat did not fit, and was ruined. But Blandy did 
not wish, nor would he hear, any evidence in the matter; but had the coat sent for, 
requested the defendant to put it on, which he did, and after a careful examination of 
the man with his coat on, Blandy pronounced that it fit as well as some and not ae 
well as others, but upon the whole he thought it would answer his purpose very well. 
Therefore he gave judgment for the plaintiff for amount claimed and costs. The de- 
fendant and his attorney, of course, were very indignant at this summary way of deal- 
ing, and asked for an appeal ; but Uncle Blandy informed them that he granted no 
appeal in such plain cases, and would not yield. Consequently the defendant had to 
foot the bill. Many similar cases are told of this old gentleman. He aimed to decide 
cases by justice and hard common sense, and generally, it is said, made them pretty 
correct. — Publishers.] 



Original and Present Townships — County and Township Systems — Government 
Surveys — Organization of Townships — Physical Features. 


The county was originally divided into four townships, to wit : 
Silver Creek, Prairie, Salt River, and Sugar Creek. The townships 
of Chariton, Clifton, Salt Spring, Jackson, Cairo, Union and Moni- 
teau have since been added, making eleven municipal townships. 
Prairie is the largest, and occupies the south-eastern portion of the 
county. Jackson and Union are the smallest. 

Before proceeding any further, we deem it proper, since we are 
about to enter upon the history of the townships, to give some expla- 
nations of the county and township sj^stems and government surveys, 
as much depends in business and civil transactions upon county limits 
and county organizations. 


With regard to the origin of dividing individual States into county 
and township organizations, which, in an important measure, should 
have the power and opportunity of transacting their own business and 
governing themselves, under the approval of, and subject to, the 
State and general government, of which they both form a part, we 
quote from Elijah M. Haines, who is considered good authority on the 

In his *' Laws of Illinois, Relative to Township Organizations," 
he says : — 

" The county system originated with Virginia, whose early settlers 
soon became large landed proprietors, aristocratic in feeling, living 
apart in almost baronial magnificence, on their own estates, and own- 
ing the laboring part of the population. Thus the materials for a 
town were not at hand, the voters being thinly distributed over a 
great area. 



*«The county organization, where a few influential men managed 
the wholesale business of a community, retaining their places almost 
at their pleasure, scarcely responsible at all, except in name, and per- 
mitted to conduct the county concerns as their ideas or wishes might 
direct, Avas moreover consonant with their recollections or traditions 
of the judicial and social dignities of the landed aristocracy of Eng- 
land, in descent from whom the Virginia gentlemen felt so much 
pride. In 1834 eight counties were organized in Virginia, and the 
system extending throughout the State, spread into all the Southern 
States and some of the Northern States ; unless we except the nearly 
similar division into ' districts ' in South Carolina, and that into 
< parishes ' in Louisiana, from the French laws. 

" Illinois, which, with its vast additional territory, became a county 
of Virginia, on its conquest by Gen. George Rogers Clark, retained 
the county organization, which was formerly extended over the State 
by the constitution of 1818, and continued in exclusive use until 
the constitution of 1848. Under this system, as in other States 
adopting it, much local business was transacted by the commission- 
ers in each county, who constituted a county court, with quarterly 

"During the period ending Avith the constitution of 1847, a large 
portion of the State had become filled up with a population of New 
England birth or character, daily growing more and more compact 
and dissatisfied with the comparatively arbitrary and inefficient county 
system. It was maintained by the people that the heavily populated 
districts would always control the election of the commissioners to 
the disadvantage of the more thinly populated sections — in short, 
that under that system 'equal and exact justice ' to all parts of the 
county could not be secured. 

"The township system had its origin in Massachusetts, and dates 
back to 1635. 

"The first legal enactment concerning the system provided that, 
whereas, ' particular townships have many things which concern only 
themselves and the ordering of their own afiiiirs, and disposing of 
business in their own town,' therefore the ' freemen of every town- 
ship, or a majority part of them, shall only have power to dispose of 
their own lands and woods, with all the appurtenances of said town, 
to grant lots, and to make such orders as may concern the well order- 
ino- of their own towns, not repugnant to the laws and orders estab- 
lished by the general court.' 


" They might also," says Mr. Haines, *' impose fines of not more 
than twenty shillings, and ' choose their own particular officers, as 
constables, surveyors for the highway, and the like.' 

" Evidently this enactment relieved the general court of a mass of 
municipal details without any danger to the power of that body in 
controlling general measures of public policy. 

'* Probably, also, a demand from the freemen of the towns was felt 
for the control of their own home concerns. 

" The New England colonies were first governed by a general court 
or Legislature, composed of a Governor and a small council, which 
court consisted of the most influential inhabitants, and possessed and 
exercised both legislative and judicial powers, which were limited 
only by the wisdom of the holders. 

" They made laws, ordered their execution by officers, tried and 
decided civil and criminal causes, enacted all manner of municipal 
regulations, and, in fact, did all the public business of the colony." 

Similar provisions for the incorporation of towns were made in the 
first constitution in Connecticut, adopted in 1639, and the plan of 
township organization, as experience proved its remarkable economy, 
efficiency and adaptation to the requirements of a free and intelligent 
people, became universal throughout New England, and went west- 
ward with the immigrants from New England, into New York, Ohio, 
and other Western States. 

Thus we find that the valuable system of county, township and 
town organizations had been thoroughly tried and proven long before 
there was need of adopting it in Missouri, or any of the broad region 
west of the Mississippi river. But as the new country began to be 
opened, and as Eastern people began to move westward across the 
mighty river, and formed thick settlements along its western bank, 
the Territory and State, and county and township organizations soon 
followed in quick succession, and those different systems became more 
or less improved, according as deemed necessary by the experience 
and judgment and demands of the people, until they have arrived at 
the present stage of advancement and efficiency. In the settlement 
of the Territory of Missouri, the Legislature began by organizing 
counties on the Mississippi river. As each new county was formed, 
it was made to include under legal jurisdiction all the country bor- 
dering west of it, and required to grant to the actual settlers electoral 
privileges and an equal share of the county government with those 
who properly lived in the geographical limits of the county. 


The counties first organized along the eastern borders of the State 
were oriven for a short time iurisdiction over the lands and settlements 
adjoining each on the west, until these localities became sufficiently 
settled to support organizations of their own. 


No person can intelligently understand the history of a country 
without at the same time knowing its geography, and in order that 
a clear and correct idea of the geography of Randolph county may be 
obtained from the language already used in defining different localities 
and pieces of land, we insert herewith the plan of government surveys 
as given in Mr. E. A. Hickman's property map of Jackson county, 
Missouri : — 

<' Previous to the formation of our present government, the eastern 
portion of North America consisted of a number of British colonies, 
the territory of which was granted in large tracts to British noblemen. 
By treaty of 1783, these grants were acknowledged as valid by the 
colonies. After the Revolutionary War, when these colonies were 
acknowledged independent States, all public domain within their 
boundaries was acknowledged to be the property of the colony within 
the bounds of which said domain was situated. 

" Virginia claimed all the north-western territory, including what is 
now known as Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana and 
Illinois. After a meeting of the representatives of the various States 
to form a Union, Virginia ceded the north-west territory to the United 
States government. This took place in 1784 ; then all this north- 
west territory became government land. It comprised all south of 
the lakes and east of the Mississippi river and north and west of the 
States having definite boundary lines. This territory had been known 
as New France, and had been ceded by France to England in 1768. 
In the year 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte sold to the United States all 
territory west of the Mississippi river and north of Mexico, extending 
to the Rocky mountains. 

" While the public domain was the property of the colonies, it was 
<lisposed of as follows : Each individual caused the tract he desired 
to purchase to be surveyed and platted. A copy of the survey was 
then filed with the registrar of lauds, when, by paying into the State 
or Colonial treasury an agreed price, the purchaser received a patent 
for the land. This method of disposing of public lands made law 


suits numerous, owing to different surveys often including the same 
ground. To avoid the difficulties and effect a g-eneral measurement 
of the territories, the United States adopted the present mode or 
system of land surveys, a description of which we give as follows : — 

♦' In an unsurveyed region, a point of marked and changeless topo- 
graphical features is selected as an initial point. The exact latitude 
and longitude of this point is ascertained by astronomical observation, 
and a suitable monument of iron or stone, to perpetuate the position, 
is thus reared. Through this point a true north and south line is run, 
which is called a principal mei'idian. This principal meridian may 
be extended north and south any desired distance. Along this line 
are placed, at distances of one-half mile from each other, posts of 
wood or stone or mounds of earth. These posts are said to establish 
the line, and are called section and quarter-section posts. Principal 
meridians are numbered in the order in which they are established. 
Through the same initial point from which the principal meridian was 
surveyed, another line is now run and established by mile and half- 
mile posts, as before, in a true east and west direction. This line is 
called the base line, and like the principal meridian, may be extended 
indefinitely in either direction. These lines form the basis of the 
survey of the country into townships and ranges. Township lines 
extend east and west, parallel with the base line, at distances of six 
miles from the base line and from each other, dividing the country 
into strips six miles wide, which strips are called townships. Range 
lines run north and south, parallel to the principal meridian, dividing 
the country into strips six miles wide, which strips are called ranges. 
Township strips are numbered from the base line, and range strips 
are numbered from the principal meridian. Townships lying north 
of the base line are ' townships north ; ' those on the south are 'town- 
ships south.' The strip lying next the base line is township one, the 
next one to that, tpwnship two, and so on. The range strips are num- 
bered in the same manner, counting from the principal meridian east 
or west, as the case may be. 

" The township and range lines thus divide the country into six- 
mile squares. Each of these squares is called a congressional town- 
ship. All north and south lines north of the equator approach each 
other as they extend north, finally meeting at the north pole ; there- 
fore north and south lines are not literally parallel. The east and 
west boundary lines of any range being six miles apart in the latitude 
of Missouri and Kansas, would, in thirty miles, approach each other 



at 2.9 chains, or 190 feet. If, therefore, the width of the range when 
started from the base line is made exactly six miles, it would be 2.9 
chains too narrow at the distance of thirty miles, or five townships 
north. To correct the width of ranges and keep them to the proper 
width, the range lines are not surveyed in a continuous straight line, 
like the principal meridian, entirely across the State, but only across 
a limited number of townships, usually five, where the width of the 
range ia. corrected by beginning a new line on the side of the range 
most distant from the principal meridian, at such a point as will make 
the range its correct width. All range lines are corrected in the same 
manner. The east and west township lines on which these correc- 
tions are made are called correction lines, or standard parallels. The 
surveys of the State of Missouri were made from the fifth principal 
meridian, which runs throughout the State, and its ranges are num- 
bered from it. The State of Kansas is surveyed and numbered from 
the sixth. Congressional townships are divided into thirty-six square 
miles, called sections, and are known by numbers according to their 
position. The following diagram shows the order of numbers and the 
sections in congressional townships : — 















*' Sections are divided into quarters, eighths and sixteenths, and are 
described by their position in the section. The full section contains 
640 acres, the quarter 160, the eighth 80, and the sixteenth 40 In 
the following diagram of a section, the position designated by a is 



known as the north-west quarter ; i is the north-east quarter of the 
north-east quarter ; d would be the south half of the south-east quar- 
ter, and would contain 80 acres. 

J Sec. post. 

Sec. post. 

"h i 

160 acres 

/ g 

Sec. post. 




Sec. post. 


i Sec. post. 

,Sec. post. 

4 Sec. post. 

" Congressional townships, as we have seen, are six-mile squares of 
land, made by the township and range lines, while civil or municipal 
townships are civil divisions, made for purposes of government, the 
one having no reference to the other, though similar in name. On 
the county map we see both kinds of townships — the congressional 
usually designated by numbers and in squares ; the municipal or civil 
township by name and in various forms. 

" By the measurement thus made by the government the courses 
and distances are defined between any two points. St. Louis is in 
township 44 north, range 8 east, and Independence is in township 49 
north, range 32 west; how far, then, are Kansas City and St. Louis 
apart on a direct line? St. Louis is 40 townships east — 240 
miles — and 5 townships south — 30 miles ; the base and perpendicu- 
lar of a right-angled triangle, the hypothenuse being the required 


The " township," as the term is used in common phraseology, in 
many instances is widely distinguished from that of " town," though 
many persons persist in confounding the two. " In the United States 
many of the States are divided into townships of five, six, seven, or 
perhaps ten miles square, and the inhabitants of such townships are 
vested with certain powers for regulating their own affairs, such as 
repairing roads and providing for the poor. The township is subor- 
dinate to the county." A *' town " is simply a collection of houses, 
either large or small, and opposed to " country." 

The most important features connected with this system of town- 
ship surveys should be thoroughly understood by every intelligent 
farmer and business man ; still there are some points connected with 


the understanding of it, which need close and careful attention. The 
law which established this system required that the north and south 
lines should correspond exactly with the meridian passing through 
that point ; also, that each township should be six miles square. To 
do this would be an utter impossibility, since the figure of the earth 
causes the meridians to converge toward the pole, making the north 
line to each township shorter than the south line of the same town- 
ship. To obviate the errors which are, on this account, constantly 
occurring, correction lines are established. They are parallels bound- 
ing a line of townships on the north, when lying north of the principal 
base from which the surveys, as they are continued, are laid out anew ; 
the range lines again starting at correct distances from the principal 
meridian. In Michigan these correction lines are repeated at the end 
of every tenth township, but in Oregon they have been repeated with 
every fifth township. The instructions to the surveyors have been 
that each range of townships should be made as much over six miles 
in width where it closes on to the next correction line north ; and it is 
further provided that in all cases where the exterior lines of the town- 
ships shall exceed, or shall not extend, six miles, the excess of defi- 
ciency shall be specially noted, or added to or deducted from the 
western or northern sections or half sections in such township, accord- 
ing as the error may be in running the lines from east to west, or 
from south to north. In order to throw the excess of deficiencies on 
the north and on the west sides of the township, it is necessary to 
survey the section lines from south to north, on a true meridian, leav- 
ing the result in the north line of the township to be governed by the 
convexity of the earth and the convergency of the meridians. 

Navigable rivers, lakes and islands are " meandered" or surveyed 
by the comjjass and chain along the banks. " The instruments em- 
ployed on these surveys, besides the solar compass, are a surveying 
chain 33 feet long, of 50 links, and another of smaller wire, as a 
standard to be used for correctins^ the former as often at least as 
every other day, also 11 tally pins, made of steel, telescope, tar- 
gets, tape-measure and tools for marking the lines upon trees or 
stones. In surveying through woods, trees intercepted by the line 
are marked with two chips or notches, one on each side ; these are 
called sight or line trees. Sometimes other trees in the vicinity are 
blazed on two sides quartering toward the line ; but if some distance 
from the line, the two blazes should be near together on the side facins: 
the line. These are found to be permanent marks, not wholly recog- 
nizable for many years, but carrying with them their old age by the 


rings of growth around the bh\ze, which may at any subsequent time 
be cut out and counted as years ; and the same are recognized in 
courts of law as evidence of the date of survey. They cannot be 
obliterated by cutting down the trees or otherwise without leaving 
evidence of the act. Corners are marked upon trees if found at the 
right spot, or else upon posts set in the ground, and sometimes a mon- 
ument of stones is used for a township corner, and a single stone for 
a section corner ; mounds of earth are made when there are no stones 
nor timber. The corners of the four adjacent sections are designated 
by distinct marks cut into a tree, one in each section. These trees, 
facing the corner, are plainly marked with the letters B. T. (bearing 
tree) cut into the wood. Notches cut upon the corner posts or trees 
indicate the number of miles to the outlines of the township, or, if on 
the boundaries of the township, to the township corners. 


Kandolph county is situated in the north-east central part of the State 
and is bounded on the north by Macon and Shelby, on the east by 
Monroe and Audrain, on the south by Howard and Boone counties, and 
on the west by Chariton county. Itcontains 307,677 acres. The Grand 
Divide between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers passes in a north- 
ern direction through the eastern part of the county, leaving more 
than one-fourth on the east drained by streams running to the Missis- 
sippi, while on the west the streams flow into the Missouri . The slopes 
east of this divide and near the prairie are gentle, but as the streams 
enlarge, the hills are larger also. In the west, along Silver creek, the 
county is quite hilly. Between the Chariton and Sweet Spring, in the 
west, the land is rolling and undulating. The slopes adjacent to Dark 
and Muncus creeks are gentle, becoming more hilly near the Middle 
fork of the Chariton. In the northern part of the county, between the 
East and Middle forks, the country is undulating. Near the East 
fork, Walnut and Sugar creek, it is quite hilly. The prairie east of 
the Grand Divide, with the timber skirting it, composes about one-third 
of the county, and is finely adapted to farming, stock raising and 
general agricultural pursuits. The western part of the county is 
mostly timbered land, interspersed, however, with rich prairie, and is 
of superior productive qualities. The timber is principally elm, cotton- 
wood, shell-bark hickory, linden and burr, swamp, red, white and 
black oak, sycamore, blackberry, birch, sugar and white maple. There 
are some large bodies of very rich land in different portions of the 


county. The bottoms of the East and Middle forks of the Grand 
Chariton and Sweet Spring creel^s are very flat, but have generally 
been sufficiently drained to be cultivated, and are very productive. 

There are several prairies in the county which contain very superior 
land for agricultural purposes. The creek bottoms are wonderfully 
rich, and where not too flat, or being flat have been drained, they pro- 
duce remarkable crops of the cereals and grasses. About one-half of 
the county is prairie. The physical features of Randolph will be more 
clearly set forth in the descriptions of the various townships. It is 
sufficient here to say that the county is rich in the productive energy 
that characterizes the soil of Central Missouri. 



Cairo Township — Old Settlers — Cairo — Its History — Secret Orders — Business 
Directory — Clifton Township — Stock Report for 1880 — Early Settlers — A Few of 
their Trials — Mills — Churches — Clifton Hill — Secret Orders — Business Direc- 


This township lies in the second tier of townships from the northern 
boundary of RandoIiDh, and in the central north-east part of the county. 
It contains an area of 21,920 acres, or a fraction over 34 square miles. 
The "Grand Divide " runs in a north-westerly direction through it, 
separating it into two nearly equal parts. Its territory was formerly 
a part of Sugar Creek township. ' 

The soil is a rich black loam, overlaying a substratum of stiff clay 
that, when exposed to the influences of rain and sunshine, snow and 
frost, not only becomes friable and arable, but imparts a peculiar pro- 
ductive energy to the soil and is admirably adapted to the cultivation 
of certain crops. Hence, the meadows and grass fields that have been 
deeply stirred are among the best in the State, and the township is 
noted for the rich and nutritive quality of its grasses. The cereals, 
also, are cultivated with great success, and with proper care give back 
a liberal return. The other products of the soil are such as are com- 
mon to the county, though tobacco is cultivated with great profit — 
the yield large, the quality good, and the labor necessary to its 
production unusually easy. 

About two-thirds of the territory is a high rolling prairie. There 
is, however, more than sufficient timber for all the needs of the farm. 
Indeed, timber is little used, the Osage orange being extensively used 
for enclosing fields and pastures, and coal, of which there is abundance, 
being used for fuel. About three-fourths of the land is enclosed and 
under cultivation. The improvements are of excellent quality, and 
are annually becoming better as the farmers prosper. 

As the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad (north end) follows 
the divide and runs through the township, even the farmers who reside 

4 (135) 


in the most remote parts of it are not more than six miles from a 
depot. It therefore has good shipping facilities, and, with its other 
advantages, becomes an attractive region for settlers. 

The East fork of Chariton river and Walnut creek on the west 
side, and Mud creek, Elk fork and Flat creek on the east, afford plenty 
and never failing water for all the operations of the farm. 

One of the most profitable industries of the township is sheep cul- 
ture. There are more sheep in Cairo, in proportion to area, than in 
any other township in the county. New and improved breeds have been 
introduced, and great care is taken to choose those best adapted to 
the country, and yielding the largest amount of wool. The annual 
wool clip is large and rapidly increasing. The yearly sheep-shearing 
at Cairo is a season of festivity, and attended by many farmers and 
their wives of the surrounding country. It is conducted under the 
auspices of the Cairo Sheep Breeders' and Wool Growers' Association, 
and attracts the best sheep and fleeces of the country. The wool 
finds ready sale at Cairo, the only town in the township, at good 

Other live stock is raised for sale and exportation, and the amount 
shipped to foreign markets of cattle, sheep, hogs, horses and mules, 
is very large, returning a handsome income to the farmers. 

They have in the township eight well furnished and finished school 
houses, and four or five churches, one Old School Baptist, one Meth- 
odist church, one Cumberland Presbyterian and one Union. The av- 
erage yield of farm products per acre is as follows : Corn, 30 bushels 
average, extra, 60 bushels ; oats, 35 bushels average, extra, 50 bushels ; 
hay, one and a half tons, extra, two tons ; tobacco, average 1,000 


Among the early settlers in Cairo township were Leonard Dodson, 
from Kentucky ; Andrew Goodding, fr'om Kentucky ; Samuel Martin, 
from' Kentucky ; Col. Robert Boucher, from Kentucky ; Isaac Baker, 
from Kentucky ; Benj. Huntsman, from Kentucky ; Daniel McKinney, 
from Kentucky ; James Cochran, from Kentucky ; William King, from 
Kentucky ; James T. Boney, from North Carolina ; Benjamin Dam- 
eron, from North Carolina ; W. S. Dameron, from North Carolina; 
Judge Joseph Goodding, from Kentucky. 

Judge Joseph Goodding is said to have been the firsts ettler in 
the township. He emigrated to Howard county, Mo., from Ken- 
tucky, in 1818, and in 1823 located in Cairo township. He was a 


prominent citizen, and filled the office of county judge three or four 

W. S. Dameron came to the township in 1841, from Huntsville, 
Mo., and has lived in Randolph county 52 years. He was born in 
North Carolina, October 29th, 1824. 


This town, of 250 population, was located in 1860, on the North 
division of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway, eight miles 
from Huntsville, and seven miles north of Moberly, and 152 miles 
north-west of St. Louis. The town site originally comprised 40 acres, 
owned by W. S. Dameron, who donated five acres for depot pur- 
poses. The remaining 35 acres were laid out in lots, all of which 
have since been sold. The new town was at first called Fairview, but 
there being another town of the same name, it was changed to Cairo, 
at the sugujestion of Thomas Dameron* The latter name was not 
liked by some of the citizens, from the fact that goods purchased 
by Cairo merchants were occasionally shipped to Cairo, 111. The 
town, however, has retained the name of Cairo. P. G. McDaniel, 
from Kentucky, erected the first store building in the town ; Thomas 
Dameron, the first dwelling house, located east of the railroad. J. 
C. Tedford was the pioneer physician. Abner Landram was the first 
blacksmith, and Thomas Carter was the first shoemaker. B. R. 
Boucher taught the first school. The Methodists (M. E. Church 
South) erected the first church edifice. Thomas Dameron was the 
first postmaster, and wrote the first mail matter that was sent from 
the town. 


Lodge No. 486, A. F. and A. M. — Was organized October 15, 
1874, with the following charter members : W. M. Baker, J. A. Han- 
nah, Isaac H. Newton, W. L. Newton, W. G. Griffin, R. H. Mat- 
thews, H. Huntsman, John Hoggs, C. E. Llewellyn. 

Lodge No. 362, I. 0. 0. F. — Organized in October, 1876. The 
charter members were Thomas Lisk, J. W. Carver, J. W. Boatman, 
J. F. Newton, Joseph Wiggington, Wm. Wilson, R. P. Rice. 

Lodge No. 255, A. O. U. W. — This lodge was formed November 
26th, 1882, with the following charter members : Dr. J. G. Wilson, 
J. W. Baker, W. P. Henson, James G. Griffin, R. H. Matthews, 
Samuel Lowe, D. W. Newton, F. E. Hayues, T. L. Day, E. S. Day, 
S. M. Holbrook. 



Two general stores, two blacksmiths, one drug store, one hardware 
store, one lumber yard, one hotel, one shoemaker, one saw mill, and 
one wood-working shop are located in this place. 


This association was organized in February, 1876, with the follow- 
ing members: D. O. Frayer, J. W. Boney, I. H. Newton, James 
A. Newton, J. W. Huston, John S. Bennett, Hon. Walker Wright, 
A. Smith, F. G. Johnstone, F. E. Haynes, William Haynes, B. C. 
Turner, John Hogg, V. Rollins, J. D. Dameron, D. B. Boucher, B. 
R. Boucher, Judge J. F. Hannah, J. D. Peeler, W. L. Landram, 
John T. Halliburton, John Huntsman, W. L. Reynolds. 

The officers are: W. M. Baker, president; J. D. Dameron, vice- 
president; F. E. Haynes, secretary; John Hogg, treasurer; I. 
Hamp. Newton, corresponding secretary. 

There has been a public shearing every spring since the association 
was organized, and at these shearings all kinds of stock are exhibited. 


Clifton is the middle township on the western border of Randolph 
county. It is five miles in width from east to west, its greatest length 
from north to south being seven and a half miles, giving an area of 
about 321/2 square miles. It is watered by the Middle and East fork 
of the Chariton, Muncus and Dark creeks, the slopes are gentle and 
the land lies in beautiful waves. Towards the southern and western 
parts of the township the hills become more abrupt, and in the vicin- 
ity of East fork, on the south, and the Middle fork, on the west, it 
is broken and somewhat ragged. This is one of the best farming sec- 
tions of the county. The soil is deep and rich, affording such a vari- 
ety, that, with care in selection of position, almost any crop may be 
developed in perfection. About one-third of the township is prairie, 
the balance timber. Nearly all the prairie land is enclosed in farms 
and pastures. Two-thirds of the entire township is in cultivation ; 
but there are large tracts yet to be brought under subjection to the 
plow, which may be opened into farms that will hereafter be very 

The Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad passes through the 
southern part of the township, and no point in it is distant more than 



seven miles from that road. This gives a convenient outlet to all the 
products of the farm, and easy shipping of live stock for the eastern 

The farmers of this section are introducing improved farm imple- 
ments and machinery, and with new methods of cultivation they are 
reaping beneficial results. The ordinary crops are raised, including 
tobacco, and in this township the latter article proves to be not only 
of superior quality but a very remunerative crop. It is probably the 
banner tobacco township of the county in proportion to area, and cap- 
italists have not been slow to turn this fact to account, by establishing 
factories for prising and shipping this staple. 

All the field crops yield heavy harvests. Corn will yield 8 to 12 
barrels or 40 to 60 bushels to the acre ; wheat, 15 to 25 bushels ; 
oats, 40 to 50 bushels; hay, 1 to 2 tons ; tobacco, 1,000 to 1,500 
pounds. Besides this, rye and barley, when sown, blue grass spon- 
taneously, and clover when cultivated give back rich crops to the agri- 
culturist. Live stock is reared at very light cost and farm products 
are secured with less labor than is often bestowed in other sections of 
the country in obtaining one-half the result. 

There are six schools in the township, which are provided with neat 
and comfortable houses, some of them with maps, charts, etc., and 
all of them, during school months, with good practical teachers. The 
schools are continued four to eight months during the year ; there 
are four churches, three Christian and one Missionary Baptist, which is 
used as well by the Old School Baptists and Methodists, two grist and 
saw mills and two tobacco factories. 

Below is the stock report for Clifton for 1880 : — 





A. Bradsher . 



C. P. Summers & Co. . 



D. J. Stamper 



W. H. Summers . 



James M. Lea 



J. F. Fidler . 



W. B. McCrary . 



Richard Fidler 



T. B. Stamper 



J. K. McLean 



J. E. Stamper 



J. W. Graves 






Of course, it is not expected that we will, or can give, the names of 
all the early settlers of Clifton township, or of any other township in 
the county. This would, at the present time, be simply impossible, 
as more than half a century has intervened since the pioneers began 
to make their settlements, and no record of that date has been made 


or preserved. We should be glad to record the names of all the men 
who braved the dangers and difficulties of pioneer times, and present 
a brief sketch of their lives, together with a few of their prominent 
characteristics. But time and space would preclude us from entering 
into details, which would doubtless prove to be of so much interest to 
the reader, and consequently we must content ourselves with the 
names of such of the pioneers as we have been enabled to secure. 

Among the older States we fiud that Kentucky is more largely rep- 
resented in the early settlement of this township than any other. In 
fact, that grand old State has contributed possibly more to the settle- 
ment of this entire region, including the Boone's Lick country, than any 
other two combined. Her sons and her daughters have ever been in 
the front ranks of civilization, and wherever they located, lived and 
died, there may be found even to this day, among the present genera- 
tion, many of the traits of character which they possessed. 

Joseph Baker, from Kentucky ; Charles Baker, from Kentucky ; 
Noah C. Baker, from Kentucky ; David Harris, from Kentucky ; 
David Proffit, from Kentucky, Sadie Baker, from Kentucky ; Wra. 
Titus, from Kentucky ; Russell Shoemaker, from Kentucky ; Levi 
Fox, from Tennessee ; Samuel G. Johnson, from Tennessee; Joseph 
Harris, from Kentucky ; Noah C. Harris, from Kentucky ; James 
Holman, from Kentucky; Hiram Stamper, from Kentucky; John C. 
Turner, from Kentucky ; Augustine Bradsher, from Kentucky ; Capt. 
N. G. Matlock, from Kentucky ; J. M. Summers, from Kentucky ; T. 
J. Summers, from Kentucky ; Judge D. J. Stamper, from Kentucky ; 
James Ferguson, from Kentucky; A. G. Rucker, from Kentucky ; 
David Bozarth, from Kentucky ; F. H. Hackley, from Kentucky ; David 
Milan, from Kentucky; W. H. Ball, from Kentucky; W. B. Crutch- 
field, from Kentucky; J. M. Creighton, from Kentucky; W. B. Mc- 
Creary, from Kentucky ; J. M. Patton, from Kentucky ; E. Greer, 
from Kentucky ; Thomas Williams, from Kentucky ; J. H. Wayland, 
from Kentucky. 

Samuel G. Johnson,^ who is now the oldest settler living in the 
township, in speaking of the events of 50 years ago, said : "I came 
to the township October 16, 1833, from Wilson county, Tennes- 
see. We all lived in log cabins. My cabin had a board roof, which 
was weighted down with poles. When there was a snow storm the 
snow would drift through the roof, and after the storm was over, the 
snow would be almost as deep on the inside of the cabin as on the out- 

1 Born ia 1807. 


Side, the beds being covered like the floor. I have awaked many a 
mornino- with my head and neck covered with snow, and after mak- 
ing a fire had to clear away the snow from around the fire, so my wife 
and children could get up to it and warm. , ^, , . 

'' The floor of my cabin consisted of loose planks, sawed by hand. 
The bedsteads were made of small logs, with poles put across and 

boards laid on them." 

Such was the primitive method of living, not only of Mr. Johnson, 
but of many of his neighbors, and yet there were compensations and 
pleasures which were experienced by these pioneers, that are wholly 
unknown to the people of to-day. The forests abounded with game, 
most rich and rare, and all the streams teemed with the most delicious 
and delicate varieties of the finny race. Here were found': — 

«' The bright-eyed perch, with fins of various dye; 
The silver eel, in shining volumes rolled ; 
The yellow carp, in scales bedropt with gold ; 
Swift trouts, diversified with crimson stains, 
And pikes, the tyrants of the watery plains." 

The first mill that was erected in Mr. Johnson's neighborhood, or 
in that section of the county, was built by Ezekiel Richardson, m 
1824, on the Middle fork of the Chariton river. Richardson resided 
in Chariton county, and sold the mill to Levi Fox. 

The first religious services were held at Joseph Baker's house, but 
were afterwards held at Ezekiel Richardson's cabin, about the year 
1828, where they were continued until 1834, when Mr. Johnson's 
cabin was used as a house of worship. After a period of four or five 
years, a small house, known as Johnson's school house, was erected, 
which served the purposes of a church and school. Here met these 
humble Christian worshipers until 1846, when a larger and more 
costly building was constructed and called Providence church. This 
edifice, although not a very stately and magnificent one, was some- 
thino- of an architectural wonder, as it contained 12 corners. The 
services above mentioned were conducted by the Methodists, who also 
erected Providence church. Among the early ministers of the gospel 
was Rev. John Shores, a Methodist. 


is the only town in the township, and was laid out in 1866, on the 
south-east quarter of the north-east quarter of section 35, township 
54, range 16, and was named after David Clifton, who came from 


Owen county, Kentucky, about the year 1850, and was the owner of 
the town site. 

William Holman erected the first house that was built in the town. 
The first hotel was opened by Julius Rogers. Dr. J. J. Watts was the 
first physician to practice in the town. Dr. E. F. Wilson was the first 
resident physician. The first school was taught by Ansel Richard- 
son, from Virginia. William Wagner and James Maddox were the 
first shoemakers, and W. M. Roberts and Cyrus Clifton were the pio- 
neer blacksmiths. 


P. S. Baker, drugs and post-master; J. B. Lambeth, general mer- 
chandise ; J. J. Grouss, general merchandise; N. Wiseman & Bro., 
general merchandise ; J. M. Fidler, shoemaker ;, J. F. Rogers, hotel ; 
T. A. Morgan, boarding-house. 

The town contains a Baptist church and a free school ; it also has 
railroad and telegraph facilities, a daily mail, and has a population of 
about 150. 



Its Location — Its Agricultural Adaptability — Population — Darksville — Thomas 
Hill — Rolling Home— Old Settlers. 

Chariton township lies in the north-west corner of Randolph, and 
borders on Macon and Chariton counties. It was organized in 1832, 
and of territory originally belonging to Salt Spring township, and ex- 
tended 12 miles into the present limits of Macon county. By the 
subsequent organization of that county Chariton township lost two- 
thirds of its territory, and was reduced to its present dimensions of 
54 square miles in a rectangular shape, being nine miles long from 
east to west, by a width of six miles from north to south. 

The first settlement was made in about the year 1829, by a few 
families on each side of Dark's Prairie, near the present sites of Eldad 
and Darksville. These were followed in the spring and fall of 1830 
by others, and from that time the country was rapidly filled up by 
immigrants from Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee. 
In about three years from the time of its first settlement it had ac- 
quired sufficient population to justify its organization into a separate 
township, with Joseph Turner its first magistrate and Henry Smith 
its first constable. 

The soil of this township, while ranking along with the best in the 
county, is remarkable for the uniformity of its adaptability to agri- 
cultural and grazing purposes. There is very little waste land in the 
whole township, and scarcely an acre can be found that is not valuable 
for growing grass or grain. The soil is principally a black loam of 
great fertility, and sufficiently undulating to avert disaster from the 
crops in extremely wet seasons, and yet sufficiently retentive of moist- 
ure to preserve them from total failure in extreme drouths. The 
township is about equally divided between timber and prairie land, 
the timber embracing wide margins along the streams, and the prairie 
occupying the intervening space. This natural arrangement atforded 
the early settlers ample scope for selecting their lands with a proper 
division of timber and prairie, and has resulted in the establishment 



of some of the best organized farms for mixed husbandry in the county. 
The timber is principally white oak, black oak, pin oak, elm, and 
hickory, with some burr oak and walnut. The township is well watered 
by four principal streams and their tributaries, all flowins from north 
to south, and so well distributed as to furnish abundant stock water 
convenient to all the farms the year round. Along the eastern mar- 
gin of the township flows the East fork of the Chariton, and through 
the central portion., at an average distance of two miles, are Dark 
creek, Muncas creek, and the Middle fork of the Chariton, while the 
western portion is watered by a tributary of the Chariton river, the 
latter of which flows from north to south just outside of the western 
boundary. Surface springs are not abundant, but unfailing living 
water is of easy access in well distributed localities throughout the en- 
tire township, by sinking wells to a depth of 10 to 30 feet. 

So well is this township adapted to general, mixed and varied farm- 
ing, that more than three-fourths of its eutire territory are now fenced, 
and are either under the plow, in blue grass pasture or in meadow. 

In population, this township ranks fourth of the 11 townships 
in the county, and this without a town of any magnitude or a railroad 
station within its borders. Its inhabitants are en2:ao;ed almost ex- 
clusively in agricultural pursuits, and the well-improved condition of 
their farms indicate their general prosperity. 

There are three election precincts in this township, one at Darks- 
ville on the east, one at Rolling Home on the west, and the third at 
Thomas Hill near central portion. 

At Darksville^ area dry-goods and grocery store, a blacksmith 
shop, a cabinet shop, a saw and corn mill, a wagon shop, a shoe shop, 
and a tobacco factory which was built and managed by the Grange at 
that place. W. S. Campbell is the postmaster, and Dr. R. A. Ter- 
rill, who resides on his farm adjoining the town, and Dr. W. P. 
Terrill are the physicians. Darksville was settled in 1856. 

At Thomas Hill are an extensive dry-goods and grocery store, a 
drug store, a blacksmith shop, a wagon shop and a saw and grist mill. 
There is at this place one physician. Dr. W. W. Vasse. J. R. Wren 
is postmaster, and W. A. Hunnes justice of the peace. 

At Rolling Home are a dry-goods and grocery store and a black- 

1 Darksville takes its name from a creek called Dark creek. William Elliott was 
hunting in the township in 1821, and night overtaking him on the banks of a creek, 
he camped all night, and said that it was the darkest night he ever saw; hence the 
name, Dark creek. 


smith shop. J. B. Carney is the postmaster, and Joseph H. Frazier, 

The people along the eastern and southern borders of this township 
are well accommodated with railroad advantages by depots on the St. 
Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railroad at Jacksonville, Cairo, 
Huntsville and Clifton Hill, but the people in the central, northern and 
western portions have to travel from 6 to 12 miles to reach a shipping 
point. This difficulty will be overcome in time, however, by the 
building of the Missouri and Mississippi Railroad, which has been pro- 
jected through the entire width of the western side of this township. 
The completion of this road, already in operation from Glasgow to 
Salisbury, is only a question of time, and will be accomplished as 
soon as the financial prosperity of the county is securely re-estab- 

The educational advantages of this township are well maintained by 
eight well-built and commodious school-houses, in which the public 
schools are kept open from four to eight months during the year. 

There are six churches in this township — two of the Calvinist Bap- 
tists, two of the Missionary Baptists and two of the Cumberland 
Presbyterians. There is very little selfishness or sectarianism among 
the people, however, and most of these churches are occupied at 
stated intervals for public worship by the Methodist, Christian and 
other Protestant denominations. Well-organized Sunday schools, 
under the guidance of zealous and efficient teachers, are kept up in 
these churches the year ropnd, and the morals of this fine rural dis- 
trict are further protected in the fact that there is not a single drink- 
ing saloon, or place of public resort of questionable moral tendencies, 
within the limits of the entire township. 

There are four resident ministers of the gospel in this township : 
Revs. James Bradley and James P. Carter of the Calvinist Baptists, 
Rev. J. E. Ancell of the Missionary Baptist, and Rev. M. B. Broaddus 
of the Methodist church. 

The agricultural products of Chariton township consist mainly of 
tobacco, corn, wheat, oats, rye, and timothy. That large and re- 
munerative yields of these crops arc made, is abundantly attested 
by the following estimates gathered from intelligent and reliable 
farmers of that locality : An extra crop per acre of corn is 50 bushels ; 
of tobacco, 1,200 lbs. ; of wheat, 30 bushels ; of oats, 40 bushels, and 
of rye, 35 bushels. An average crop per acre of corn is 40 bushels ; 
of tobacco, 800 lbs. ; of wheat, 20 bushels: of oats, 25 bushels, and 
of rye, 25 bushels. 


Below is a statement of stock fed in Thomas Hill precinct in 1880 : 


. Hogs. 



A. J. Baker . 

. 15 


G. W. Hix . 


D. Milam 

. 10 


I. S. McCully 

38 1 

Jolm R. Wrenn . 

. 51 


W. C. Johnson 


Wm. W. Vasse 

. — 


Lee S. Alexander 


James Ficklin 

, — 


John S. Green 


S. T. Campbell . 

, — 


H. B. Ficklin 


F. M. McLean 

. 38 


A. Lyon . 


John H. Richmond 

. — 


Rome Tood . 


A. J. Powell 

. — 


L M. Robertson . 


W. H. Broaddus . 

. — 


Gid Haines . 


Thomas T. Edwards . 

, — 


David Haines 


John T. Harlan . 

. — 


G. I. Carney 

. 32 



. . 146 



John Summers, Aaron Summers, Johnson Wright, Allen Wright, 
Hezekiah Wright, Nathan Barrow, Daniel Barrow, Joshua Phipps 
and James Phipps, from Kentucky ; Robert Grimes, from Virginia ; 
Robert Elliott, Robert Elliot, Jr., William Cristal, Thomas Rice, 
A. R. Rice, William H. Rice, George Shipp and Owen Singleton, from 
Kentucky ; John W. W^. Sears, from Virginia ; Philip Baxter, William 
Terry, Jonathan Cozac and E. H. Trimble, from Kentucky ; John H. 
Hall, from Maine ; William Rutherford and John McCully, from Ken- 
tucky ; Mathias Turner, Joseph Turner and John M. Turner, from 
Tennessee ; Mrs. Wright, Mrs. Mary Dawkins and Henry Griffith, from 
Kentucky ; John M. Gates, Giles F. Cook and James Carter, from 
Virginia; James Lingo, Samuel Lingo, G. W. Harland, Isaac Har- 
land and James Harland, from Tennessee ; Hancock Jackson and Will- 
iam Sumpter, from Kentucky ; Burchard McCormick, John Gaines 

and John Head, from Virginia ; Thomas Roberts and Chitwood, 

from Kentucky; James Holeman, Thomas Gillstrap and Thomas 
White ; William Brogan and Henry Brogan, from North Carolina ; — 
Black ; Nathaniel Tuley, from Virginia ; James Hinton, from- North 
Carolina ; Green Shelton and N. Tuttle, from Tennessee ; WiUiam A. 
Hall and John H. Hall, from Maine ; Dr. R. L. Grizard, from Tennessee ; 
Dr. Stephen Richmond, from North Carolina ; John Harland, Josiah 
Harland, Lee Harland, Josiah Smith, Henry Smith, John Smith, James 
Smith, William Beard, Josiah Taylor, from Tennessee ; William Redd, 
from Virginia ; JohnRichmond Samuel Richmond, JamesM. Richmond, 

John Dameron and James Dameron,from North Carolina ; Pipes 

and William Pipes, from Kentucky ; John Hix, Elliott R. Thomas, 

Henry Thomas, Lowden Thomas, Haines, from Virginia ; 

Bruce Stewart, Frances Terrell, Ned Stinson, John Wilks, Tyra Baker, 
Andrew Baker, Douglas Baker, Alfred McDaniel, Thomas Kirkpatrick, 


Ephriam Snell, Jordan Elliott, Perry Elliott, William Elliott, Jr., H. 
M. Rice, Joshua Rice, Bennett Rice, Yancey Gray, Mike McCully, John 
McCuley, Jr., Robert Turner, Elijah Turner, John Turner, Carroll 
Holman, John Godard, Samuel Turner, Bartlett Anderson, John R. 

Anderson, CrafFord Powers, Campbell, John Campbell, Thomas 

Campbell, William Edwards, James Lamb, Ashbury Summers, Thomas 
Egan, Benjamin Cozad, John Terrill, Caswell Smith, Grant Allan, 
Henry Johnson, George H. Hall, George W. Barnhart, and Silas 

The settlers above named located in the township before 1848. 

One of the oldest settlers in the township was Judge Joseph Tur- 
ner. He was born in North Carolina, in 1802, moved with his parents 
to Tennessee in 1815, was married in 1822, and moved to Missouri 
and entered the land on which he now resides, near Eldad church, in 
1830. He was appointed justice of the peace before the township 
was organized, and had jurisdiction to the Iowa line. He held the 
office of justice of the peace until 1850. In 1861 he was appointed 
county court justice, was president of that body, and held the posi- 
tion nearly six years. When he first settled he had for neighbors 
Joseph Holman, George Epperly, Richard Blue and Asa Kirby. These 
were, perhaps, the first settlers on the west side of Dark's prairie. 
Richard Blue and Asa Kirby were the only heads of families then re- 
sidino; west of the Middle fork. Judo;e Turner lived in Chariton 
township 54 years at his present residence, where he raised a family 
of eight children, three boys and five girls, all now living, and most 
of them around him, except one son who died out West about 1877. 

The only other survivor of those very early times, now living in the 
township, and a close neighbor of Judge Turner's, is John Richmond. 
He moved to Randolph county from Tennessee in 1830, and lived in 
Silver Creek township until the fall of 1832, when he entered 120 
acres of land where he now lives, and built his cabin upon it in pioneer 
style. He has since increased his farm to 520 acres, and now occu- 
pies quite a commodious dwelling, built some 25 years ago. He is now 
in his 79th year, and has raised a family of six children, four boys and 
two girls, all now living. When he first came to the township, the first 
settlers of that neighborhood, already mentioned, had been increased 
by the addition of Yancey Gray, Mark Crabtree, Samuel Richmond, 
Josiah Smith, Henry Smith, James Lingo, Samuel Lingo, Isaac Har- 
lan, John Withes, Andrew Baker, Tyree Baker, Jesse Miller, Thomas 
Kirkpatrick and Greenbury Shelton. Some of these made their set- 


tlements about the same time with Mr. Richmond. Among those who 
settled in his neighborhood soon after him, he remembers, Daniel 
Milam, John Gray, Jonathan Haynes, Thomas Brookes, John Mc- 
CuUy and Madison Richmond. On the east side of Dark's prairie, 
south and east of the present site of Darksville, were living at that 
time (1832) Johnson Wright, John Waymire, Joseph Summers, 
Hodge England, and Pleasant and Nicholas Tuttle. With the last 
named lived their father, a very aged man and a revolutionary soldier, 
whom our informant remembers to have seen on election and parade 
days surrounded by crowds listening to his account of the part he took 
in the War of Independence. 

One of the most eccentric men that ever lived in the township was 
Johnson Wright. He was at first a minister of the gospel, but did 
not entirely agree in doctrine with any religious denomination, and we 
doubt if he ever belonged to any church. He sold his farm in Chari- 
ton township in 1837, and moved to Macon, which county he soon 
afterward represented in the State Legislature. He was in the habit 
of doing some things, which, although not considered immoral in 
themselves, were nevertheless thought to be unbecoming the character 
of a minister of the gospel. But he always justified himself by quo- 
tations from the scriptures, and by citing the example of some old 
patriarch who indulged in the same practices. Among other things, 
he was very fond of the game of euchre, and claimed that this, his 
favorite amusement, had the divine sanction, because he had seen the 
word " Eucharist" in the Bible. He returned to Chariton township 
about the year 1847, where he lived till his death, some years after. 
Towards the latter part of his life some of his eccentricities were so 
absurd that most of his acquaintances considered him insane. He 
voted at the August election of 1850 at Huntsville, but his ballot con- 
tained only the name of "Jesus Christ for the office of Head of the 
Church." When it was suggested to him that Christ had been elected 
to that office over 1800 years ago, his reply was : " Well, if it has 
been that long it is time he was re-elected." His erratic notions on 
religious subjects culminated before his death in his deeding his farm 
to Christ (see deed in Chapter III. ), upon the fancied consideration, no 
doubt, that he would be granted an equivalent interest in the happy 
land of Canaan. He was, withal, one of the kindest of men, and had 
the friendship and regard of all who knew him. He was several 
times married, and raised quite a family of children, some of whom 
and his widow, we believe, still live in Chariton township. 


Amons: the stronsrest minded and most influential men of his day in 
that township was John M. Yates. He immigrated from Kentucky to 
Randolph county about 40 years ago, and after living a year or two 
in the southern part of the county, settled on Dark's prairie about 
the year 1835, and died on a farm adjoining the one he first settled 
in the year 1872. He was twice married and raised 15 children, 
13 of his own and 2 step-daughters. Most of them are still liv- 
ing in this and adjoining counties, among whom we can mention 
Mrs. George Chapman and Mrs. Hugh Trimble, of Dark's prairie; 
Mrs. John S. McCanne and Dr. Paul Yates, of Jacksonville; Mrs. 
Elijah Turner and Dr. William Yates, of Macon county, and Mrs. W. 
T. McCanne, of Moberly. 

Mr. Yates was an uncle of the celebrated Richard Yates, once 
Governor of Illinois and U. S. Senator from that State, and was him- 
self a man of much more than ordinary intelligence and soundness of 
judgment. Had he turned his attention to public life in his early man- 
hood, and pursued it with the energy necessary to bringing out his 
great natural capabilities, he would have equaled, if not surpassed in 
eminence, his distinguished relative. 

Judge William A. Hall was born and partly raised in the State of 
Maine. His father having been appointed to a position in the U. S. 
armory at Harper's Ferry, Va., he moved with his parents to that 
place, and when they moved to Chariton township, about the year 
1839, he soon followed them, being then a young man nearly 25 
years of age. About that time his father died, and he made his 
home with his widowed mother, although he kept his law office in 
Fayette, Mo., and for a short time edited a Democratic paper in that 
place. He made regular visits to his mqther's home in Chariton 
county whenever his professional duties would permit, and very often 
walked the entire distance of over thirty miles. He rapidly advanced 
to the front rank in his profession, and on the death of Judge Leland, 
which occurred about the year 1846, he was appointed by the Governor 
judge of this judicial circuit, a position to which he was continuously 
re-elected until 1861, when he was elected to represent the district of 
which Randolph was a part, in the U. S. Congress. About the time 
he was first appointed judge, he was married to Miss Octavia Sebree, 
a niece and adopted daughter of Uriel Sebree, a prominent citizen of 
Howard county. Soon after his marriage he settled on his farm, now 
known as the Broaddus farm, in Chariton township, where he remained 
until he removed to Huntsville in 1861, and the following year to a 
farm near that place. 


In the winter of 1860-61, Judge Hall was chosen, with Gen. Ster- 
ling Price, to represent this senatorial district, then composed of Ran- 
dolph and Chariton counties, in the State convention called by the 
Legislature to consider the relations between the State of Missouri and 
the general government, in view of the then impending crisis which 
threatened a disruption of the Union by the secession of the Southern 
States. In that convention he sided with the majority in favor of the 
State continuing her allegiance and loyalty to the Union, and during 
the war that followed remained a faithful and consistent Union man. 
By his conservative position and able management he did more to 
protect the Southern people of this county and State from military 
despotism and the lawless acts of an unrestrained soldiery, than any 
other man. And those who truly and fully appreciate the value of 
his services in those precious times, will long hold him in grateful re- 
membrance. He was twice elected to Cono-ress during the war, and 
at its close he resumed the practice of his profession at Huntsville, in 
which he continued until about 1874, when he improved another farm 
in the north-west corner of Chariton township, where he resided in 
complete retirement from public life, in the bosom of his family and 
surrounded by his flocks and herds. 

Among the most noted men, and the giant of Randolph county, who 
was raised in Chariton township and still resides there, is Thomas Gee. 
His weight is about 300 pounds, his height about 6 feet 4 inches, 
and his age between 35 and 40 years. His great weight is not alto- 
gether due to excess of flesh, but is attributable in a great measure to 
large bones and heavy muscles. Although he was nearly as large in 
1861 as he is now, yet he enlisted in the Conffederate army, marched 
on foot through the campaigns of four years, and surrendered at the 
close with the remnant of that band of heroes who fought it out to the 
bitter end. Accepting the situation, he returned to Chariton town- 
ship, where he has lived ever since. 

He takes great interest in politics, goes to Jefferson City whenever 
the Legislature sits and always gets some employment about the capi- 
tol during the session. He does up his work during the hours of ad- 
journment, so as to have his leisure to spend in the House or Senate 
during the sittings. He always gives a barbecue or more on election 
years, which he gets up in good style, invites all the candidates, and 
manages so as to have everybody in the neighborhood present. The 
candidate that has any hope at all of getting the vote of Chariton town- 
ship never thinks of missing one of Tom Gee's barbecues. 


Stock fed at Thomas Hill post-office in 1880 : 

Cattle. Hogs. Sheep. 

■William McCanne 20 — 60 

Brown & Sons 60 — — 

H. T. Lamb — — 62 

David Connell — — — 

J. W. McCanne 20 — — 

J. H. Penney 120 60 50 

Total . . • 220 60 172 









Jackson Township — Early Settlers — Jacksonville — Its early History — Business 
Directory — Secret Orders — Moniteau Township — Early Settlers — Mills — 
Schools — Farms and Stock — Higbee — Secret Orders — Business Directory — 
Stock Eeport for 1880. 

Jackson township is the middle township oh the northern border of 
the county. It is somewhat irreguUir in shape, and is less in size 
than a congressional township, having an area of 17,400 acres, 
or 27V2 square miles. It is watered on the west by the East fork 
of the Chariton and Walnut creek, and on the east by Hoover and 
Mud creeks. Almost every acre of the soil is susceptible of cultiva- 
tion. Prairie and timber land are about equal. Its valuable minerals 
consist of coal, limestone and fire clay. Three-fourths of Jackson 
township is in cultivation, and the farms generally are in good condition. 
The prairie is undulating, and in its wild state, produces a strong, 
healthy and vigorous growth of native grasses. In a state of cultiva- 
tion it yields generously to the care and culture of the husbandman, 
all the grains, grasses, roots and fruits usually cultivated in this lati- 
tude. The minerals are coal, limestone, and brick clay. The average 
yield of farm products per acre is as follows: Corn, 25 bushels aver- 
age, extra, 40 bushels ; wheat, 15 bushels average, extra, 20 bushels ; 
oats, 25 bushels average, extra, 40 bushels ; hay, IV4 tons aver.age, 
extra, 2 tons ; tobacco average 800 pounds. Very little tobacco is 
raised in the township. It has three mills, six school-houses con- 
veniently located and well built and furnished. 


The early settlers in Jackson township settled generally along the 
course of the streams, and in the timber ; in fact the pioneers through- 
out this Western country all sought the timber and water. The 
prairies were not settled until many years had passed. Many of the 
pioneers were poor, and did not have teams sufficient to break the 
prairie, as it required from three to four good yoke of oxen to draw 
the plow, and coming as they did from Kentucky and other States, 


which were originally covered with dense forests, they naturally located 
conveniently near to or in the timber. The old settlers now say, the 
prairie land has undergone a great change since they first came to the 
county ; it then appeared to be of a cold, wet, and clammy nature, 
and did not possess the same productive quality that it now has. As 
the country became opened and settled, and the prairies were grazed 
and trodden by stock, their productive qualities were greatly improved 
until they are now considered the better farming lands. 

Jackson township is not so well watered naturally as some other 
townships. The streams generally vein the western and south-eastern 
portion of it. Walnut creek, the East fork of the Chariton river. 
Hoover and Mud creeks, and their tributaries, all take their rise in 
this township, and all flow south-west and south-east excepting Hoover 
creek, which flows north-east. 

' The early settlers included some of the following names : Henry 
Owens, from Kentucky ; Isaac Reynolds, from Kentucky ; John Coul- 
ter, from Kentucky ; Robert Stevens, from Kentucky ; William Mc- 
Canne, from Kentucky ; H.J. McCanne, from Kentucky ; Thomas 
McCanne, from Kentucky; Nathaniel Sims, from Kentucky; Benj. 
Poison, from Kentucky; James W. Lamb, from Kentucky; Milton 
Durham, from Kentucky ; Stokely W. Towles, from Kentucky ; Leon- 
ard Hill, from Virginia ; John Hore, from Virginia ; George W. Hore, 
from Virginia; David McCanne, from North Carolina; L. C. Davis, 
from North Carolina; Jonathan Hunt, from Virginia ; John Ancell, 
from Virginia ; Frank Ancell, from Virginia; C. F. Burckhartt, from 
Virginia ; Frank Sims, from Tennessee ; William Bailey, from Tennes- 
see ; John H. Penny, from Virginia. 

Among, the oldest living settlers are Henry Owens and James 
W. Lamb. Mr. Lamb came in November, 1837, from Casey county, 
Kentucky, and has followed farming until a few years ago, since which 
time he has been keeping hotel in the town of Jacksonville. Li 1837 
there were no settlements on the prairie. A road ran north and south 
through the township, called the "Bee Trace," so called from the 
fact that it was the route traveled by the old pioneers who hunted 
wild honey, which was worth at that time twenty cents a gallon. 

Mr. Lamb occupied his time after his arrival in the township, cut- 
ting timber and splitting rails at thirty-seven and a half cents a hun- 
dred, and sawing planks with a rip-saw at $1.50 per hundred feet. 
Tobacco was raised at an early date, and taken to Glasgow, where it 
was sold to the merchants and shipped to St. Louis and elsewhere, for 
$1.50 per hundred pounds. Bacon was worth $2.25 per hundred. 


After remaining here a few years Mr. Lamb went back to Kentucky 
and while there, married. After his marriage he determined to return 
to Eandolph county, and in 1842 he started upon his journey of nearly 
600 miles, with only $10 in money, his wife, a horse and buggy, and 
after traveling 26 days, he arrived at his new home, having spent all 
his money, excepting seventy-five cents. Deer were so numerous from 
1835 to 1840 that oftentimes 30 and 40 could be seen at one time. 
Nothing like it can now be seen on the American continent. 

" By chase our long-lived fathers earned their food; 
Toil strung the nerves, and purified the blood; 
But we, their sons, a pampered race of men, 
Are dwindled down to three-score years and ten," 

Humphrey and Brock erected the first saw mill in the township, 
which was soon destroyed by fire, and immediately rebuilt, when it 
was sold to George "W. Jones, who combined it with a grist mill. 
Jones sold to Benjamin Sims, its present owner. The mill is located 
about half a mile north of Jacksonville, at a spring, which furnishes 
water during the dry seasons for many of the citizens of the town. 

The first church that was built in the township was also located at 
this spring by the Christian denomination in 1852, and was a union 
church. Mr. Sims now uses it as a barn. 


Jacksonville is located on the northern division of the Wabash, St. 
Louis and Pacific Kail way, 19 miles north-west of Huntsville, and 12 
miles north of Moberly. It is an incorporated village of 300 inhabitants, 
containing two church edifices, used by the different sects, a public school , 
and colored school. It has railroad, telegraph and express facilities. 

The town site was owned by William McCanne, Jr., John W. Mc- 
Canne, Sr., and Henry Owen, who donated 50 acres to the railroad 
company, provided they would locate a depot upon it. This was about 
the year 1858. The town was named after Hancock Jackson, who 
was an early settler in the county, and who filled besides several 
county offices, the position of Lieut. -Governor of Missouri. The 
first business house was erected by J. J. Humphrey and was occupied 
by him as a general store. 

Samuel Kidgeway opened the first hotel, and continued to occupy 
it until his death, which occurred in 1880. Dr. Burckhartt was the 
first physician. Thomas Demster was the pioneer shoemaker. The 
first church was erected in 1867 by the Christians. Thomas Griffey 
and Robert Skinner were the first blacksmiths. 



Two general stores, one grocery, one drug store, four blacksmiths, 
one shoemaker, one undertaker, one lumber yard, one livery stable, 
and one hotel are at this place. 


Masonic Lodge, ITo. 44. — Was organized in June, 1866, with the 
following charter members : James A. Berry, James A. Holt, James 
M. Hannah, J. H. Pety, David Halliburton. 


Moniteau is the middle township on the southern border of Ran- 
dolph county. It contains a fraction over 37 square miles, and was 
cut off from the townships of Prairie and Silver Creek after the con- 
struction of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad, from Hannibal 
to Sedalia. Soon after this event a depot was established in the 
present territory of Moniteau, on lands then belonging to Edward 
Owens, called Higbee, and soon a village was laid out on lands 
belonging to Edward Owens and Joseph Burton. A post-office was 
also established, and the growth of the future town was begun. 
This o;rowth was afterward accelerated by the location of the 
Chicago, Alton, St. Louis and Kansas City Railroad through its 
borders, crossing the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Road near 
the center of the town. These arrangements having been com- 
pleted, a petition was numerously signed by citizens of the vicinity, 
asking the county court to organize another township, to be called 
Moniteau, as it would be located on the head waters of Moniteau 

The Moniteau, Silver and Bonne Femme creeks take their rise in 
the borders of this township. Along the borders of these streams 
the country is broken and hilly, covered with black and white oak 
timber. Where the bottoms and valleys are broad enough for culti- 
vation, the land is found to be very rich and productive. Even the 
land that cannot be cultivated is covered with a heavy growth of val- 
uable timber composed of sugar maple, walnut and cottonwood. As 
the dividing ridges of these streams are approached, a sightly and 
fruitful country is presented, now occupied by substantial farmers, 
and highly improved. For grazing purposes it seems, in many re- 
spects, better than regions adjoining, which have a richer and deeper 
soil. Clover and timothy produce well with cultivation ; but blue 


grass, the first to come in the spring, the most nutritions while it 
lasts, and the last to be afiected by the frosts, is the spontaneous pro- 
duction of this region. If not grazed too closely during autumn, it 
affords excellent pasture for sheep and stock cattle during the winter. 
Even the most broken white ©ak ridges, when the undergrowth is re- 
moved, will in a short time be covered with a natural growth of blue 

Kailroad ties are an important article of exportation from Moniteau. 
The white oak lands which furnish the most durable and valuable ties, 
and which are almost surrounded by railroads, have become valuable 
of late because of this product, and because, when cleared of the tim- 
ber, they are the best tobacco lands we have. They are also easily 
converted into blue grass pastures and timothy meadows. Tobacco, 
however, has ceased of late to be a staple production on account of 
the low prices that have ruled for several years. Some few planters 
continue to raise it, but only to a limited extent. The grains and 
grasses and the rearing of live stock are depended upon for the prin- 
cipal resources of the farmers . 

Bituminous coal underlies the surface and crops out at intervals 
along almost all the streams. Its accessibility renders it important, 
whether as an inducement to capitalists to locate manufactories, or to 
engage in mining. The proximity of the railroads to these deposits 
of "black diamonds," makes either enterprise a safe and profitable 
investment. The day is not far distant when the superiority of this 
coal will be acknowledged, and it will then be "more precious than 

The healthfulness of this region, as indeed of the whole county, is a 
consideration for those looking for a permanent location. The settled 
portions of the township are on the divides, or ridges, between the 
streams. The air is therefore pure and not impregnated with the 
miasma and malarial influences that affect lower lands. The bottoms 
are used for cultivation, the hills and highlands for homes. The great 
body of the country embraces elevated territory, and Moniteau town- 
ship especially enjoys the salubrity and health-giving properties of 
pure air. 


Moniteau was first settled by Virginians, Kentuckians, Tennesseeans 
and North Carolinians, among whose virtues were temperance, industry, 
probity and hospitality. Of these were James Dysart, John Dysart, 
Dr. William Walker, Rev. Jesse Terrill, Montgomery Whitmore, J. 
Higbee, George Yates and others, who have passed the bourne of 


time. But they have left the impress of their sturdy manhood upon 
the character of society. Of those whose time approaches and who 
wrought a good work in the township when customs and institutions were 
in a formative state, may be mentioned Nicholas Dysart, Christopher 
Dysart, M. M. Burton, Maj. J. B. Tymony, Joseph Burton, Edward 
Owens and George Quinn. Edward Owens was the oldest man in the 
township at the time of his death. Nicholas Dysart, aged 75, is the 
oldest settler ; Hon. M. M. Burton, aged 62, is the oldest native 
born citizen of Moniteau. Mrs. Nicholas Dysart is the oldest lady. 
Among other settlers were John Turner, William B. Tompkins, 
Lynch Turner, Joseph Wilcox, Jacob Maggard, Charles McLean and 
Thomas Dawkins. 


Moniteau has three steam saw mills and one combined saw and 
flouring mill. One of these is located in Higbee, the other three 
being located on ©r near Moniteau river. The lumber produced by 
these mills is generally used for bridging, house framing and other 
work requiring substantial timbers. The material used is principally 
white and black oak, though several car loads of walnut lumber have 
been shipped from this section. John Turner erected the first mill 
that was put up in the township. It was an old-fashioned horse-mill ; 
was located in the northern portion of the township, and was running 
as early as 1828. 


Thomas Dawkins taught the first school about the year 1830 ; the 
school house, a small cabin, stood near a small stream — one of the 
forks of Silver creek. Dawkins was from Kentucky, and was much 
thought of as a teacher. 

"The people all declared how much he knew; 
' Twas certain he could write and cipher too ; 
Lands he could measure, terms and tides presage ; 
And even the story ran, that he could gauge." 


The yield of farm products is as follows : Corn, average per acre, 
50 bushels, extra, 75 bushels ; wheat, average 15 bushels, extra, 30 
bushels ; oats, average 50 bushels, extra, 60 bushels ; hay, average 2 
tons, extra, 3 tons; tobacco, average 1,000 pounds, extra, 1,500 
pounds. The highest prices paid for the last named product for three 
preceding years has been from $3 to $8 per 100 pounds. 


About three-fourths of the township is enclosed by fences and in- 
cluded in farms, one-half of these enclosures being devoted to pasture. 
There are no regular vineyards, but grapes do well, and show that if 
properly cultivated, wine of excellent quality and delicious flavor could 
be made. 

Of course in a region so well adapted to grazing and cheap feeding, 
live stock forms the principal and most valuable article of commerce. 
Horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep and hogs are reared, and sold to 
traders and shipped in large quantities. About 2,000 head have been 
shipped by rail during the past year, though there are many mules, 
horses and cattle raised in Moniteau and sent to more or less distant 
marts of which no record is kept. Of the enterprising cattle dealers 
are William James, James E. Rucker, Isham Powell, A. and G. 
Miller. They also deal to some extent in mules and horses, sheep and 
hogs. There are many substantial farmers and stock raisers in the 
township, among whom are O. P. Baker, Nicholas Dysart, Owen 
Bagby, Z. Hale, Joel H. Yates, W. L. Rennolds, John Harlow, G. 
Quinn, Dr. W. P. Dysart, W. Yager, William James, J. Collins, Moss 
Dawkins, H. Patrick, W. Smith, R. Hinds, Isham Powell, James E. 
Rucker, G. Miller, and others. 


The name of James Higbee, a worthy citizen of Moniteau, now de- 
ceased, gave the title to the station which has grown into a lively, 
progressive and thriving village. The village, recently incorporated 
into a town, is situated about three miles north of Howard county 
line, at the crossing of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas and the Chi- 
cago, Alton, St. Louis and Kansas City Railroads. These roads, it is 
thought, will soon build a union depot at the crossing, and the town is 
also spoken of as a good point for the location of workshops for the 
Chicago, Alton, St. Louis and Kansas City road, being near large 
coal fields and valuable timber lands. Higbee is the only voting pre- 
cinct in the township. It possesses facilities for shipping second to no 
place in North Missouri except Moberly. It stands on an open ridge 
tw® miles wide, between the Moniteau and Bonne Femme creeks, and 
is but three years old, having a population of 400. The public school, 
which is well conducted, contains 119 pupils. The Grange had a mem- 
bership of 60 in 1880. The government of the town is excellent, and 
the citizens are peaceable and contented. 


Joseph Burton, one of the founders of the town, is in the 68th year 
of his age. He has a family of 15 cliildren, 10 sons and 5 daughters, 
and 18 grand-children. 

Edward Owens, another of the founders, is dead. He left a family 
of 9 children, 44 grand-children and 6 great-grand-children. 


Highee Lodg^ No. 210, A, 0. U. W., — Was organized in Decem- 
ber, 1880, Vvith the following charter members : J. E. Rucker, J. 
W. Newby, J. S. Dysart, W. H. Elgiu, S. L. Ashby, E. M. Foster, 
J. W. Fristo, F. M. Tymony, W. J. Pulliam, G. R. Reynolds, Dr. 
L. J. Miller. 


Two drug stores, three physicians, two shoemakers, one lawyer, 
one barber, three restaurants, three saloons, one livery and feed 
stable, three blacksmiths, one milliner, one meat market, one lum- 
ber yard, two general stores, one grocery, express and telegraph 
office, and the Higbee Weekly Entei-prise, compose the business of 
this town. 

The following stock were fed in 1880, in the Higbee voting pre- 
cinct : — 


William Jones & Son 25 

H. E. Patrick 35 

T. W. Yager 20 

Augustus Miller 80 

J. M. Collins 10 

J. A. Blackford 34 

James Ferguson 15 

Patton & Powell 197 

William H. Burton 15 

O. P. Baker 27 

James E. Rucker 60 

Total 526 583 509 42 







































Prairie Township — Old Settlers — Durett Bruce — Mill — Elliott — Shafton — Clark's 
Switch — Renick — Its History — Secret Orders — Business Directory — Stock Re- 
port for 1880 — First House Erected in Renick — Salt River Township — Physical 
Features — Early Settlers — Levick's Mill — Union Township — First Settlers — 


Prairie township lies in the south-eastern corner of Randolph county. 
It is the largest township in the county, and has an area of about 
88 square miles. The amount of prairie and timber land is 
about the same. As the township is bounded on two sides by Monroe, 
Audrain, Boone and Howard counties — counties that stand in the 
front rank as to soil, productions, population and wealth — it may 
justly be inferred that Prairie is in the front rank of townships, and 
is settled by a progressive and prosperous people. The soil is a black 
loam with substratum of clay. The land has an undulating surface, 
drains itself readily in seasons of protracted rainfall, and retains suf- 
ficient moisture for the sustenation of vegetation in periods of pro- 
tracted drouth. 

It is watered by the tributaries of Salt river on the north and east 
sides of the " divide," and by Perche and the tributaries of Moniteau 
river on the south-west. These streams take their rise within its ter- 
ritory, but before they leave it, form large, deep creeks that contain 
water during the entire year, however dry the season. The smaller 
streams being numerous, supply stock water for every part of the dis- 
trict, as well as moisture to the air in the hot months of summer. 
Wells and cisterns are relied upon for domestic use and are easily and 
cheaply made. Ponds dug in the clay hold like a jug, and are fre- 
quently employed by farmers in fields and pastures through which no 
streams run. A few days' work, with teams, plows and scrapers, will 
dig a pond of sufficient size to water a hundred head of stock for seven 
to ten years before cleansing is necessary. The timber of Prairie is 
good, embracing several kinds of oak, hickory, walnut, honeylocust, 
elm, hackberry, etc. When the white oak timber is removed the land 
makes the best tobacco ground used : hickory land is the strongest, 
and walnut, elm, honey locust and pawpaw the richest and most pro- 



ductive. Coal is abundant throughout the district, and some mines • 
near Eeniclv are successfully and largely worked. 

It is often the case in the east that coal lands are unfit for anything 
but coal, but such is not the case in Missouri. Land overlying coal 
beds is frequently as rich and productive as any other land in the 
country, and this is peculiarly the case in Prairie township. 

There are five churches in this township, the Baptist, Methodist and 
Christian denominations being the most numerously represented. 
Every school district is organized, and all have comfortable and con- 
venient houses, with modern appliances. The principal products are 
grain, grasses and live stock. The number of cattle and hogs sold 
annually is very large, and the annual sale of wool reaches $25,000. 
The average yield of corn per acre is 25 bushels, extra 60 bushels ; 
wheat 15 bushels, extra 30 bushels ; oats 40 bushels, extra 60 bushels ; 
tobacco 1,000 pounds. Hay sure crop ; average yield per acre IV2 
ton. Over two-thirds of the township is in cultivation, which includes 
all of the prairie and part of the timber. 


Among the old settlers of this township were John Hamilton, James 
Martin, R. P. Martin, Mrs. Chisham, William Butler, Joel Hubbard, 
Eice Alexander, Hugh C. Collins, Dr. Presley T. Oliver, Jackson 
Dickerson, Joseph Davis, Moses Kimbrough, Aaron Kimbrough, 
Thomas Kimbrough, A. Hendrix, Benjamin Hardin, Asa K. Hub- 
bard, Presly Shirley, Jeremiah Bunnel, Thomas Stockton, W. S. 
Christian, Granderson Brooks, Archibald Goin, May Burton, John 
Sorrell, Henry Burnham, William Croswhite, John Kimbrough, 
Bluford Robinson, Wiley Marshall, A. W. Lane, Durett Bruce, 
Eeuben Samuel and Joseph Wilcox. 

Nearly all of the above named pioneers were from Kentucky, and 
many of these men were great hunters, notably so were Durett Bruce, 
Joe Davis, Cy Davis, Uriah Davis, H.C. Collins, John Sorrell and James 
Martin. The latter in his early manhood was very athletic, and is 
probably the only man who ever caught an un wounded deer by run- 
ning after it on foot, and an unwounded wild turkey by climbing a tree. 
Durett Bruce, who came to the township in 1837, is the oldest man 
now living in Randolph county. He was born in Fayette county, 
Kentucky, eight miles south of Lexington, March 1st, 1789, and was, 
therefore, 95 years old March 1st, 1884. His father's name was 
Benjamin Bruce ; he was a native of Scotland, and a kinsman of 


Robert Bruce, one of the Scottish chiefs, whose deeds of bravery and 
feats of manhood have been immortalized by the incomparable pen of 
Jane Porter. 

Mr. Bruce married Miss Sarah Stephens, daughter of Col. Stephens, 
April 13th, 1813. In 1834, October 10th, he came to Boone county, 
Missouri, and after raising two crops, he settled in Randolph 
county. Hearing that the wolves were numerous, and very destruc- 
tive to sheep, he brought with him to the county 15 sheep, 18 
hounds, and a cur dog, and was never annoyed by wolves after 
his arrival. He was in the War of 1812, and served under Gen. William 
H. Harrison six months, and Gen. McArthur four mouths, near Lake 

In early life Mr. Bruce was apprenticed to the trade of locksmith, 
a pursuit which he now follows, notwithstanding he has nearly reached 
the ninety-fifth mile-stone in the journey of his life. In 1869 he 
located in the then new town of Moberly, where he has since re- 

We hope that the brittle thread of life may be yet lengthened out to 
the old man many spans, and that by and by it may be said of 
him : — 

" Of no distemper, of no blast he died, 

But fell like autumn fruit that mellowed long, 

Even wondered at, because he dropt no sooner.. 

Fate seemed to wind him up for four-score years, 

Yet ran he on for twenty winters more; 

Till,' like a clock, worn out with eating time, 

The wheels of weary life at last stood still." 

The first mill was owned by Jesse Jones, and was located about 
three miles south-west of Renick. The first church edifice in the 
township was called Dover church, and was occupied by different 
denominations. The first school was taught by Col. John M. Bean, 
a Kentuckian, at a place called Oak Point. Lynch Turner was the 
first officiating minister of the Gospel. 

Elliott, about two miles west of Renick, is a mining town, contain- 
ing about 200 inhabitants. It has a post-office, store, etc. 

Shafton, about two miles south of Renick, on the Chicago and Alton 
Railroad, is also a mining town, and has a population of about 200. 

Clark's Switch, about six miles east of Renick, at the crossing of 
the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railroad and the Chicago 
and Alton Railroad, has a post-office, blacksmith shop, store, and 
other establishments. 



Renick, the most important town in the township, was located in 
1856, after the North Missouri Railroad had become an established 
institution. It is situated on a high rolling prairie, on the '* Grand 
Divide," the waters on the east side of the town flowing to the Missis- 
sippi, and those on the west side to the Missouri. The St. Louis, 
Kansas City and Northern Railroad passes diagonally through the 
town, the depot being convenient to the business portion of it. It lies 
six miles south by east of Moberly, and contains a population of about 
700. Its citizens are a thorough-going and enterprising people. It 
has one large church edifice, which is used by the Methodist, Baptist 
and Christian denominations. Renick rejoices in having the finest 
public school building outside of Moberly in the county. The only 
other public building of any importance is the Masonic Hall, which 
is an elegant and attractive edifice. There is also a Good Templar 
and public hall. 

There is located in the town a large custom and merchant mill. 
One or two coal mines are in operation near the place, giving employ- 
ment to a number of hands, and working a four foot vein. The coal 
is used extensively by the railroads, and large quantities are exported. 
Three times has the business portion of the town been desolated by 
fire, and at one time, during the great Civil War, nearly all the houses 
in the town were destroyed. But the public spirit and enterprise of 
the citizens were equal to the emergency, and it is to-day a better 
town than ever before. 

It is a great shipping point for live stock of all kinds. 


Masonic Lodge, N'o. 186. — Was organized October 19, 1867, with 
the following charter members : G. A. Settle, A. E. Grubb, S. A. 
Mitchell, James Hardin, Benjamin Terrill, J. R. Alexander, R. Davis, 
T. Y. Martin, R. P. Martin, J. Y. Coates, S. S. Elliott, William But- 
ler, G. R. Christian. 

Lodge No. 225, A. O. U. W. — Was organized November 11, 1881. 
The charter members were J. M. Williams, Dr. S. M. Forrest, A. N. 
Maupin, R. W. Hatton, J. W. McDonald, J. D. Waters, D. A. King, 
T. T. Grant, J. J. Butler, O. Morton, D. W. Osborne, A. Butler, 
J. A. Mitchell, J. H. Littrell, J. B. Martin, B. H. Ashcomb, J. J. 


Hubbard, J. B. Brooks, W. N. Clifton, J. R. Jackson, A. H. Shearer, 
W. H. Deer, A. Greenland, S. W. Terman, S. E. Keemer. 


Nine general stores, one wagon shop, two blacksmiths, one paint 
shop, one lumber yard, one harness shop, one hotel, one livery stable, 
two saloons, and two butcher shops, are in Renick. 

Clay Thompson, who came from Kentucky about the year 1856, 
erected the first house in the town ; he also opened the first business 
house and hotel. William H. Marshall was the first blacksmith, Peter 
Hoeman the first shoemaker. William B. McLean was the first physi- 
cian in that region of country. 

Below will be found a list of stock feeders and the amount of stock 

fed for market in Prairie township in 1880 : — 

Cattle. Hogs. Mules. 

Patton & Powell 150 400 — 

T. D. Bailey 180 125 — 

P. Spellman 100 125 — 

S. N. Pyle . . . . ■ — — 30 

T. J. Grant — 30 50 

C. D. Robinson 60 60 — 

Renick Mill Co -^ 30 — 

D. H. Osborn — — 20 

J. Hamilton 30 — — 

George Cottingham 30 — — 

F. K. Collins 30 50 — 

G. Wilcox *0 — — 

J. G. Smith 50 50 — 

P. K. Venable 20 10 — 

W. A. Irons 50 100 — 

Total 660 980 100 


Salt river is the north-eastern township of Randolph county. About 
one-fifth of the surface is prairie, the balance is timber land. The 
prairie is generally level or gently undulating. The timber land is 
more uneven, and in the vicinity of the streams is somewhat broken 
and hilly. The prairie is all under fence and in cultivation. But 
little good land is unenclosed, all the best farming territory having 
been fenced either for tillage or pasturage. 

The territory is well provided with streams and stock water is 
abundant throughout the year. Mover, Mud, Flat, McKinney, Lick, 
and Painter creeks, with other less important streams, take their 
courses through the township and every farm is convenient to some 
stream that contains water the year round. Nevertheless, for greater 
convenience, ponds, wells, and cisterns are dug on the farms for the 


use of stock. Living water is found at short distances below the sur- 
face, giving a permanent and inexhaustible supply. 

Among the early settlers of the township are H. G. Robuck, M. 
McKinney, and Strother Ridge way. They still reside there and are 
among the most worthy citizens of the county. The farms in this 
tow^nship are generally small, averaging in size from 100 to 200 
acres, and very few exceed the latter amount. It is essentially 
a farming and grazing country. Remote from railroad depots 
(the average distance being about nine miles), little is shipped in the 
way of agricultural products. The grains and grasses raised are gen- 
erally consumed at home, the only articles of export being cattle, 
horses, mules, hogs and sheep. The farmers are, however, in a pros- 
perous and thrifty condition. They are doing much more work with 
machinery now than formerly. Cultivators, reapers, and mowing 
machines, and other labor-saving implements, are coming into more 
general use, and the process of farming is conducted on better and 
more intelligent principles than heretofore. 

The quality of the soil is about the same as that in Monroe county, 
which the township joins on the eastern side. It is rich and produc- 
tive, easily cultivated, warm and generous. The crops now growing 
promise a heavy harvest, except the meadows, which have been some- 
what injured by a protracted and unusual drouth. The recent rains 
have greatly improved the looks of the grass, and excellent fall and 
summer pastures are assured. 

The reliable staple crops are corn, wheat, oats, timothy, tobacco, 
and blue grass. The latter is used almost entirely for grazing, and is 
rarely mowed for hay. Clover, also, yields well, but is not generally 
sown. The main reliance of the farmers is upon the corn, timothy, 
and the grass growths. Of corn, a common yield is 50 to 60 bushels 
to the acre ; wheat, 15 to 25 bushels ; oats, 25 to 40 bushels ; timo- 
thy, a ton to a ton and a half; tobacco, 600 to 1,000 pounds. About 
three-fourths of the township is in cultivation. 

The timber in this portion of the county is about the same as is gen- 
erally found in other parts of Randolph. The highlands are cov- 
ered with the various oaks, hickory, walnut, maple, etc., while the 
bottoms and valleys have sycamore, hackberry, pawpaw, red bud, 
elm, etc. 

Coal lies a short distance below the surface in many parts of the 
township, but wood is so abundant and convenient, the markets are so 
remote, and the manufactories so few, that the coal beds have not 
been developed. 


There is but one post-office in the township — Levick's Mill. This 
is located in the geographical center of the township, convenient to 
every part of it. This is a small village, having a store where general 
merchandise is sold, a grist and saw mill, and a tin shop. It is a great 
convenience to the surrounding country. There are no manufactories 
of any importance in the vicinity, except mills, of which there are 
several on or near the streams. 

The improvements on the farms are generally good. Many farmers 
are erecting neat and comfortable farm houses, to take the place of 
less sightly edifices built in the earlier history of the township. Fences 
and out-buildings, barns, etc., recently built, are of a better class 
than those formerly erected. 

There are four school-houses in Salt River township, and so situated 
as to be convenient to all the citizens. These are used from four to 
six months in the year, and good teachers are employed to conduct 
the schools. There are also two churches in the territory — a Cum- 
berland Presbyterian church, and a union building used alternately 
by the Baptist and Christian denominations. The Methodists hold 
regular services, and employ the school-houses as places of worship. 

The society of Salt River is composed of sober, industrious, and 
intelligent farmers, with their wives and children. The people are 
temperate, social, and hospitable, and heartily welcome immigrants to 
their midst. It is a peaceable and quiet community, having all the 
substantial comforts of a rich, productive, healthy farming country. 


Union is the middle township on the eastern border of Randolph, 
joining Monroe county on its eastern boundary. It has an area 
of about 29 square miles, and a population of 1,350. Flat 
creek, Coy branch, Elk Fork, Sugar creek. Mud creek, and Coon 
creek, branches of Salt river, penetrate its territory in every direction 
and fertilize its fields and farms. There is no district in the county, 
of the same dimensions, that is better watered. 

The first settlers of the township were George Burckhartt (father 
of Judge G. H. Burckhartt), Clemen Jeeter, Dr. Burton, Geo. Chap- 
man, Nade Chapman and Wm. Haly, These men have left the im- 
press of their toil and industry on the country they settled and 

The lands of this township are unusually fertile and will compare 
favorably with the best lands in any part of the State. The territory 
is about equally divided into prairie and timber lands. Each division 


is equally well adapted to cultivation and pasturage. The crops of 
every kind are heavy and the live stock raised is of superior quality. 

Coal is found in large beds and of very excellent quality in various 
parts of the district. Much of it finds its way to the city of Moberly, 
and with improved transportation to the railroads, would become an 
important factor in the aggregate of the public income. Limestone, 
brick and potter's clay are also found, but as yet none of these have 
been put to any practical use. 

There are three mills in Union township, owned respectively by W. 

D. Wilson, Elsea, and Frank Hall. These are the principal 

raanufjictories of that section, and each is doino- a s^ood business. 


There are five churches within its borders, viz. : two belono-ins: to 
the Southern Methodists, two to the Christian denomination and one 
Baptist. It has four school houses, provided with modern improve- 
ments and conveniences, in w^hich schools are taught from five to six 
months in the year. The average of wages paid to teachers is $40 per 

The yield of crops is as follows : Corn per acre, average, 40 bushels, 
extra, 70 bushels; wheat, average, 15 bushels, extra, 25 bushels; 
oats, 25 to 35 bushels per acre; hay, average, one ton, extra, two 
tons ; tobacco, average, 1,000 pounds, extra, 1,500 pounds. The 
average price of the latter for several years has been about $3. But 
little attention is given in Union township to the sowing of wheat and 
oats. The grasses are cultivated with great care, the farmers prefer- 
ring to convert their lands into pasturage for the accommodation of 
stock, and only planting so much grain as is absolutely needed for 
home consumption. Almost the entire township is under fence, and 
all the territory is made to contribute to the general welfare. 

There are some large farmers in the township, prominent among 
whom we may mention Capt. James Wight, who owns and cultivates 
a farm of 720 acres in a very high state of improvement, having a 
palatial residence, and stocked with the best animals of different 
kinds that he has been able to procure. Capt. Wight's farm is on 
Elk fork, and he has resided in the village of Milton for 30 years. 
He has twice represented Randolph county in the State Legislature, 
and is the father of the present county clerk, Mr. James M. Wight. 

Among her prominent traders and farmers are G. W. Burton, 
general stock dealer ; Andrew Carpenter, Q. T. Hall, Capt. James 
Wight and I. H. Newton, dealers in sheep, mules and horses, and L. 
L. Newton, dealer in horses and hogs, having shipped more of the 
latter in the winter of 1878, than any other man in the township. D. 


T. C. Mitchell and Benj. Oldham have been extensively engaged in 
the pile and tie business, employing from ten to twelve men and six 
to eight teams each, bringing a large amount of money into the town- 
ship. W. G. Leusley is engaged in coal mining on a large scale and 
is also occupied in bridge building. 

Rev. J. A. Holloway, aged 94, is the oldest man in the township ; 
the oldest lady is Mrs. Wesley Boatman, and the oldest settler now 
living is David Myers. Mr. George Burckhartt, deceased, was the 
first settler. 


the only village in the township, is about 40 years old. Its trade 
has been of a purely local character, there being no facilities for ship- 
ping. It is, however, eligibly and pleasantly situated on Elk Fork, 
and hag an elegant grist and saw mill, one wagon and carriage factory 
and repair shop, one blacksmith shop, and some other unimportant 
shops. Until about 1878, four ministers made their homes in Milton, 
to wit : Eld. J. A. Holloway, of the Christian church, Rev. Peter 
Parker and Rev. W. D. Hutton, of the M. E. Church South, and 
Rev. W. L. T. Evans of the Missionary Baptist Church, The latter, 
a most estimable and much beloved man, died about 1879. Dr. R. 
R. Hall, the only physician, has resided in Milton for about 40 years. 



History of the Township — Its Soil — Water Courses — Timber — Schools — Churches 
Mt. Airy — Old Settlers — Crops. 


Silver Creek is one of the four townships into which Randolph 
county was originally divided. It was made the smallest in extent of 
territory, because it embraced the most thickly settled portion of the 
county at the time of its organization. This fact, taken in connection 
with its location along the border of Howard county, which was 
settled first, leads us to infer that it is the oldest township in the 
county. Although originally the smallest in area, it has recently 
given up 18 square miles of its territory to the newly organized 
township of Moniteau, and being without railroad or a railroad town 
within its borders, it still ranks sixth in population among the eleven 
townships into which the county is now divided, and shows a greater 
votinof strength than four others which have railroads runnins; throus^h 
them. These facts show that outside of the towns and cities. Silver 
Creek township is still the most thickly settled of any in the county. 
It is situated in the south-west corner of the county. 

While it has no railroad running directly through it, its people, 
taken as a whole, are as well accommodated with railroad facilities as 
those of any other township except Sugar Creek. 

Within a mile and a half of its northern boundary are the depots of 
the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern (now Wabash, St. Louis and 
Pacific) Railroad atHuntsvilleand Clifton Hill. Not far from its eastern 
boundary the Chicago and Alton R;;^ilroad crosses the Missouri, Kansas 
andTexas,atHigbee,and on thesouth, at Armstrong, in Howard county, 
is another depot of the Chicago and Alton Railroad. The township is 
literally surrounded by railroad depots without any railroad running 
through it, a circumstance which gives to all its people a great uni- 
formity of railroad advantages without any of the usual concomitant 
annoyances, such as the killing of stock and the introduction of 
tramps, contagious diseases, and other nuisances. 

While Silver Creek contains less level land than the other town- 
ships, it may be safely asserted that the most fertile tracts in the 



whole county lie within its borders. The surface ranges from the 
gently undulating to hilly near the margins of the streams, and with 
the exception of a few white oak ridges and hickory flats in the north- 
east, and an occasional one in other parts, the soil of the entire 
township is of a black, rich, sandy loam, interspersed with limestone, 
which does not predominate in any locality so as to interfere seriously 
with cultiyation, but is generally distributed so as to furnish the 
requisite supply of this material element of natural fertility. 

Here, also, is to be found one of the best watered sections in the 
whole county. The Sweet Spring, taking its name from a noted 
fountain on its southern margin, washes the northern boundary of the 
township, and Silver creek with its tributaries flows from east to west 
through the central and southern portions. The names given to these 
streams, from the latter of which the township takes its name, are 
significant of the purity and pahitable qualities of their waters and of 
the perennial fountains which dot their margins and spring spontaneous 
from the fertile hillsides in many other parts of the township. 

About one-third of the township is prairie land, lying mostly south 
of Silver creek and along the Howard county line. Most, if not all 
of this, however, is now under fence and in cultivation, and if one 
familiar with the appearance of the country 50 years ago, and who 
had been absent that length of time, should now return, he would 
find but few landmarks and but little else by which he could identify 
the fields over which moved the grasses and bloomed the flowers of 
Foster's and the Four-mile prairies in the days of his childhood. Of 
the magnificent forests that originally covered the remaining two- 
thirds of the township, about one-half has given way to cultivated 
fields, so that now only about one-third of the territory remains in 

Of this, the leading varieties are white oak, burr oak, Spanish oak, 
red oak, black oak, pin oak, white and black walnut, hickory, black- 
berry and elm. 

In localities suited to their growth may also be found the sycamore, 
ash, maple, linden, sassafras, coffee-bean, honey-locust and per- 

Many of the varieties of these trees have grown to magnificent pro- 
portions, particularly the white oaks, burr oaks, sycamores, walnuts 
and elms. An old settler tells us of a sycamore seven feet in diameter 
which, in 1832, stood on the banks of Silver creek, near the place 
where the Huntsville and Glasgow road now crosses the stream. 

The educational advantages are first class. 


Nine capacious and well built school-houses, includino; a graded 
school building at Roanoke, all furnished with improved appliances to 
facilitate instruction, supply the youth of all parts of the township 
with mental and moral training not surpassed by those of any rural 
district in the State. 

The leading Protestant religious denominations, embracing Baptist, 
Methodist, Presbyterians and Christians, have places of public 
worship and hold regular services ; the Missionary Baptists being the 
most numerous while the others are quite respectable in numbers. 
There are three churches in the township, three of which are Baptists 
and the other two are union churches. 

The region of country embraced within the limits of this township 
is remarkable for its healthfulness, and there is only one physician, 
Dr. A. Aldridge,-who keeps his office at Mt. Airy, which is the only 

At Mt. Airy are also a store of dry-goods and groceries, kept 
by Mr. James Smith, a blacksmith and wagon shop, and a large 
tobacco factory, operated by Messrs. Evans & Patterson, who prise 
and ship their tobacco. This place is the business center of the 
northern part of the township, while the people of the southern part 
do their trading at Roanoke, a larger village, which lies partly ia 
Howard and partly in Randolph county, the main business part of the 
town and its post-office being in Howard county. 

There are two voting precincts in Silver Creek township, one at 
Mt. Airy and the other in that part of Roanoke which lies in this 

Mt. Airy is located on the public road leading from Huntsville to 
Roanoke, about 7 miles from the former place and 12 miles from 
Moberly. There is plenty of coal in this township and the local 
demand is easily supplied, for which purposes only have the mines 
been so far developed*. The indications are, however, that with 
proper facilities for transportation, a large business could be done in 
shipping this mineral to outside markets. 

There are two corn and saw mills in the township, one owned by J. 
C. Head and the other by James Bagby. The latter is engaged also 
to some extent in the manufacture of flour. 


Silver Creek has held on well to its old settlers, and quite a number 
who settled there before and about the time the township was organ- 
ized are still living there in advanced age, while the descendants of 


most of those who have since died, yet cling to the homes of their 
childhood and linger around the graves of their fathers. 

Among these are John Viley, who has been judge of the county 
court, Nicholas Dysart, George W. Dameron, once sheriff, Woodson 
Newby, James Goodman, Morgan Finnell, William Burton, William 
Thompson, William R. Burcli, George Ellis, Newton Bradley, Jeff. 
Fullington, Samuel Cockrell, John Minor, Paschall Troyman, Leven 
I. Dawkins, John Vaughan, Cornelius Vaughan, Allen Mayo, John 
Alexander, William E. Walden, William Nichols, Roderick O'Brien, 
William Holman, Joseph Holman, Sr., John Sears, Sr., Hardy Sears, 
Iverson Sears, Allen Mayo, William Mayo, Valentine Mayo, John 
Rowland, Younger Rowland, D. R. Denny, Samuel C. Davis, Isaiah 
Humphrey, William Fort, Asa Kirby, John Head, Ambrose Medley, 
Basil McDavitt, Sr., Roger West, James Davis, Rev. Samuel C. Davis, 
Thomas Bradley, Tolmau C. B. Gorham, Tolman Gorham, Jr., Thomas 
Gorham, Ambrose Halliburton, William Morrow and Joseph Morrow. 

Mr. William Mathis, beter known as Uncle Billy Mathis, emigrated 
from North Carolina in the year 1827 and erected his cabin, in primi- 
tive pioneer style, on 80 acres of land entered at government price, 
within five miles of where Mt. Airy now stands, and he is still living, 
in his 81st year, within a half mile of that place, having been a resi- 
dent of the county 52 years. He was married when he came to the 
State, but never had any children. He was here before the county 
was organized, and mentions William Holman, Abraham Gross and 
James Dysart as residents when he came, the first of whom Avas en- 
gaged in running a horse mill. 

Jerry Jackson came with Uncle Billy from North Carolina, and set- 
tled in the same neighborhood, but emigrated to Texas several years 

About the year 1837, Capt. William Upton, another old settler, 
opened a store at his place in connection with D. C. Garth, who lived 
at Huntsville, and had another store there. A blacksmith shop and a 
tobacco factory were soon after erected, and the place was first called 
Uptonsville. The enterprising people of the vicinity, however, were 
not long in obtaining a post-ofiice, which was christened Mt. Airy, a 
name which it has ever since borne. Capt. Upton, several years be- 
fore the late war, sold out his farm and store and moved south of the 
Missouri river, where he still lives, far advanced in years. 

The business at Mt. Airy has several times since changed hands, 
and for the most part during the late Civil W^ar was entirely suspended. 
It was afterwards revived and increased, and its renewed prosperity 



has been well maintained. The mercantile establishment there, for 
several years immediately after the war, was owned and managed by 
James B. Thompson, Esq. 

Judge James Head, one of Silver Creek's pioneers, a resident when 
the county was organized, and one of the judges of the first county 
court, founded Roanoke on the Howard county line in 1836. The 
place at first went by several names, as suited the fancy of the set- 
tlers, such as Head's Store, and Van Buren, the favorite and success- 
ful Democratic candidate for the presidency for that year. But when 
the post-oflBce was established there, at the suggestion of Judge 
Head, it was named for the residence of a favorite statesman of his 
native State — the celebrated John Randolph, of Roanoke. Judge 
Head emigrated to Randolph county, from Orange county, Virginia, 
several years before the county was organized. He was accompanied 
by his sister, Mrs. Fannie Medley and her husband, Jacob Medley, who 
settled near him, and was the first collector of Randolph county. 
Judge Head lived on his farm adjoining Roanoke, and carried on bus- 
iness in the town, until 1849, when he moved to Lockhart, Texas, 
where he died in 1875, at the age of 82 years. He was followed to 
this State in 1831 by his father and mother, and all his remaining 
brothers and sisters, except Mrs. Minor Rucker, who came with her 
husband and family in 1837. They all settled in Randolph county. 
His father, John Head, and his brother, John Head, Jr., settled in Sil- 
ver Creek, two miles north of Roanoke, the former on the farm where 
he resided until his death in 1852, and which the latter now owns and 
occupies. All the others settled in and around Huntsville. These 
were Dr. Walker Head, Avho was twice elected to the Legislature from 
this county, and at the time of his death in 1845, he had just been 
elected a delegate to the State Convention, to revise the Constitution. 
Mrs. Emily Chiles, Mrs. Sarah D. Allen, Mrs. Amanda Garth, and 
Mrs. Harriet Rucker were other members of the family. Mrs. Mar- 
tha Price, the youngest daughter, was single when she came to the 
State, and was married to General Sterling Price, at her fjither's res- 
idence in Silver Creek township, in the year 1833. Capt. John Head, 
who, as we have stated, resides upon his father's homestead adjoining 
the farm on which he settled in 1831, has been engaged in agricultural 
pursuits for 52 years. He raised a family of nine children — four sons 
and five daughters, seven of whom are still living. Capt. Head has 
always taken a lively interest in politics on the Democratic side, ever 
since the days of Andrew Jackson, for whom he cast his first vote for 
President in 1824. 


Mr. Robert Smith, who owns a fine farm, upon which he operated 
a tobacco factory, half a mile east of Mt. Airy, is an old settler. 
He came to Huntsville in 1837, where he "remained six years, and 
then moved to Silver Creek. He is now 73 years of age, and has 
raised a family of six children, three girls and three boys. In 1842 
he bought the Cooley farm, one mile east of Huntsville. The farm 
is underlaid by a four-foot vein of coal. 

Mr. John Osborn has resided in the county 50 years, having emi- 
grated from Orange county, Va., in 1835. He is now 67 years old. 
He purchased dry goods and other family supplies at Old Chariton, in 
Chariton county. Allen Mayo, Daniel McDavitt and William Fer- 
guson were Mr. Osborn's earliest neighbors, having preceded him in 
the settlement. 

Rev. William H. Mansfield ^ resided one mile north-east of Roanoke, 
on the farm of 200 acres which he settled in 1831, and was one of the 
oldest men in Silver Creek township at the time of his death. He 
was born in Orange county, Va., and resided in this county 50 years. 
He was married in 1814, in Virginia, to Miss Salina Eddings, who still 
survives, and they have had 13 children. Mr. Mansfield was a vet- 
eran of the War of 1812, and drew the usual pension. He took a 
just pride in having participated in the stirring events of that great 
national drama, in which his valor and patriotism contributed to win 
imperishable honor for Americans and vindicated our national motto, 
*'Free Trade and Sailors' Rights." He never departed from the 
political faith which inspired his early manhood, and in his old age he 
adhered with unwavering fidelity to the principles which in his youth 
he drew his sword to defend. He was a devoted Christian, and a 
member of the Missionary Baptist Church for nearly three-quarters of 
a century. He was ordained a minister of the gospel in 1832, and 
for more than 40 years valiantly carried the banner of the Cross, until 
increasing age and corpulency compelled him to abandon the active 
duties of the ministry, when, under a conscious conviction of having 
finished his appointed work, he retired to the shades of a more private 
life. Being seldom away from home he was very often called upon to 
perform the marriage ceremony, and was noted for his clemency 
towards runaway couples, whom he never declined to unite, unless 
prevented by a legal barrier. He was remarkable for his sociability 
and hospitality, and always gave his friends a dinner on Christmas 
Day, and on New Year's 1878, he celebrated his golden wedding. 

* Weighed 300 pounds. 


Mrs. Saliiia Mansfield, his wife, is the oldest lady in the township. 
She was born in Orange county, Va., in 1798, and is now 86 years of 
age. She ismuch beloved on account of her social and Christian virtues, 
and, like her husband, has been a zealous Christian and member of 
the Baptist Church during the period of their married life. She was 
a few years ago quite active, rode horseback, and attended to the do- 
mestic duties of the family. 

In this township an extra crop of corn is 50 bushels per acre, and 
the average 40. An extra crop of wheat is 30 bushels per acre, and 
the average is 21. An extra crop of oats is 45 bushels per acre, and 
the average is 25. An extra crop of tobacco is 1,500 pounds per acre, 
and the average is 1,000. Meadows are abundant and the hay crop 
is generally good. 



Its History — Earliest Settlers — Agriculture — Streams — Yield of Products — His- 
tory of Moberly — First Elections — Mayors and Present City Officers — Our 
Railroads — Machine Shops — Coal Mines — Grist Mills — Agricultural Imple- 
ments — Furniture — Foundries and Machine Shops — Cotton and Woolen Mills — 
Wagon and Carriage Factories — Tobacco and Cigars — Creamery — Potter's Ware — 
Gas — Newspapers — Water and Water Works — Building and Loan Associations — 
Agricultural Society — Eake and Stacker Factory — Scroll and Fancy Work — Soda 
Bottling — Bricks — Minor Manufactories — Eeal Estate Agencies — Commercial — 
Schools — Churches — Hotels — Improvements — The Professions — Miscellane- 
ous—Banks — Members of the Board of Trade— Secret Orders — Court of 
Common Pleas. 


This is one of the original municipal townships, and was organized 
in 1829. Its general shape is that of an L, a strip six miles long and 
two miles wide forming the lower extension of the letter, while a strip 
four miles wide and six and a half miles long composes the upper ex- 
tension. The township contains about thirty-six square miles. It has 
been much reduced from its original limits, other townships having 
been formed from it. The narrow strip of the township reaches to the 
eastern border of the county, while the greater body of land lies six 
miles west of that boundary. A large proportion of the terrritory is 
prairie, but there is abundance of timber for all the practical purposes 
of the farmer. 

The "divide" runs through its territory in a north direction, in 
the eastern central portion of the township. The eastern part, there- 
fore, contributes its waters to the Mississippi river, while the streams 
of the western part are tributary to the Missouri. 

Among the earliest settlers having made their homes in the county 
before it was originated, were Reuben Cornelius, Benjamin Hardin, 
Malcom Galbreath and T. N. Galbreath. From the latter, now living 
in Prairie township, we learn that, in 1822, when he first settled there, 
and even at a much later period, elk, deer, bear, wild turkeys and 
grouse were abundant for game, while wolves, foxes, wild cats and 
panthers were numerous. Col. P. P. Ruby, T. P. White, John Han- 
nah, Alexander Jones, John Grimes, Elijah Williams, Patrick Lynch, 
W. H. Baird and Eli Owens were among the early settlers. 


Wild honey proved a profitable crop, and could be found with little 
labor. In 1823, or 1824, Mr. Whittenburg built a mill in the south- 
eastern part of the county, and Mr. Goggin one within the present cor- 
porate limits of Huntsville. These were draught or horse mills, grind- 
ing corn alone. Previous to that meal was ground on hand mills or 
grated on graters prepared for the purpose. Little wheat flour was 
used, and what was consumed was brought from Old Franklin, more 
than forty miles distant. 

The land is diversified with prairie and timber ; comparatively little 
of it is so broken as to be unfit for cultivation, and all of it is adapted 
to grazing. The climate has undergone a great change within the 
recollection of those now living, and is much milder than a half cen- 
tury ago. Snows fell more frequently, and were deeper then than at 
the present time. The ground froze to a greater depth, but it was 
more easily cultivated than now. The summers have become warmer, 
and crops mature at an earlier date. Harvests that were .gathered in 
July and August then are gathered now in June and July. 

A piece of information given by some of our oldest citizens is im- 
portant. In the early settlement of the county the native grasses held 
possession of the soil, and blue grass was unknown. When the lands 
were enclosed, and the trampling and grazing of stock had killed the 
native grass, blue grass began to make its appearance ; showing that 
it is an indigenous growth in this soil, and neither cultivation nor graz- 
ing will destroy it. 

The township settled up slowly, owing, in great part, to its remote- 
ness even from local markets and the want of adequate transportation 
to foreign marts. The farmers fed their grain and grass to live stock, 
and dei^ended upon the " drovers " to purchase their cattle, horses and 
hogs. After the construction of the North Missouri Railroad, settle- 
ments became more common, and since the close of the Civil War they 
have advanced rapidly. Within the last twelve years fully two-thirds 
of the land now cultivated by farmers in Sugar Creek township has 
been prepared for the plow. Its growth since then has contrasted 
strangely with its tardy improvement in previous years. Farms have 
been opened in every direction, population has increased tenfold, man- 
ufactories have been established, and a new era has been inaugurated. 

The creeks in this township are numerous, but as the land lies along 
the dividing ridge of eastern and western waters, these streams are all 
small. They, however, supply abundance of water for the loose stock. 
In the absence of springs, farmers prepare with little labor convenient 


ponds, which, being once filled, iire never empty until they become 
filled by the gradual washing of the soil. The character of the sub- 
stratum is admirably adapted to such convenience, being a stifi'clay 
that forms an almost solid bottom and a safe receptacle. 

The variety of agricultural products is not surpassed by any other 
country in the world. While there are other lands that may produce 
one, two or even three crops in larger proportion, there are none 
that will yield so generous a harvest of such a great variety of 
productions. And this fact constitutes the chief charm of Central 
Missouri. To enumerate is only to repeat what has a thousand 
times been said : Corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, flax, Hungarian 
grass, millet, clover, blue grass, apples, peaches, pears, quinces, and 
the smaller fruits and berries, potatoes, yams, artichokes, beets, all 
the vegetables for the kitchen garden, tobacco, and numerous other 
vegetable products, grow with proper culture, and give back ample 
remuneration for the toil of the husbandman. 

Coal underlies a large area of the township. New and valuable 
mines have been and are constantly being opened. As the manufac- 
tories of Moberly and the demands of the railroads increase, these 
will be fully developed, making a valuable acquisition to the indus- 
tries of the township and employing a large number of laborers. 
This trade is constantly increasing and must prove a source of large 
profit in the near future. 

Within a comparatively short time, the school interests have re- 
ceived a new impetus. Schools are convenient to every part of the 
township, there being 11, including those in Moberly, within its lim- 
its. These are equal to the best common schools in any section of 
the country, and give instruction in all the rudimentary branches of 
education. For the pay of teachers the State furnishes a large fund 
to every organized district. The balance of the money needed for 
teachers, apparatus, library and contingent expenses, is derived from 
taxation upon all the property of the district, nothing but churches 
and cemeteries being exempt. 

The population will compare favorably for intelligence, morality, 
enterprise, hospitality, liberality and thrift, with that of the same 
number of people in any part of the Union. The population of the 
township is about 12,000, possibly more, no census having been taken 
for several years ; this is but a fair estimate. They represent all sec- 
tions of the Union, all political parties, all denominations of Chris- 
tians in the West, a multitude of occupations and an aggregation of 


those higher qualities of manhood that give tone and character to a 
community. Every industrious immigrant is cordially greeted. 

The churches in the township, including those in Moberly, are 14 
ni number ; besides which, the school houses are frequently used 
for religious meetings. There are few townships in Missouri where 
the number of houses of worship is in such large proportion to the 

As the manufactories are nearly all in the city of Moberly, we shall 
speak of them in connection with our review of its industries and 

The average yield of land in Sugar Creek township is thus reported 
by farmers who have had a long experience : Corn, per acre, average 
crop, 25 bushels ; good crop, 35 bushels ; extra crop, 50 bushels. 
[When an unusually good season and extra cultivation and care on 
well prepared ground have combined, these figures have been doubled]. 
Wheat, average crop, 15 bushels ; good crop, 20 bushels ; extra, 30 
bushels. Oats, average, 30 bushels; good, 40 bushels; extra, 50 to 
60 bushels. Rye, average, 40 bushels ; good, 50 bushels ; extra, 60 
bushels. Tobacco, average, 1,200 pounds; good, 1,500 pounds; ex- 
tra, 1,800 pounds. Timothy hay, average, 3,000 pounds; good, two 

It is difficult, if not impossible, to estimate, even approximately, 
the number of live stock shipped or exported from the township, as 
Moberly is not the only shipping point from which its products are 
sent, and many mules, horses and cattle are driven on foot to remote 
points. The aggregate is very large, and the returns to the farmers 
very remunerative. 


But a few years ago, comparatively speaking, the present beautiful 
town site of Moberly was covered with wild grass, over which roamed 
at will the cattle of the neighboring farmers, who, at that time little 
dreamed that the unbroken quietude of the prairie range would soon be 
disturbed by the shrill whistle of the locomotive, the hum of machin- 
ery, and the din and noise of a busy and populous city. Almost at a 
single bound the bantling sprang into vigorous life, defying all oppo- 
sition, and transcending the hopes of its most ardent friends, who 
looked and wondered, until the fair young city now looms up as one 
of the most remarkable and rapidly built monuments of Western 
pluck and Western energy to be found outside of the mining reo-ions 
of the Rocky Mountains. 



Ill 1858 a charter was granted to the Chariton and Randolph Rail- 
road Company, with authority to construct a road from a point in 
Randolph county to Brunswick, in Chariton county. It was desirable 
that this road should tap the North Missouri road at the most conven- 
ient point for its construction, and what is now Moberly was fixed upon 
as the point of departure. The company laid off a town and drove up 
stakes marking the lots. The village of Allen, one mile north of where 
Moberly now stands, contained several houses, and was the shipping 
pf)int for Huntsville and other points west. To induce the abandonment 
of this village, the Chariton and Randolph Company offered to all who 
would remove their houses to the new site the same amount of ground 
they owned and occupied in Allen. This was in the summer of 1861. 
But the inhabitants of Allen either had no confidence in the com- 
pany's ability to build the road, or thought their own town better 
located, and destined in the future to beat its rival, which then existed 
only in name and on maps. From whatever cause, the proposition 
was rejected by the majority, and was accepted by only one person. 
Patrick Lynch, an Irishman, who still resides near the corporate lim- 
its of Moberly, had a small, one-story frame house in Allen, and be- 
lieving the junction would one day be the better point, he placed his 
domicile on rollers, took a yoke of oxen, and drew it down to what 
were then and still are lots 11 and 12 in block 12, fronting on Clark 
street, opposite to the Merchants' Hotel, and running east with Reed 
street to the alley between Clark and Sturgeon. The west end of 
these lots is now occupied as a grocery store by Messrs. Hegarty. 

This was the beginning of Moberly. The land around was a prairie, 
without fence or enclosure of any kind, and here Pat Lynch lived with 
his family, solitary and alone. The Allenites laughed at him, but he 
stuck to his contract and stayed. The Civil War put a temporary em- 
bargo upon town building, and Patrick concluded to profit by his 
lonely position. He plovyed up the stakes set to mark the lots, and 
cultivated the land on the west side of the railroad, where the business 
houses of Moberly now stand. Nothing was done toward the further 
sale of lots by the Chariton and Randolph Railroad Company, and Pat 
continued to occupy the place and *' hold the fort" during the con- 
tinuance of the war, unmolested by soldiers. 

When business began to revive after the cessation of hostilities, the 
franchises and property of the Chariton and Randolph Railroad Com- 


pany passed into the hands of the North Missouri Railroad Company, 
and the project of building the road and extending it to Kansas City 
was renewed. At the head of that company was Isaac M. Sturgeon, 
of St. Louis, a practical business man of eminent ability and forecast, 
and endowed with an indomitable spirit of energy and enterprise. 

Having determined to complete the extension to Kansas City, it 
seemed to be certain that a large town would grow up somewhere 
about midway between the eastern and western termini of the road. 
The junction of the north end with the western branch seemed to offer 
a good opportunity to lay out and establish such a place. Moberly 
was, therefore, resurveyed, and a sale of lots was advertised to take 
place on the grounds September 27, 1866. In the first map of the 
place, issued by the auctioneers, Messrs. Barlow, Valle & Bush, of 
St. Louis, machine shop grounds were indicated and the picture of 
a house, somewhat resembling a southern cotton gin, combined with 
a Kentucky rope walk, was sketched on its face. The terms of 
sale were one-third cash when the deed was ready, one-third in one 
year and one-third in two years, with interest at the rate of six 
per cent on deferred payments — $10 on each lot to be paid at the 
time of bidding. The sale was pretty largely attended and lots sold 
at fair prices. The lot on which the Merchants' Hotel now stands 
was sold for $150, and some other lots brought prices ranging from 
$85 to $125. The average price of lots at this sale was between 
$45 and $50. Before the sale began, Mr. Sturgeon ordered that lots 
11 and 12, in block 12, be marked off to Patrick Lynch and a deed 
to them be made, he to pay $1 as recorder's fee. This, as Mr. Stur- 
geon said, was in consideration of the fact that Pat had '< held the 
city during the war without the loss of a life or a house." Among 
the purchasers at that sale, who now live in Moberly, were Wm. 
H. Robinson, O. F. Chandler, Dr. C. J. Tannehill, Elijah Williams, 
John Grimes, Ernest Miller, C. Otto, J. G. Zahn, Patrick Lynch 
and others, perhaps, whose names we have not learned. 

Immediately after the sale S. P. Tate began the construction of a 
hotel on the south-west corner of Clark and Reed streets. The struc- 
ture was a two-story frame. John Grimes also began the building of 
a hotel on Sturgeon street, which, being completed before Tate's, is 
the first house ever built in Moberly. It is the American Hotel, 
near the corner of Sturgeon and Rollins streets, and now occupied 
by Martin Curry, as a hostelrie. Messrs. Chandler, Otto, Robinson, 
Miller, McDaniel and other parties followed in rapid succession, and 


the noise of hammer and saw was heard everywhere along Clark, 
Reed, Sturgeon and Coates streets. 

Mr. Adam Given, now of the banking house of Avery, Woolfolk & 
Co., owned a horse mill and sawed the lumber for the first house 
erected in Moberly. The house is still standing. 

The original plat of the town embraced four blocks north of 
Franklin street and bounded on the north by the lands of the railroad 
company ; five blocks and five half blocks on the west side of the rail- 
road, from Wightman street on the south to the railroad lands on the 
north, and from Sturgeon street on the east to the alley between Clark 
and Williams streets on the west ; and also fourteen blocks on the east 
side of the railroad, from Sturgeon to Morley, and from Wightman 
street to the township road on the north. At the first sale no lots on 
the east side of the railroad were disposed of, and the new buildings 
were erected on the west side. The first brick house built in INfoberly 
was the dwellins; which stands on the south-west corner of Coates and 
Williams streets, erected by Perry McDonald. In the fall of 1867, 
another sale took place, at which a large number of lots on the east 
side were sold, and the work of extending the area of the city began. 
This sale also attracted many bidders, as live men had begun to ap- 
preciate the value of the location as a business point. 

Since then many additions have been made, and the territory of the 
city has been vastly extended, the old limits being gradually filled 
with business houses and dwellings, the population steadily advancing, 
and the permanency of the location becoming every year more and 
more assured. The wooden structures at first built gave way to more 
substantial and stylish brick edifices, the frame hotels and wooden 
store rooms were superseded by commodious and solid walls, and the 
small one-roomed dwellings were moved to the rear to make room for 
larger and more imposing buildings. 

As a matter of history we record the names of the first dealers in 
the leading lines of trade : Dry goods, Tate & Bennett ; drugs, O. F. 
Chandler, ; groceries, — Lampton, who was immediately succeeded by 
Martin Howlett ; hardware, William Seelen ; furniture, H. H. Forcht, 
and, immediately after, J. G. Zahn, both houses being owned by E. 
H. Petering; lumber, sash, doors and blinds, H. H. Forcht for E. H. 
Petering; jewelry, John N. Kring ; livery, White Bros.; clothing, 
Levy & Krailsheimer ; boots and shoes, L. Brandt ;, butcher, Henry 
Overberg ; barber, O.N. Kaare. 

The first officers of the town were : Trustees, A. T. Franklin, pres- 


ident ; Chas. Tisue, L. Brandt, Asa Bennett and William Seelen ; mar- 
shal, Martin Hewlett ; jnstice of the peace, E. Sidner ; constable, 
Chas. Featherston ; notary public, W. E. Grimes ; postmaster, Chas. 
Tisue, who was also agent of the Merchants' Union Express Com- 

Up to 1873, the 3'ear of the great panic, the amount of building and 
the increase of business were sufficient to justify the assumption of the 
now po^Dular sobriquet of the "Magic City." Mining districts have 
sometimes gathered larger populations in shorter time, but they have 
not carried with them the evidences of solidity and stability that 
marked the growth of Moberly. But the panic placed a temporary 
check upon the spirit of speculation and enterprise. It checked, but 
did not stay the progress of the town. Even under the most dis- 
couraging circumstances the work of extension was continued, and if 
there were fewer buildings erected than in previous years, still the 
citizens and property holders had unfaltering faith in the future of 
Moberly, aad continued to build as the wants of the place demanded. 
Meantime Moberly had grown from a place on paper to a smart village, 
from a village to a town, from a town to a city. 

On the 6th of June, 1868, the first board of trustees met, chose A. 
T, Franklin chairman, and appointed the chairman and C. Tisue to 
draft by-laws and ordinances. At a meeting of the board June 14, 
1869, a resolution was passed offering one of three tracts of land to 
the North Missouri Railroad as a site for the location of the machine 
shops, the ground and its appurtenances to be exempt from city taxes 
so long as they were used for that purpose. These tracts were the 
Concannton farm, 67 acres, northwest of town ; a portion (60 acres) of 
the farms of Grimes and Meals, north of town ; a portion (60 acres) 
of the Hunt and Godfrey farm south of town. J. D. Werden was 
appointed agent of the town to confer with the directors of the rail- 
road. On the 20th of August the purchasing committee reported that 
James Meals offered to sell " near six acres alono; the West Branch 
Railroad at $200 per acre, and the remaining portion north of said 
strip and including the ground his house is on, extending north to 
the north line of the land known as the reservoir land, at $500 per 
acre." No action was taken by the board on this liberal proposition, 
.but an election was ordered for August 31, 1869, to take the sense of 
the voters as to whether a tract of 100 acres, to cost not exceeding 
$12,000, should be bought for machine shop purposes. At this elec- 
tion T. B. Porter, B. Y. N. Clarkson and Josiah Harlan were judges. 
At a meeting on the 4th of September, A. F. Bunker was appointed 


a committee of one to close the contract with the raih'oad company 
for the location of the machine shops. 

Quite a panic was created in the fall of 1869 by the appearance 
here of a malignant form of small-pox, and the town incurred heavy 
expense in caring for the patients and taking precautionary measures 
against the spread of the disease. On the 27th of June, 1870, another 
vote was taken to determine whether the town would purchase a tract 
of 104 acres of ground lying north and west of town for the machine 
shops. The result of this election is not recorded, but it was held to 
have been unlawful, having been held on Monday. A new election 
was ordered for August 2, 1870. This election showed perfect 
unanimity pn the subject of the purchase, as there was not a dissent- 
ing voice; and at a meeting of the board of trustees on the 4th of 
August, 20 bonds of the denomination of $1,000 each were ordered 
to be printed. 

At a meeting held August 19, 1870, William Seelen was required, 
in addition to his duties as vice-president of the board, to '* hear and 
try all cases for the violation of the city ordiilances," and on the 7th 
of October he was appointed to purchase six street lamps. The bond 
of the town collector was fixed at $4,000; but in 1871 it was raised 
to $10,000, showing a hundred and fifty per cent increase in the 
revenue within two years. On the 24th of August, 1871, the presi- 
dent of the board was authorized to borrow " such a sum of money as 
he may be able to obtain at 15 per cent interest for the longest time 
he can get said money, for the improvement of the streets of 
Moberly," for which the bonds of the town were to be issued. On 
the 13th of November, 1871, the proposition to donate money to the 
North Missouri Railroad Company for machine shops was renewed. 
On the 21st of March, 1871, the board of trustees accepted the 
proposition of Dr. C. J. Tannehill to donate the block on which the 
public school building now stands as a public park. On the 25th of 
the same month, an election was held to determine whether the city 
should purchase and donate to the St. Louis, Kansas City and North- 
ern Railroad Company 200 acres of land lying between the west 
branch and the main line, for the erection of machine shops. The 
election resulted favorably, the board of trustees proposed to donate 
this land, also 618 acres one and a half miles west of that tract, and. 
exempt the whole for twenty years from all city taxes. Another 
inducement held out was that the land thus o-jven contained an inex- 
haustible bed of coal. Hon. William A. Hall was appointed the agent 
of the town to present the proposition. The contract was subse- 


quciitly made and was ratified b}^ the trustees of Moberlj April 2, 
1872. " ,. . 

At a meeting of the board on the 3d of April, 1872, W. F. Barrows 
was appointed to contract for the lithographing of seventy bonds of 
the denomination of $500 each, bearing 10 per cent interest, and 
amounting in the aggregate to $35,000, payable in 10 years. He 
was also empowered to sell these bonds without limitation as to price. 
At the same time a sjDecial election was ordered to take place May 10, 
1872, to determine whether the town would purchase 818 acres of land 
for the car shops. The election resulted in favor of the purchase by 
a vote of 299 for, to 4 against it, and bonds to the amount of $27,000 
were ordered to be issued. On the 26th of August, same year, right 
of way was granted to the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway Com- 
pany to construct their road the entire length of Moulton street, and 
across " any other street in said town." 

An election was held February 1, 1873, to ascertain "whether a 
majority of the citizens of the town are in favor of having the town 
of Moberly incorporated under a special charter by act of the Legis- 
lature," J. T. Young, J. H. Burkholder, H. M. Porter, B. Y. N. 
Clarkson and T. P. White having been appointed in the preceding 
December to draft the charter. This election resulted in favor of the 
charter, and T, P. White was appointed to go to Jeiferson City in the 
interest of the town. On the 5th of March, a legislative delegation 
visited Moberly and a supper was given them by the city, which cost 

The first election under the charter granted by the Legislature was 
held April 8, 1873, and resulted as follows: T. P. White, mayor; 
councilman at large, C. P. Apgar ; councilmen : First ward, H. C 
Moss; Second ward, William Seelen ; Third ward, D. H. Fitch and 
B. R. White. Clerk, C. B. Rodes. At that election, also, it was de- 
cided to fund the debt of the town, under the general law, by a vote 
of 509 to 4. The bonds of the city were ordered by the first council 
to be of the denomination of $500 each, to be issued to W. F. Bar- 
rows or bearer, payable 10 years after date, redeemable at option of 
the city after five years, with ten per cent interest payable semi-annu- 
ally. The bonds authorized to be issued amounted to $30,000. 

The mayors of the city, from its organization to the present time, 
have been T. P. White, 1873-4 ; J. H. Burkholder, 1874-5 ; W. L. 
Durbin, 1875-6; J. C. Hickerson, 1876-7 and 1877-8; W. T. Mc- 
Canne 1878-9; J. H. Burkholder, 1879-80; George L. Hassett, 
in 1880-1 ; P. J. Carmody, 1881-2 ; Daniel S. Forney, 1883. Pres- 


eiit city officers and coiincilmeii are : City attorney, W. S. Sand- 
ford ; recorder, D. A. Coates ; clerk, Charles L. Hunn ; collector, 
Joseph B. Davis ; marshal, George Keating ; treasurer, C. P. Apgar. 
Councilmen, W. Chisholm, J. A. Camplin, E. H. Mix, M. A. Hays, 
W. M. Coyle, Norris Tattle. During these years the population of 
the city has largely increased, elegant business houses, hotels, public 
school buildings and private residences have been erected, and all the 
appliances of a young and vigorous city have been added. The Mis- 
souri, Kansas and Texas Railroad has been completed through the 
limits of the city and railroad transportation to any part of the country 
is easily obtained. 

November 1, 1883, the Board of Trade of Moberly published a 
paper called the Moberly Board of Trade Review, and as the indus- 
tries, manufactories, enterprises and business interests of the city have 
been admirablv classified and concisely treated of under their proper 
headings, in that paper, we take from it the following extracts : — 


As the permanency and prosperity of Moberly depend almost wholly 
upon the railroads centering here or contributing to her commercial 
growth, as they furnish the only means of transporting our products 
to distant markets, we mention them first in order. Taking Moberly 
as a center, the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad extends east- 
ward to St. Louis and westward to Kansas City, Mo. At these 
points connection is made with the great trunk lines leading to the 
Atlantic seaboard on one side and the Pacific coast on the other. Mo- 
berly is the central point between the two places, is the terminus of 
one and the beginning of another division and is the point at which all 
repairs are made, all engines are manufactured and all cars are built. 
The Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific is one of the leading roads in Mis- 
souri, and its tonnage during the year shows a traffic second to no west- 
ern road. Four mails daily pass over this route. 

Stretching north-westerly from Moberly, also, is the Omaha branch 
of the Wabash, terminating at Omaha, Nebraska, and there connect- 
ing with the Union Pacific, with which it is closely allied. A very 
large proportion of the California trade and travel passes over this 
branch, and as this is one of the termini, much of the freight is 
handled at this point. These two roads cross a number of lines run- 
nins: north and south through Missouri, which thus become valuable 
feeders from the northern portion of the state. 

Northward from Moberly a road extends to Ottumwa, Iowa, and 
connects with the Iowa and Minnesota systems. It crosses sevenil 
important east and west lines, furnishing direct communication with 
north-eastern and north-western Missouri and all of Iowa and Minne- 
sota. Two mails arrive daily fi-om the north. 


The Kansas and Texas branch of the Missouri Pacific Railway runs 
north-easterly to Hannibal and there connects with roads running north- 
ward through Keokuk and Bnrlington, Iowa, and north-easterly to 
Chicago. Two trains daily leave Moberly for Chicago and two arrive 
from that point, besides a number of freight trains. 

South-westerly this road traverses South-west Missouri, South-east 
Kansas and the Indian Territory and enters Texas at Denison. It 
crosses the Chicago and Alton at Higbee, Randolph county, Missouri, 
the Missouri Pacific at Sedalia and the St. Louis and San Francisco at 
Vinita, I. T. It is part of the great consolidated South-western system 
and connects with the main lines of Texas. 

Numerous branches from all these roads tap the richest agricultural 
and mining lands in the West. Thus Moberly is in close proximity to 
the cotton fields of Texas, the lead mines of South-west Missouri, the 
iron mines of South-east Missouri and the grain fields of the w^hole 
trans-Mississippi Valley, It is on the direct line of travel between 
New York and San Francisco ; it is located on one of the railroads 
that carries the products of the great South-west to the great St. Louis, 
Cliicago and eastern markets. It stretches its iron arms into remote 
territories and enables the manufacturer to ship his wares direct from 
this point to almost every prominent place on the continent, and espec- 
ially to the thriving towns and villages of the West. Its facilities for 
transportation are, therefore, unsurpassed. Other railroads are talked 
of, but even with those already built the advantages are better than 
those of any other town in the interior of Missouri. 

As an evidence of the growing importance of these roads, we give 
below a statement of the passenger and freight business during the 
periods indicated : — 

The number and value of passenger tickets sold at this point for 
the last three years is as follows : — 

1881, No. tickets sold, 45,766 $88,526.95 

1882, <' " '« 43,208 97,346.60 

1883, (9 mos. to Sep. 30) 34,396 84,542.05 

Allowins: that the last three months of 1883 will average with the 
first nine (and they more than did so), the number of tickets sold 
during the year will reach 45,8(31 and the receipts will be $113,722.73, 
an increase over the previous year of nearly seventeen per cent, 
and over the year 1882 over twenty-eight per cent. 

Comparing the freight received and forwarded in 1882 and 1883, the 
increase is still more marked. The receipts for freight during the 
month of August, 1882, were $9,675.53, during the month of Aug- 
ust, 1883, $11,988.55 — an increase of $2,313.02, or nearly twenty- 
four per cent. The receipts of September, 1882, were, $9,981.03; 
for September, 1883, $15,352.17 — anincrease of $5, 371, 14, or nearly 
fifty-four per cent. The tonnage of freight forwarded by the Wabash 
for the first five months of 1879 was 7,531,130 pounds; while for the 
single month of August, 1883, it was 6,378,670 pounds. The cash 
receipts on freight for the same periods were, January 1 to June 1, 


1879, $17,509.28; for the single month of September, 1883, the re- 
ceipts were $15,352.17. 

We have given these figures as a slight indication of the rapid and 
steady growth of the city of Moberly. 

These roads are all equipped with an abundance of the finest rolling 
stock — palace coaches, sleeping cars, freight and stock cars, magnifi- 
cent engines and all the needful vehicles for the trans[)ortation ot the 
products of our orchards, fields and mines. Thus these roads are 
continually pouring through our city a flood of cars laden with the 
silks and teas of China and Japan, the wines and fruits of California, 
the gold and silver of Colorado and the western territories, the wheat 
and corn of Kansas, Nebraska and Western Missouri, the cotton, grain, 
cattle and horses of Texas, the manufactured goods of New England, 
the agricultural machinery and other products of States farther east,. 
and the lumber from the pineries of the North. 


By large donations of land, the city secured the location here of the 
immense machine shops of what is now the W^abash, St. Louis and 
Pacific Railway. They are located on a tract of 218 acres of land lying 
in the northern limits of the city, though the company owns over 800 
acres in the immediate vicinity of the shops. Under the contract be- 
tween the railroad company and the city these shops cannot be removed, 
but mustever be the main shops of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific 
Railway and its successors. Even the forfeiture of the land donated 
would not release the company from the contract, and as immense 
buildings have been erected they will ever remain a prominent and 
permanent feature of the manufacturing interests of Moberly. 

Everything connected with a railroad, except the rails and wheels, 
are here manufactured. Engines, coaches, passenger, freight and 
stock cars, velocipedes, cabooses and everything that moves on the 
track are made. Here, too, the bridges, station houses and boarding 
" shanties" of the road are built and shipped wherever needed. 

The water necessary for all this work is derived from a lake cover- 
ing several acres of ground and measuring about 20 feet in depth 
in the deepest parts. The lake is fed and maintained by small rivu- 
lets that prevail during the spring and fall seasons, and affords an abun- 
dance of water all the year round for every demand of the car and 
machine shops. 

From 650 to 900 men are constantly employed in building engines 
and constructing coaches and cars. They form a part of the per- 
manent citizenship of the place. Many of them have acquired prop- 
erty since they came here, and own their homes. For industry, 
intelligence, integrity and sobriety, they will compare favorably with 
the same number of men in any department of business or in any 
profession. Their large library, located in the office building on the 
shop grounds, and containing over 1,000 volumes, is evidence that 
they are actuated by high moral principles and superior intelligence. 


They are skilled workmen, and the products of these shops are not 
excelled by those of any similar manufactory in the Union. Whether 
in the production of engines, sleeping, dining, passenger, baggage, or 
freiirht cars, the work is a model of completeness and excellence. In 
the brass and iron foundries, the boiler shops, the forges, and the 
wood-work department, only the finest and most costly machinery is 
used. The fuel necessary to carry on this vast work amounts to about 
1,000 tons of coal and 100 cords of wood monthly. This fuel is ob- 
tained in this immediate vicinity, and thus aids in the establishment of 
other industries. 


As previously stated, the entire county is underlaid with valuable 
beds of coal. At Renick, six miles south of Moberly, several 
shafts have been sunk and beds of coal of great thickness and won- 
derful heating power have been worked for several years. West of 
Moberly, between this city and Hunts ville, three or four mines have 
been opened on the line of railroad, giving employment to hundreds 
of miners and affording an excellent quality of fuel. 

Three-fourths of a mile north-west of this city, and connected 
with it by a branch railroad, is the Williams mine, opened a short 
time ago. The depth of the shaft is 115 feet. The coal is found in 
layers of from four to four and a half feet in thickness. The mine 
is absolutely free from water, and the coal is perfectly dry. Its 
heating capacity is equal to that of the best coal of Ohio, Indiana, and 
Illinois, and for making steam is unsurpassed by that of any other 
mine. Owing to want of capital, the proprietor has not been able to 
develop the bed, and is at present only working about 30 hands 
and taking out from 40 to 50 tons per day. He has a lease on 210 
acres, but the lead may be extended for miles. 

In the north-eastern part of the city, and just beside the railroad, 
Timothy Collins has sunk a shaft to the depth of 256 feet, and found 
a bed of coal rangino; in thickness from two feet to four feet two 
inches. This mine has not been fully developed, but arrangements 
are being made to work it thoroughly. 

Other mines will be opened in time, but it requires an amount of 
capital which our people find it practically impossible to command 
at present. The market for all this mineral is as extensive as could 
be desired. Already miners are shipping their products northward 
to Iowa, westward to Kansas and Nebraska, southward to Arkansas, 
and eastward till it comes in contact with the mines in Illinois. 
It is furnished on flats the year round for $1.75 i^er ton. There are 
thousands of acres of it, and many 3^ears must elapse, even should 
manufactories be multiplied many fold, before the mines could be 
even partially exhausted. 


Moberly can boast of grist mills which, if not so extensive as those 
of other cities, are at least equal to the best in the quality and 


character of their products. Located in the eastern part of the 
city are the Moberly Flouring Mills of Messrs. Simon Bros. They 
were erected in 1874 at a cost of $22,000 ; but since coming into the 
possession of the present proprietors, the}' have been enlarged at 
heavy cost, and greatly increased in capacity. They have ten sets of 
rollers — in fact, all of the most modern improved, machinery of a 
complete roller mill for the manufacture of new or patent process flour. 
They are 40x40 feet, four stories high, with a brick engine and boiler 
house 20x50 feet. There is warehouse capacity for 15,000 bushels of 
wheat, and storage for 1,000 barrels of flour, and 100,000 pounds of 
bran . 

The wheat used is largely obtained from this immediate vicinity, 
the proprietors claiming that the finest flour in the market is made 
from the wheat grown in Randolph and adjacent counties. The pro- 
ducts of these mills are sold along the line of the various rail- 
roads, reaching far into Iowa on the north. New York and Boston 
on the east, and North-eastern and Central Texas. The present 
capacity of the mills is 140 barrels per day, but they are so 
arranged as to be susceptible of great extention at comparatively 
little cost. The proprietors manufactured during the past year 7,000,- 
000 pounds, or 35,000 barrels of flour, all of which has found 
ready sale for cash at remunerative prices, l)esides a large amount ex- 
changed with farmers for wheat. The flour made is equal to the best 
brands manufactured elsewhere, and will command a premium in 
almost any market. 

In close proximity to the Union depot, and almost in the heart of 
the city, is another mill, also erected in 1874, to which is added wool 
carding machinery. It has recently been enlarged and improved, and 
now supplies the best quality of bolted meal to all the surrounding 
country. It is under the management of William Radell, an experi- 
enced miller, and has secured a large and constantly growing trade. 

Very recently a company has been formed in Moberly for the 
erection of a large merchant mill near one of the railroads, in connec- 
nection with which an elevator will be built. 


Fully $25,000 worth of agricultural implements, such as moAvers, 
reapers, threshers, cultivators, riding and walking plows, harrows, 
rakes, stackers, planters, etc., are annually sold in this city. Nearly 
all this machinery is manufactured abroad ; not because we have not 
the necessary materials cheaper and more convenient than they are 
ordinarily found, but because a want of capital has prevented our cit- 
izens from engaging in such enterprises. The very timber that grows 
in our forests is shipped to distant points, to come back to us or to 
go into States and Territories still farther west, in the shape of com- 
pleted tools and implements. While this work is being done else- 
where, our beds of coal lie only partially explored, and scarcely at all 
developed. With beds of fine coal three and a half to five feet or 


more in thickness, with easy, speedy and cheap transportation from 
the iron fields of Missouri, and with great forests of as fine timber as 
was ever worked into shape, we have no manufactories of importance, 
simply because we have not a surplus capital that may be taken from 
the ordinary occupations of our people and invested in such enter- 

The demand for every kind of agricultural implements is daily in- 
creasing. Farms are annually multiplying all around us, while the 
vast prairies of Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado and Wyoming 
are peopled with adventurous spirits whose demands for all improved 
farming machinery must be supplied from the timber, iron and coal 
fields of Missouri. Farming is no longer an experiment, it is a science 
which is rapidly developing into a fine art, and it will require a vast 
outlay of capital and the employment of a large amount of skilled 
labor to furnish the plows, rakes, harrows and other implements of 
the Western farmers for ages to come. No better point can be found 
in the State of Missouri than the city of Moberly for the establish- 
ment of these manufactories, and he who first occupies the field has a 
positive assurance of gain. 


While our forests abound in maple, ash, cherry, oak, walnut, syc- 
amore, and other woods suitable for making furniture for the entire 
West, there is scarcely a single article of household economy that is 
not shipped here from abroad. Chairs, tables, stands, bedsteads, bu- 
reaus, etc., whether of fine or common material, are all imported, 
and that, too, from places which are destitute of the facilities we 
possess. As the great tide of emigration sets westward, and the ter- 
ritories every year become more densely peopled, new fields are opened 
up for the sale of such wares. The nearer the manufacturer can get 
to the market the cheaper his goods can be supplied to consumers, as 
the cost of transportation is lessened. Here is a boundless territory 
rapidly becoming an empire, not onl}^ in extent, but in population and 
wealth. The country west of Missouri affords no facilities for the 
production of this class of manufactures, as the land is barren of 
forests and possesses only scattered and stunted trees. The market 
for furniture of all kinds is constantly increasing in its demands. The 
investment of capital in the city of Moberly in this branch of industry, 
cannot be otherwise than profitable to the investor. 


We have already noticed the machine shops of the Wabash, St. 
Louis and Pacific Railroad located at this point. But they do no cus- 
tom work, and confine themselves to that of the road to which they 
belong, and its numerous branches and feeders. The western roads, 
hundreds of which are annually built, and few of which have machine 
shops of their own, will for many years afford ample custom for all 
the shops likely to be erected in. this State. The work can be done 


here cheaper, better and more speedily than even along the line of 
these roads, as we have the timber and the coal and are nearer the 
great iron furnaces of Missouri. Experienced and intelligent ma- 
chinists connected with the Wabash shops regard Moberly as the best 
point in the State for the establishment of such an enterprise. 

For 70 miles around us there is no foundry worthy of the name. 
In fact there is not one where the work demanded by an agricul- 
tural community can be done. Within a radius of 40 miles, in the 
counties of Boone, Audrain, Monroe, Macon, Chariton, Howard 
and Randolph, there is a population of 150,000, with an aggregate 
wealth of fully $40,000,000. Not one of these counties has a foun- 
dry. They are all agricultural districts, where a vast amount of 
machinery is employed. A large part of the work required goes to 
St. Louis or Kansas City, the distance in either case being two or 
three to five times as great as if sent to Moberly. All these counties 
are connected by railroad with this city, and the class of custom to 
which we refer would of itself be sufficient to maintain a foundry. 
But besides this, there is other and heavier work to be done. Prac- 
tical foundrymen, however, will readily appreciate the advantages 
from what has been said above. A comparatively small amount of 
capital invested in a foundry, or foundry and machine shops combined, 
would be speedily doubled, trebled, or quadrupled in the hands of an 
experienced and skillful man or company. Here is an opening for in- 
telligent labor to reap a rich reward. 


This region is peculiarly adapted to the growth of sheep and the 
production of wool. Sheep require to be fed but little. The blue 
grass of our pastures and forests affords sufficient nutriment nearly 
all the year round. Very recently our farmers have turned their at- 
tention more particularly to the breeding of sheep. They have not 
only largely increased their flocks, but they have now the best breeds 
of wool-producing animals, including both the finer and coarser grades. 
As an evidence of the rapid growth of this industry in Randolph county 
alone, we may say that in 1879 there were but 18,000 sheep in the 
count3^ In 1880 the number had grown to 23,000, and in 1883 to 
32,000. The Cairo Wool-Growers' and Sheep-Breeders' Association, 
which was organized several years ago at a point six miles north cf 
this city, has done much to promote the wool interest and to give a 
new impetus to sheep culture. 

What is true of Randolph county is true of all the surrounding coun- 
ties. The industry might be indefinitely extended, and would 1)e if 
there were mills at home to consume the product. Few farmers, 
however, have enough wool to justify them in shipping to a foreign 
market, and they therefore sell to local traders or to parties who 
come from distant localities, thereby losing the trans))ortation upon 
their products. The wool clip of Randolph in 1880 was 131,000 
pounds. In the eight or ten counties that might be made tributary to 


woolen mills in Moberly, the clip of 1883 could scarcely hiive been 
less than a million and a half of pounds. Millions of pounds more 
could be readily purchased from adjacent territory at a trifling cost 
for transportation. The mills necessary to work up this large amount 
of material are not found in Missouri. The mills that have hereto- 
fore been established have been compelled to work on a stinted cap- 
ital, and have, on that account, been less profitable than they should 
have been. With large means and ample machinery a mill of that 
character in Moberly would pay a heavy interest upon the capital em- 

This city is located on the Kansas and Texas division of the Mis- 
souri Pacific Railroad, a system that penetrates the great cotton 
regions of Texas and Arkansas. It is on a direct line between the 
cotton fields of these States and the Eastern markets, and many thou- 
sand bales of this Southern staple annually pass through this place to 
the mills of more favored sections. To arrest this transportation here 
and work the raw material into fabrics such as are required in the 
West, would be to put into the pockets of the manufacturer the double 
cost of freight between Moberly and distant factories. Here, where 
living is cheap, where fuel is abundant, and where the cost of steam 
power is not much, if any, greater than that of the water power in 
Connecticut and Massachusetts, the profits of such an establishment 
must be large. Missouri is certain to become a great manufacturing 
State, because she can readily supply the raw material for every de- 
sired industry and feed the consumers at little cost, while her great 
rivers and railroads reach into the very heart of the markets in which 
such goods must be sold. 


Two establishments of this kind are found in this city. The vehi- 
cles here manufactured are celebrated for their lightness, strength 
and durability. They are made from the growth of our native forests 
and are a credit both to the workmen who manufacture them and to 
the country in which they are made. But in this, as in other depart- 
ments of mechanism, the capital invested is too small for the demands 
of the country. Hundreds of wagons, buggies, carriages and other 
vehicles are annually shipped here from abroad and sold to our farm- 
ers and the citizens of our towns. There is no reason why such pro- 
ducts of skill should not be made here cheaper and better than in Fort 
Wayne, Ind., or Eock Island, 111. Our timber is better, our land is 
cheaper, our food costs less and we are nearer the center of the great 
Western market. Even the factories we have, pinched as they are for 
want of means, are steadily growing and making money for those who 
operate them. The market cannot be supplied beyond the demand. 
All the vehicles manufectured would find ready sale within the com- 
pass of a small adjacent territory, unless the manufactories were on 
a very extensive scale, and in that case the boundless West and South- 
west are at our door. As wealth increases, the demand for luxuries 


also increases, and fine carriages are more common now than the 
plainest spring wagons were a few years ago. This is true of Mis- 
souri, Kansas, Nebraska, and other Western States. 


In this immediate vicinity the tobacco crop is as certain and as 
profitable as any other planted by the farmer. A very superior qual- 
ity of the White Burley and other varieties of tobacco are raised, 
most of which must be disposed of in distant markets, as there are 
no parties here who handle it in bulk. The tobacco of this section is 
not excelled in texture, color, body, or flavor by that raised in the 
best fields of Virginia and Kentucky. In fact, at the annual award 
of premiums by the St. Louis warehouses. North Missouri has almost 
invariably received the first prize, although competing with Western 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, and Iowa. 

Here is an opening for the location of a large tobacco stemmery or 
manufactory. If the farmers of this region received sufficient en- 
couragement, they would plant larger crops and raise only such 
tobacco as was demanded by the market, instead of, as in many in- 
stances, the coarser and heavier varieties that make up in weight what 
they lack in texture and appearance. 


Although numerous creameries have been established in the country, 
Moberly enjoys no such enterprise. Here, where our native grass 
sustains the cattle for eight months in the year and where provender is 
so cheap when they require extra food, would seem to be the proper 
location for a butter manufactory on an extensive scale. It is profit- 
able alike to the farmer and the manufacturer, as the high prices for 
butter that always prevail in St. Louis, Kansas City, Hannibal and 
other large cities with which Moberly is connected by rail, would en- 
able the latter to pay high prices for cream and receive in return a 
large profit on his products. These institutions have been successful 
everywhere they have been tried by competent men, and there is no 
field which suggests a better assurance of profit than that in the 
vicinity of Moberly. 

potter's ware. 

In this department of manufacturing, as in almost every other in 
which individual capital alone is invested, the demands are greater 
than the capacity of the factory. A short time since a pottery was 
established in this city which has been doing a prosperous business 
from the beginning. It has a capacity of only 20,000 gallons per 
month, and the ware is beautiful in color and excellent in material. 
The clay is obtained at a convenient distance from the factory, and 
the glazing is derived from the East. The market for this ware is to 
be found in all the surrounding country, and the goods do not need 
to be shipped to distant points. This industry can be indefinitely ex- 
tended by the addition of larger capital. 



The principal streets of Moberly have been lighted with gas since 
November 30, 1875. The gas works are located in the northern part 
of the city, so that the inhabitants are not distnrbed by offensive 
odors from the works. The gas is made from the coal taken from the 
mines of this vicinity, burns with a clear and beautiful flame and is 
supplied to consumers at $2.50 per thousand cubic feet. There are 
seven or eight miles of mains and connections, affording a cheap, safe 
and brilliant light for shops, stores, factories and private residences. 


It would naturally be supposed that a city located on the dividing 
rido;e between the waters of two such streams as the Missouri and 
Mississippi would be destitute of water power, and even of sufficient 
water for manufacturing purposes. Such was the fact in the early 
history of Moberly. But our country possesses a peculiarity that 
compensates this absence of large streams. Below the soil is a sub- 
soil of clay of fine texture almost impervious to water. Lakes and 
ponds constructed by artificial means, retain the water drawn from 
the adjacent country until exhausted by evaporation or by artificial 

On the western border of the town is a reservoir holding 20,000,000 
gallons of water, which was constructed at a cost of $3,300. This is 
owned by the city and is free to all for any and every purpose. The 
city also owns 47 acres of land on which the reservoir is made, which 
it is contemplated to divide into lots for manufacturing purposes. 
This land is adjacent to the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad 
and is admirably adapted to the location of factories and shops. 

In the vicinity of the reservoir, also, are tracts of land having deep 
ravines where much larger basins may be constructed at even less cost 
than that of the city reservoir. 

Cisterns and wells supply the water for domestic purposes at 
present. But recently an enterprise has been projected, which will 
probably be adopted, to erect water works at a distance of some four 
miles from the city to supply the inhabitants with living water from 
flowing springs. This is not yet an accomplished fact, nor has it ever 
been determined upon, but negotiations are in progress, and there is 
little doubt, judging from the temper of the people, that it will be 
carried to successful execution at an early day. 


In 1876 a building and loan association was organized, and many a 
poor man has reason to rejoice at the establishment of such an institu- 
tion. The association has been in operation for over seven years, and 
hundreds of houses have been erected under its auspices. It has 


enabled men of small and moderate income to buy or build their 
houses. The individual securing the benefit of the association pays 
for his property by monthly installments running through a series of 
years, and in most instances these payments but little exceed the 
amount the beneficiary would be compelled to pay in rents. Money 
that would otherwise go into the pockets of landlords, and for which 
tenants would receive the equivalent of only a temporary shelter, is 
by this process expended in permanent homes which it is both the pride 
and pleasure of the occupant to improve and beautify and adorn. 
The peace, permanency and prosperity of a city depend in large 
measure upon the number of citizens who own the property on which 
they reside. If the number be large there will be just that many 
whose interests are involved in the improvement of the place, the 
erection of public buildings, the promotion of education, morality and 
religion, and the enforcement of order. A very large proportion of 
the people of Moberly own their own homes. 


In the summer of 1878 some enterprising gentlemen of this county 
determined to organize an agricultural society. The Moberly District 
Fair Association was the outgrowth of this movement. A tract of 
land, lying in the south-eastern part of the city and containing 86 
acres, was purchased for the purpose, and on it were immediately 
erected buildings suitable for such an association. Plank walks 
extend from the business part of the city to these grounds, distant 
not over half a mile. The entire 86 aci-es are enclosed by a sub- 
stantial plank fence. A grand stand, 28x70 feet, and rising to the 
height of 30 feet, well covered and comfortably seated, overlooks 
the whole ground. There is seating room for several thousand visitors. 
There are also dressing rooms for ladies and a floral hall. Just in 
front of the stand is a judge's stand in the form of an eastern pagoda. 
A magnificent mile track, probably the best west of the Mississippi 
river, is laid out so that every step of a horse may be seen as he goes 
around. Jockeys who have tested it say that it is a very fast track, 
and the speed that has been made on it would confirm this opinion. 
There are numerous stalls for the accommodation of horses and cattle. 
Other improvements are to be made, and it is safe to say that these 
grounds in a few years will be second to none in the West outside of 
St. Louis. There is an abundance of room for the construction of 
art halls, machinery apartments, ancl other necessary buildings, besides 
•I large area for ornamentation. The first fair was held in September, 
1878. The sixth annual fair was held in September, 1883, when over 
$5,000 were distributed in premiums. A large number and great 
variety of stock was shown, as well as machinery, domestic fabrics, 
farming implements, agricultural products, etc. On one day of 
the fair it was estimated that there were between 7,000 and 8,000 
people in the enclosure. 


There has also been organized a jockey club or racing association, 
though it is no way connected with the fair association. The first 
racing season occurred last July, when there were many blooded and 
fleet horses present to contend for the purses. 


Very recently Messrs. Fort & Wayland of this city have built near 
the Union depot a house for the manufacture of the Champion stacker 
and rake. The building is of brick, 40x80 feet in size, besides a 
neat brick office and shed for storing and seasonino- lumber. The 
machinery for this factory is now being put in place. The firm con- 
template employing 25 or 30 hands, and will begin work as soon as 
their arrangements can be completed. It is also in contemplation to 
connect a foundry with the factory to make the necessary castings and 
do some custom work. -- 


There is also an establishment for the making of fancy wood work, 
such as brackets, banisters, shelving, and all kinds of tasteful and 
ornamental work, models, patterns, and everything that can be made 
of lumber. The factory is well equipped with machinery, and has 
workmen skilled in the art. It has been established about a year and 
has already secured a large and profitable business. 


Messrs. Strattman & Bro. have a valuable soda water manufactory 
in the city, and supply the local trade and much of the surrounding 
county with bottled soda. They have an artesian well of great depth 
and the goods are made from the purest material. The industry is 
still increasing in patronage, and large quantities of the product are 
disposed of. 


As previously remarked in this review, the clay and sand of this sec- 
tion constitute the material for a superior quality of bricks. This 
manufactory is a growing industry, and those engaged in it find the 
demand from this city and from the neighboring towns and villages 
greater than their capacity to manufacture. During the past season 
there have been burned at the Moberly kilns 5,000,000 bricks and at 
least one contractor has fallen short half a million. The product of 
the kilns is a hard, firm brick, of a bright red color, close grain and 
compact structure, able to withstand any pressure to which bricks are 
ever subjected. 

For the first time an experiment was made in the manufacture of 
pressed bricks. The experiment was made on a small scale and with 
imperfect machinery, but with the most satisfactory results, showing 
that the clay is admirably adapted to the manufacture of this cheap 


and excellent building material. The houses built from it are very 
handsome and present a defiant exterior to sunshine, storm and 
tempest. The bricks of Moberly have been shipped to nearly every 
town within a radius of 30 miles, and far more could have been 
disposed of but for the inability of the makers to provide them. 


Time and space would fail us in enumerating the minor manufac- 
tories of Moberly — those in which one to six men are employed. 
They embrace every branch of industry usually pursued in a growing 
young city, and give employment to a large number of skilled labor- 

Two large marble yards turn out beautiful and artistic designs for 
monuments, tombstones, headstones, etc., manufactured from both 
foreign and domestic marble. Many attractive shafts mark the last 
resting-place of loved ones in our cities of the dead. The work of 
these shops finds sale in this and all the adjacent counties. 

Three harness and saddle manufactories find employment and turn 
out work of excellent finish and first-class material. Our tailors, 
blacksmiths, bakers, shoemakers, painters, plumbers, plasterers, 
bricklayers, carpenters, and other artisans, form a small army of 
skillful and industrious workers, who are providing well for the pres- 
ent and are not improvident of the future. 


There are several real estate agencies in the city that buy and sell 
wild lands, farms, town lots, residence and business houses. The 
business is an active one, and is growing rapidly. Messrs. Stewart, 
Wilson & Brand are the oldest firm in the city, and their agency 
embraces a wide territory in this and adjoining counties. Messrs. 
Porter, Hunn & Porter are next in point of age, and have in their 
hands a great many thousand acres of both improved and unimproved 
lands, town and city residences and lots. Messrs. Hannah & Gravely 
do a large purchasing, selling and exchange business, and John L. 
Vroom has every kind of real estate property for sale. The transac- 
tion in this line of business annually will aggregate $140,000 to 


The trade of Moberly is steadily growing. It noAv embraces a wide 
area, extending into all the adjoining counties. And this circumfer- 
ence is continually widening as the city grows in population and wealth. 
Within a few years a great many new business houses have been 
erected, all of which have been promptly occupied by traders and 
merchants. Not only have the numbers multi[)lied, but the value and 
variety of goods handled have been largely increased, showing a 
healthy growth in these departments of commerce. From all the 


surrounding country come citizens to trade with our dry goods, milli- 
nery, grocery, drug, hardware, lumber, clothing and boot and shoe 

We have eight dry goods houses, carrjnng heavy stocks and exhib- 
iting for sale the finest textures as well as the coarser and more popu- 
lar fabrics. The amount of monev invested srows larirer and larg-er 
annually as the area of trade is widened and the city grows in popu- 
lation. The annual retail sales amount to $200,000. 

In the line of family groceries there is also a good and increasing 
foreign and home trade. There are twenty grocery houses in the city 
dealing in staple and fancy goods. Some of these have a considerable 
jobbing and wholesale trade, supplying the merchants of adjacent vil- 
lages. Some, of course, carry small stocks and are confined to a light 
city trade. But the business is expanding, and during the last year 
the sales have fallen little if any short of $400,000. 

The clothing houses of the city are four in number, carrying exclu- 
sive stocks of ready-made Avear for gentlemen and furnishing goods. 
All do a greater or less amount of merchant tailoring. Besides these, 
several dry goods merchants carry a limited stock of clothing and fur- 
nishing goods. Within a few years this branch of trade has greatly 
increased. Really elegant stocks are exposed for sale, and the aggre- 
gate sales amount to not less than $125,000. 

Notions, fancy goods and household ornaments have recently occu- 
pied a separate department in the commercial transactions of cities 
and towns. Several houses of this character are found in our city, 
and form a convenient as well as ornamental department of trade. 
The business is growing with a steady growth, and the sales of the 
past year have reached, probably, $65,000. 

The trade in boots and shoes is done by four houses, though small 
stocks are kept by some of the dry goods merchants. The trade is 
mostly local, though several firms carry heavy stocks. The sales dur- 
ing the last year were from $80,000 to $100,000. 

Four houses are engaged in the millinery line, and supply the city 
and country trade. Some of these houses would be creditable to a 
much larger city. The sales of the past year have reached $20,000. 

The hardware business is conducted by four firms, carrying stocks 
of iron, stoves, hollowware, cutlery and builders' supplies. Two of 
these houses have been established since the early history of the 
place ; the others are of more recent date. The sales will amount 
to $100,000 for the year just closing. Agricultural implements, 

There are eight drug-stores, which also include in their stock, paints, 
oils, leads, wall-paper and fancy goods. Their asfgregate sales will 
reach $80,000. 

Three lumber yards furnish the building material for the city and 
vicinity. One of these has been but recently established. The 
amount of lumber sold during the year will reach between $80,000 
and $100,000. 


Ill furniture there are two large and elegant establishments, keep- 
ing in stock every variety of household supplies and dealing in under- 
takers' goods. Their stocks embrace furniture from the cheapest and 
plainest to the most costly and elegant. Sales this year, $65,000. 

The book-stores and numerous neWs-stands keep in stock a great 
variety of popular books, newspapers, sheet music, stationery, etc. 
The sales of the past year have reached $25,000. 

Jewelry establishments are four in number, offering for sale every 
variety of plain and costly jewelry, watches, clocks, musical instru- 
ments and ornaments. The aggregate sales annually will reach $25,- 

Two houses supply beer by the keg, barrel or car-load. This is a 
heavy trade, and will probably reach this year about $25,000. 

This is only an indication of the trade of the city, and by no means 
includes all its industries. The meat market alone requires an an- 
nual expenditure of $100,000 to $125,000. Small manufacturers and 
dealers swell the aggregate numbers, and run the annual trade in all 
departments into many millions of dollars. But we have not the space 
to devote to these branches. 


The schools of Moberly are her pride. The public school buildings 
are three in number, to wit : The Central building having 11 rooms, 
built at a cost of $16,000. 

Three of these are devoted to the high school department where 
higher mathematics and the classics are taught.^ Prof. L. E. Wolfe, 
the superintendent, is an accomplished scholar and experienced edu- 
cator. In this school are enrolled at the present time 756 pupils. 

The East Moberly school-house was built at a cost of $8,000. 
Three teachers are employed and 167 scholars are enrolled. 

The school for colored pupils is a commodious structure well located. 
Two teachers are employed and the number of children attending at 
present is 141.- 

These three schools under one superintendent are free to the chil- 
dren of all citizens, the expenses being paid by revenue derived from 
the State and by a tax upon the property of the city. They continue 
in session eight to nine mouths of the year. 

Besides these, St. Mary's Academy, under the auspices of the 
Sisters of Loretto, gives educational training to several hundred chil- 
dren. It is admirably conducted and its curriculum embraces a wide 
range of studies. 

The Scientific School was to have been opened early in October, 

but some circumstances which the principal could not control have 

prevented him from pursuing his design. It will be opened soon. 

iL. E. Wolfe, Supei'intendent; W. E. Coons, Principal; F. G. Ferris, Assistant. 
Mrs. A. Baird, Miss Barbara Mullin, Nellie O'Keefe, Rebecca Hendrix, Anna Buchanan, 
Lizzie Shaughnessey, Ida B. Roote, Flora Pyle, Bettie Williams, Katie Elliott, Katie 

2 The colored school is taught by M. A. Scrugs and wife. 


Several private schools are also in successful operation, the whole 
showing a registration of about 1,400 pupils. 


The churches in the city are 11 in number, as follows : 1 Old 
School Presbyterian; 1 Old School Baptist; 1 Missionary Baptist ; 
1 Episcopal; 2 Methodist Episcopal ; 1 Cumberland Presbyterian ; 1 
Christian ; 1 Catholic ; 1 colored Baptist ; 1 colored Methodist. 
Nearly all these have established pastors and regular services. 


Moberly is well provided with commodious and well kept hotels. 
The Grand Central, elegantly furnished and equipped, has 80 rooms, 
and is second to no house in the interior of the State. It is owned 
by William Smith and is ably conducted under the proprietorship 
of Geo. S. Merritt. P. J. Carmody is the proprietor of the Mer- 
chants' Hotel, a large three-story structure of 60 rooms, supplied 
with all modern conveniences. The Commercial is also a commodious 
house, conducted by George W. Morris. The Florence, conducted by 
W. G. Herold, is located near the Union depot and is an excellent 
house. Numerous smaller houses are also well kept, while restaurants, 
eatino; houses and boardins; houses afford convenient refreshments for 
the stranger or sojourner. 


In the haste with which this review has been gotten up, it has been 
found impossible to obain a detailed statement of the improvements 
during the season of 1883. But the amount of building has been very 
large. The number of houses erected in a given time has been ex- 
ceeded in previous years, but the character of the buildings in 1883 is 
far superior to that of former years. Ten large and costly business 
houses have been built and over one hundred dwellings. These are 
all occupied soon as completed and are frequently rented before the 
foundation is laid. Vacant houses are rarely seen, and there is a con- 
stant demand for more dwellings. The improvements do not keep 
step with the increase of population. From the best information 
obtainable there has been expended the past year in buildings and 
improvements about $150,000. 



''" The medical, legal and theological professions are represented by 
able and learned men. There are 13 ministers, 14 physicians (of 
various schools), and 8 lawyers resident here. 


Moberly is well equipped in all departments. Her municipal gov- 
ernment, at the head of which is Mayor D. S. Forney, is frugal, econ 


omical and yet liberal. The police force is sufficient to preserve the 
peace and keep an orderly city. The fire department is thoroughly 
organized, having a steam fire engine and a hook and ladder equip- 
ment and convenient cisterns in all parts of the territory embraced in 
the corporate limits. Our public halls are numerous and extensive. 
This review might be greatly extended but space forbids. 


No banking institutions in the country are safer or are conducted 
on more correct business principles than those of Moberly. The capi- 
tal stock is not large, but depositors are secure under the law of the 
State and under the safe methods adopted by the banks themselves. 
The Mechanics' Bank, W. F. Elliott, president, Howard Jennings, 
cashier, has a capital and surplus of $30,000, and is the oldest bank in 
the city. The Exchange Bank, Adam Given, president, O. E. Han- 
nah, cashier, has been in operation nine years and has secured a large 
custom. The Randolph Bank was opened in 1882, B. F. Harvey, 
president, J. C. Shaefer, cashier. It has secured the confidence of 
our business men and is a reliable institution. 

Our report shows a thrifty, growing and prosperous city. It will 
be observed, also, that there are many enterprises that have no ex- 
istence here that might be established with profit — such as soap, 
cheese, butter, agricultural implements, woolen, furniture, tobacco, 
and paper factories, a foundry, machine shops, nail mills and a host 
of industries the products of which are now supplied by distant manu- 
factories. Our central position, our railroads, our cheap living, our 
superior coal fields and a host of other advantages, mark Moberly as 
one of the best locations in the West for the investment of capital. 

Here are found combined all the conditions for a thriving cit}', — a 
central location ; a rich agricultural country : inexhaustible mines of 
coal ; unsurpassed railroad transportation ; a large and continually in- 
creasing demand for the products of our mills, mines and manufiic- 
tories ; raw material of all kinds at the cheapest rates ; labor abundant ; 
good schools, and a population of industrious, intelligent and enter- 
prising people. Immigration is not only not refused, but requ sted. 
There is no proscription on account of political faith, or religious be- 
lief, or nationality. Every honest, industrious citizen, of whatever 
calling or persuasion, is cordially welcomed. Our people are remark- 
ably hospitable, our society is moral and exceptionally temperate, 
industrious and frugal. Without boasting, it may be truthfully as- 
serted that there is no city, of equal population, where order and quiet 
are more strictly observed. Our police government is excellent and 
insubordination to municipal authority is of rare occurrence. 

To the immigrant Ave off'er lands cheaper, better and more convenient 
to market than any he will find farther west. Improved farms, in a 
good state of cultivation, are offered at prices less than half, and in 
many instances less than one third what he would be required to pay 
in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, or any of the older States 


farther east, with no better and in most cases not as good facilities for 
reaching a reacl}^ market. Unimproved lands are offered to the settler 
at little more than the congress price of land in the West, where there 
are neither schools, churches, manufactories, nor organized society. 
To pass such a country for a home on the frontier is to deliberately 
throw away advantages. 


The Moberly Board of Trade, under whose auspices this review is 
published, was organized August (3, 1883, and is fully officered and 
equipped. The following gentlemen constitute the membership : — 

C. Adams, C. P. Apgar, John Bergstresser, Alfred Beynon, J. R. 
Bhickmore, L. C. Brand, H. Brewer, Charles Brown, P. J. Carmody, 
O. F. Chandler, Thomas Coates, William Coyle, J. B. Davis, C. W. 
Digges, F. T. Dysart, S. A. Edmiston, W. F. Elliott, C. Feldenheimer, 
William Firth, D. S. Forney, J. H. Gingrich, S. J. Goodfellow, A. 
Gundlach, C. Hall, L. B. Hannah, O. E. Hannah, B. F. Harvey, J. 
H. Hardin, I. H. Hexter, R. R. Haynes, Pat Hegarty, C. T, Hunn, 
D. Hutchinson, J. C. Hutton, H. Jennings, H. P. Jennings, E. W. 
Jones, G. B. Kelly, J, N. Kring, Max Lowenstein, Julius Lotter, J. 
R. Lowell, Houston Mathews, William Maynard, William McNinch, 
August Merck, E. H. Miller, Julius Miller, G. W. Morris, T. E. Mor- 
rison, A. O'Keefe, J. T. O'Neal, I. B. Porter, T. F. Priest, D. Proc- 
ter, J. G. Provines, J. W. Ragsdale, V. Reigel, H. Roemer, C. B. 
Rodes, James Sandison, Al. Schott, William Seelen, James Shaugh- 
nessy, A. E. Simon, William Smith, W. B. Stewart, J. C. Straub, H. 
R. Suppe, A. D. Terrill, A, B. Thompson, Frank Tuttle, J. L. Vroom, 
T. C. Waltenspiel, J. S. Wayland, G. H. Werries, John B.Williams, 
John T. Williams, R. A. Wilson. 


Benevolent societies are well represented in Moberly. The follow- 
ing fraternities have lodges and are in a flourishmg condition : Masons, 
Knights Templar, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Knights of 
Honor, Knights and Ladies of Honor, United Workmen, Order Rail- 
way Conductors, Brotherhood Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood 
Locomotive Firemen, Good Templars, Temperance Union, Brothers 
of Philanthrophy and perhaps others. 

A. F. & A. M. Blue Lodges— Gothic Lodge, JSTo. 108 — Was or- 
ganized March 20, 1878. The charter members are J. W. Hogue, 
W. T. McCanne, J. H. Gravely, George W. Lent, E. H. Mix, N. H. 
Wheeler, John Simpson, Samuel Gravely, Peter Brown, J. Shaw, W. 
H. Pool, A. Taylor, and T. T. Millholland. The charter bears 
date November 7, 1878. The present number of members is 40. 

Moberly Lodge JVo. 344 — Is also in a flourishing condition. 


Western Star Lodge No. 34 — Of (colored) Masons. This Lodge 
was organized in January, 1875. 

Tancred Commandery No. 25., Knights Templar — Was organ- 
ized July 22, 1874, and chartered October 12, following. Its first 

officers were : Charles W. Burlingame, Eminent Commander ; 

Gaines, Generalissimo ; A. T. Bissell, Captain General ; E. H. Mix, 

Prelate ; Hotchkiss, Senior Warden ; T. P. White, T. ; G. W. 

Daly, Rec. ; M. F. Brown, Warden. 

Moberly Lodge No. 244, I. O. G. T. — Was instituted De- 
cember 21, 1871, with the following list of charter members, viz. : 
Henry P. Bond, W. K. Christian, W. G. Woods, W. H. Pool, 
James P. Porter, James G. Shepherdson, H. P. Hunter, A. N. 
Dawson, George W. Larue, Thomas A. Lyon, Charles B. Rounds, 
Nannie T. Pool, Huldah E. Pool, Charles H. Wentz, Julia E. Wentz, 
Charles B. Rodes, and John C. Jefferies. The following were the first 
elective officers, viz. : Charles B. Rodes, W. C. T. ; Nannie T. Pool, 
W. V. T. ; H. P. Bond, W. Chap. ; Charles H. Wentz, W. Sec'y ; 
W. G. Wood, Fin. Sec'y; James P. Porter, Treasurer. The Lodge, 
like most similar organizations, has had its " ups and downs," but is 
now in a very prosperous condition, having over 60 active members 
on its list. It occupies the west hall in the Elliott building, which it 
has fitted up in neat style, with new carpets, new furniture, etc. 

Olive Branch Lodge No. 35, Knights of Pythias — Was organized in 
Moberly May 16, 1874, with the following charter members : John A. 
Hughes, A. C. Van Horn, J. A. Nettles, F. M. Doolittle, William 
Clark, William McKinzie, E. C. Veits, Frank Barnett, C. A. Williams, 
L. Haines, Morry Burrell, H. V. W. Davis, William James, G. G. 
Ginthes, Harry Coleman, Jacob Lanner, D. R. StefFey, Henry D. 
Janes, Peter Brown, James Ashworth, John McMerley, William 
Haughlin, R. A. Kirkpatrick, William McDonald, George Dickinson, 
Edwin Tomlinson, George L. Hassett, Frank Reno, Joseph Taylor, 
J. R. Callahan, B. Levy, William S. Janes, George S. Shone, W. D. 
Davis. The lodge has a membership of 65. 

The Endowment Rank, Section 216, K. of P. — Was instituted in 

Randolph Charter No. 150, Order of the Eastern Star — Was or- 
ganized April 6, 1877, and chartered December 14th following. Its 
first officers were : Mrs. C. E. Greer, Worthy Matron ; John Simpson, 
Worthy Patron; Mrs. M. L. McGindley, Associate Matron; Mrs. 
Mary P. Selby, Treasurer ; Mr. E. H. Mix, Secretary ; Mrs. Mattie 
J. Mix, Conductress ; Mrs. Lena D. Gravely, Ada ; Mrs. MoUie 


O'Brian, Euth ; Mrs. Mary M. Ward, Esther; Mrs. Delia Tanner, 
Martha ; Mrs. Sarah Bowden, Electa ; Mrs. Mary E. Brown, Warden. 

M. B. M. Society. — In June, 1879, the Moberly District Medical 
Society was organized with 34 members. It embraces the counties 
of Howard, Eandolph, Monroe and Chariton, and will probably in- 
clude Macon. The meetings are to be held three times a year, 
June, October and Februarj'-, in the city of Moberly. Dr. J. Vaughn, 
of Glasgow, is president, and Dr. G. W. Broome, of Moberly, is 

Moherly Royal Arch Chapter lio. 79 — Was organized in March, 
1873. The charter members were George L. Hassett, Eli Owens, T. P. 
White, Adam Given, Henry Combe, E. A. Wilson, George A. Suttles, 
B. Y. A. Clarkson, ,J. C. Hickerson, W. H. Hassett, D. A. Poole, 
B. H. Weatherford. The lodo;e now contains 56 members. 

A. 0. U. W. — Randolph Lodge, No. 30 — Was organized Octo- 
ber 24, 1877. The charter members were J. T. Cox, E. H. Mix, S. G. 
Merrill, C. F. Campbell, A. Grundlach, C. G. Greer, J. L. Wright, L. 
L. Kenepp, V. E. Lary, M. A. Hayes, Thomas Hughes, J. W. Kin- 
ney, John Mathias, G. W. Marsey, J. J. Jones, J. E. Eoberts, I. C. 
Ehodes, John N. Ward, N. H. Wheeler, James Haight. 

Select Knights, A. 0. U. W. — Organized May 22, 1882. Charter 
members: C. K. McGowan, E. P. Jones, J. P. Cunningham, E. H. 
Miller, W. J. Jackson, William Fennell, James McNulty, M. A. 
Hayes, J. H. Gingrich ; present membership is 38. 

Moherly Lodge, No. 248 — Was organized May 25, 1882, with the 
following charter members: N. M. Baskett, W. S. Jones, George W. 
Sparks, W. A. Wright, M. L. Sears, Howard Jennings, P. H. Nise, J. 
E. Blackman, A. J. McCanne, D. T. Carpenter, Hiram Jennings, J. 
W. Eagsdale, W. W. Porter, J. T. O'Neal, M. Lowenstein, W. J. 
Hallick, George Eupp, James A. Lindley, E. E. Haynes, B. T. Por- 
ter, W. S. Hall, W. M. Coyle, T. E. Morrison, W. B. Stewart, G. 
H. Cunningham, C. H. Parker, B. E. White, Ferdinand Miller, 
James Sanderson, J. H. Hardin, W. T. Eagland, C. W. Digges, H. H. 
Eoberts, A. McCandless, B. T. Hardin, J. E. Sharp, C^ G. Ham- 
mond, J. P. Trimble, J. Q. Mason, J. W. Webster, William Barrow- 
man, E. J. Deskins. 

Knights of Honor — Golden Rule Lodge, No. 19. — Organized in 
188 — , with the following as charter members : U. S. Hall, James E. 
Eoberts, L. Brandt, A. G. Grundlach, G. Dickinson, T. F. Priest, E. 
Freeman, John Held, Eev. H. C. Davhoff, G. B. Kellev, John Zeis, 


G. W. Weems, C. E. Austin, J. H. Conradt, Dabney Proctor, John 
G. Provines, Frank White, H. S. Priest, John B. Martin, O. E. Han- 
nah, John B. Dolson, Homer Kimball, W. H. Cook, J. A. Tannehill, 
F. E. P. Harhm, J. Y. Evans, G. A. St. Clair. 

Mo.gic Council^ No. 26 — Organized January 17, 1884, with the 
following members: L. B. Hannah, Zeth Walden, J. K. Kimball, D. 
K. Kimball, J. T. Cox, B. T. Porter, William P. Davis, T. A. Man- 
uel, S. H. Tedford, J. A. Nettles, Mrs. L. Kimball, William F. 
Sharp, William Firth, W. A. Rothwell, H. W. Johnson, I. A. 
Thompson. Membership, 35. 


Seven drug stores, eight barbers, seventeen saloons, four hardware, 
six hotels, two opera houses, four millinery stores, seven restaurants, 
two painters, five meat markets, one laundry, fourteen physicians, 
five shoe-makers, twenty groceries, three second-hand stores, two 
marble works, five cigar stores, four boot and shoe stores, two fancy 
goods stores, seven dentists, one wall paper store, four newspapers, 
three clothing stores, three tailors, five general stores, two photogra- 
phers, ten lawyers, three blacksmiths, one carpenter, three banks, 
six dry goods stores, two wagon-makers, three lumber yards, three 
jewelers, one bill poster, one boarding-house, two book stores, three 
harness shops, one pottery shop, one carriage manufactory, two bak- 
eries, five real estate and insurance, one news-dealer, one builder, 
two rag stores, one dye works, one dress-maker, one pork packing 
house, one gas company, two sewing machine and organ houses, one 
bricklayer, one fruit store, three livery stables, one furniture store, 
two florists, one confectionary, one academy, one hide-bouse, one 
gunsmith, one coal mine, one flour mill, one fish and vegetable house, 
one coal and wood yard. 


The court of common pleas was established at Moberly in 1875, 
with jurisdiction over one township. The judge of the second judicial 
circuit was ecc-q^ao judge of that court. This was Hon. George H. 
Burckhartt, who has ever since presided. C. H. Hance was the first 
clerk. The jurisdiction of this court has been enlarged so as to take 
in Union, Salt River, Jackson and a part of Prairie townships. 

The seal of the court is the picture of Judge Burckhartt horseback, 
with five hounds in pursuit of a deer. 



During the first week in September, 1853, Judge Burckhartt with 
five hounds of the St. Hubert breed, started a deer in what is now the 
corporate limits of the city of Moberly, and killed it where the 
orchard of Henry Grimes now stands. In memory of that event and 
in honor of Judge Burckhartt, the seal of the court was made. 



Its History — Salt Spring — Water — Coal — Agriculture — Industries — Old Settlers — 
Death ©f Dr. William Fort — Huntsville — Its History — Pioneer Business Men — 
Eace Track — What Alphonso Whetmore said of Huntsville in 1837 — Huntsville in 
Other Days — Improvements — Destructive Fire — Subscription to Yellow Fever 
Sufferers — Banks and Bankers — Statement — Secret Orders — Building and Loan 
Association — Pioneer Church and Sunday School — Semple's Opera House — Hunts- 
ville Brass Band — Home Dramatic Company — Huntsville Fleming Kake and Stacker 
Manufactory — Town Incorporated — First Mayor — Present Mayor and Council- 
men — Public Schools — Mount Pleasant College — Female College — Agricultural 
Fair — Business and Professions. 


Salt Spring, one of the original four townships of Randolph county, 
has a municipal existence coeval with the organization of the county, 
and is one of the most wealthy, populous, and influential of the eleven 
townships into which the county is now divided. It also has the dis- 
tinction of being the capital township, Huntsville, the county seat, 
being within its limits. Geographically, Salt Spring is almost central 
to the county boundaries, and contains 31,040 acres. 

Topographically, the lands of this township are gently undulating, 
assuring fine drainage, and are of every desirable adaptation, whether 
for pasturage and the various grasses, or the more active cultivation of 
wheat, corn, rye, oats, tobacco, potatoes, and the several root crops. 

It can hardly be said with propriety that the township contains any 
prairie lands proper. In the matter of timber and wood lands it is 
richly provided, about one-third of its acreage being clothed with 
forests of white, red, black, burr, swamp and pin oak, hickory, walnut, 
maple, elm and sycamore. 

As will readily be conjectured, the township name, Salt Spring, has 
a local significance. It is so called from the existence within its limits, 
and some three miles south-west of Huntsville, on the line of the 
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway, of a salt spring, or well, 
of considerable volume, at which, in the early history of the county, 
the pioneer settlers, by primitive processes, manufactured their sup- 
plies of salt. The first systematized salt works at this place were 
established and operated by Dr. William Fort, at a very early day, 


who not only supplied the demand of the region immediately round 
about, but who also sent large supplies of salt to various points on the 
Mississippi and elsewhere equally remote. 

It is amongst the traditions of the people, that, at that early day, this 
spring, or well, served not alone the purpose mentioned, but was then, 
as it is now reputed to be, a fountain of healing, in the use of whose 
waters health and rejuvenation came to many hapless victims to acute 
and chronic rheumatism, and other kindred physical ailments. Possibly 
it may serve a beneficial purpose to say right here that this salt spring 
is rapidly growing in local popularity, and attracts no inconsiderable 
number of casual visitors during the summer months. With an ade- 
quate expenditure of means in developing, improving and populariz- 
ing the place, it might be made an attractive and valuable adjunct of 
the township and county. 

This township is also well supplied with water, having the East fork 
of the Chariton river, with its several inferior tributaries, cutting it 
almost centrally from the north-east to the south-west, and with Sweet 
Spring creek flowing along its entire southern boundary. Of flowing 
springs there are but few, wells and cisterns being relied upon for 
drinking and general domestic purposes. 

In the matter of roads and bridges, the forecast and liberality of the 
county court have left the township nothing for reasonable complaint. 

As before stated, the proportion of land in the township open and 
cleared for cultivation, and that in timber, is about as two of the former 
to one of the latter ; and while frankness constrains the admission 
that the farmers, taken as a whole, are rather careless and untidy in 
their methods of farming, the lands are generous, and respond with 
kindly liberality to whatever labor and care are bestowed upon them. 
Taking any given five years together, it is believed the following esti- 
mates of the products of these lands, per acre, will be almost literally 
verified : An extra crop of corn, 60 bushels ; average, 40 bushels ; ex- 
tra of wheat, 30 bushels ; average, 20 bushels ; hay, average, 2 tons ; 
tobacco, average, 1,200 pounds. 

With the rapidly increasing use of improved agricultural appliances 
and the infusion of new blood and new ideas into the agricultural 
body, the latent force and susceptibility of these lands maj' be made 
to yield, not the necessaries of life only, but its wealth and luxuries, 
also, in most generous measure. 

In coal. Salt Spring township is rich beyond its sister townships of 
the county ; and from this source is now, and for several years has 


been, realizing much profit. Of well developed coal workings, there 
are a half dozen within a radius of two miles of the court-house (four 
of them being within the corporate limits of Huntsville), and which, 
during the fall and winter, give employment to from 10 to 100 men 
each ; each, of course, working an inferior force during the summer 

The oldest coal banks were opened by J. C. Chapman and David 
Reece. G. W. Taylor, I. Cook, William Mitchell, J. A. Stewart, 
and Anderson & Co. have drift mines, which are now consolidated 
under the management of Taylor & Bedford, E. S. Bedford, general 
manager. Altogether, these mines have a capacity of 78 cars per day. 

Woodward Coal Mining Co. have two banks. There are also the 
Huntsville Coal Mining Co. and the coal mines of Jones &, Green. 

As indicating the magnitude of their interests, we append some sta- 
tistics, drawn from authentic sources, and which may be relied on as 
literally accurate. From the Huntsville depot there were shipped 
over the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railroad to points re- 
mote, for the year ending the last day of December, 1878, partial pro- 
duct of these mines, 73,780 tons of coal. During the same period, 
coal mine No. 3, operated by the Huntsville Coal and Mining Co., 
loaded directly from the mines into the cars and shipped abroad 
6,239 tons of coal. During the same period, coal mine No. 2V2, oper- 
ated by J. Bailey & Co., loaded directly from the mine and shipped 
abroad 2,400 tons of coal. 

The foregoing is exclusive of the local consumption of coal, which, 
it is safe to say, will fully reach 3,000 tons, possibly much more. 

Coal is shipped to Kansas City, Omaha, Council Bluffs and Kan- 
sas ; 380 men are employed in the different mines. 

And while the matter of the exports is in hand, we may as well 
make note of the tobacco and live stock exportations. Of tobacco 
there were shipped from the Huntsville depot during the year 1878, 
1,848 hogsheads ; of horses and mules, 189 head ; of neat cattle, 521 
head; of hogs, 1,754 head; of sheep, 800 head. 

During the same period there was brought to and distributed from 
the depot here, 4,798,894 pounds of freight, and passenger tickets 
sales made to the amount of $5,113.95. 

The township contains two flouring and four saw mills, in more or 
less active operation, and one woolen mill ; to which we may properly 
add one flouring mill erected in Huntsville. This mill, built by a non- 
resident, is well located, is a substantial structure, and contains three 
run of buhrs, two for wheat, and one for corn. 


In close proximity is the woolen mill, or manufactory, of Mr. John 
Sutliff, one of the most conspicuous and valuable of the local industries. 
The building is a large and substantial one of stone, and is thoroughly 
equipped with the best machinery. Erected a few years ago by a com- 
pany, it passed by sale to Mr. Sutliff, under whose experienced guid- 
ance it is now not only profitable to him, but positively a necessity of 
this entire region. Its annual consumption of wool is about 40,000 
pounds, and its productions are cloths, jeans, satinets, flannels, lin- 
seys, tweeds, blankets, carpets and yarns. In the production of yarns 
for domestic knitting, this mill has practically superseded the spinning 
wheels of our mothers and grandmothers, fully two-thirds of the yarn 
so used in this county being supplied by Mr. Sutliff. The quality of 
his yarn productions will be appreciated when we say that fully two- 
thirds of it finds ready sale in Eastern markets. In connection with 
this establishment, and operated by the same power, Mr. Sutliff has 
a fully equipped saw mill, from which he turns out an annual average 
of 40,000 to 50,000 feet of lumber. 

As to the market values of real estate (fanning lands) in this town- 
ship, they have the usual range, depending upon soil, location, and 
improvement. Salt Spring will compare favorably with any toAvnship 
of the county or State. In the body of the township, outside of Hunts- 
ville, there are three churches with regularly worshipping congrega- 
tions, to wit: Pleasant Hill Regular Baptists, 40 members. The 
others are New Hope and Trinity, both Methodist, with large mem- 
berships. At Huntsville there are houses of worship, to wit : One 
Methodist (white), membership 75 ; one Baptist (white), membership 
196; one Baptist (colored), membership 102 ; one Christian, mem- 
bership (approximately) 125. 

Of public school buildings, there are six in the township, exclusive 
of the two at Huntsville, These buildings are all of good class, 
judicially located, and adequately equipped. The schools are well 
taught, and generally well sustained. The Huntsville school build- 
ing (white) is a handsome and commodious structure, centrally 
and handsomely located. The colored school building is less com- 
modious, but ample for the requirements of the place. 


There is in successful operation, one mile west of Huntsville, an 
institution known as the Randolph Creamery, which was established 
in September, 1882, by R. E. Lewis, D. S. Benton, and E. S. Bod- 
ford, with a capital stock of $(5,500. This creamery makes 4,600 


pounds of butter per month, which is marketed in St. Louis and New 
York. E. E. Lewis is president, and E. S. Bedford, vice-president 
and general manager. 


There are three tobacco factories in Huntsville. Two of these are 
owned by W. T. Rutherford and E. E. Samuel, Jr., and the other by 
Miss Berenice Morrison, of St. Louis. Mr. Rutherford will handle 
about 400,000 pounds ; he employs from 100 to 125 hands. E. E. 
Sammel, Jr., is operating all of these factories, and will handle be- 
tween 400 and 450,000 pounds. He works from 175 to 200 hands. 
The tobacco put up in the Huntsville market is shipped to England, 
Ireland and Germany, as well as to the markets of the United States. 
Huntsville is the second largest leaf tobacco market in the State, and 
generally ships from two and a half to three millions of pounds per 

The firm of Thomson, Lewis & Co., composed of James D. Thom- 
son, James W. Lewis and E. E. Samuel, have until the past year 
handled the largest part of the leaf tobacco grown in this market. 
The purchases of this firm last year amounted to three millions of 
pounds, one-third of this being bought in this market. Dealers here 
.sometimes sell to European buyers. One of the largest sales ever 
made here was made by Thomson, Lewis & Co. last year to London 
buyers, who purchased 300 hhds. at $50,000. There will probably 
be paid out the sum of $75,000 this year at Huntsville for tobacco, 
notwithstanding the present crop is light. Farmers are preparing 
for a large crop, and if the season is favorable there will be three 
millions of pounds handled alone in this market next year. The to- 
bacco of Randolph county commands a price equal to that produced 
anywhere in the United States, and is sought for by buyers all over 
the globe. Li 1880 the tobacco crop of Randolph amounted to 
$701,052. Chariton and Macon are the only counties in the State 
that produce more tobacco than Randolph. 


The pioneers of Salt Spring township were generally from Kentucky, 
us will be seen from the list of names given below : From Kentucky 
came Henry Lassiter, Henry Winburn, Valentine Mays, Neal Murphy, 
Clark Skinner, Benjamin Skinner, Joseph M. Hammett, William 
Fray, Blandermin Smith, Robert Sconce, William Baker, Charles 
Baker, Joseph M. Baker, Christly Baker, Jeremiah Summers, Archi- 


bald Rutherford, William Rutherford and Shelton Rutherford. John 
Read came from North Carolina. Tolman Gorham came from 
Tennessee, as did also Thomas Gorham, Sr., Thomas J. Gorham and 
Dr. William Fort. James Cochrane, John Welden, Jeremiah Sum- 
mers, William Elliott, Robert Elliott, Joseph Holman, William 
Cunningham and Abraham Goodding were other early settlers. 

Dr. William Fort, above named, together with Tolman Gorham, 
opened and operated the salt works, which were then located at what 
is now known as the Medical Springs, in Randolph county. They 
began making salt in 1823, and continued to supply a wide scope of 
country, extending many miles in almost every direction, for many 

The doctor was the first physician to locate in the county, and 
being one of the oldest citizens of the county, we here insert the fol- 
lowing notice of his death, furnished by his son, Dr. John T. Fort, 
of Huntsville : — 


Another of the strong and notable men of the pioneer life of 
Missouri has been called to his reward in the person of Dr. William 
Fort, of Randolph county, who died at the residence of his son, Henry 
T. Fort, near Huntsville, without a struggle, and from exhaustion and 
old age, on August 23, 1881, aged 88 years. 

The deceased was born in Nashville, Tennessee, October 19, 1793, 
and was a soldier in the War of 1812, under Gen. Jackson. After 
the close of the war, and on March 14, 1815, he married Miss Patsy 
Gorham, who with four of their six children survive him. 

In 1817 he professed religion and united with the Baptist church. 

In 1820, a year before the State was admitted into the Union, he 
emigrated with his young family to Missouri and settled in Randolph 
county, and on the farm on which he was buried. 

He was a member of the first county court of Randolph county, 
and during his life was elevated by his fellow-citizens to seats in both 
branches of the General Assembly, always discharging his official 
trusts, as he did his personal and professional obligations, with 
fidelity, promptness and great acceptance to the people, aiding in all 
the relations of life in laying the foundations of the great Common- 
wealth of which he was always so justly proud. 

He was a Democrat of the school of Jefierson and Jackson, and 
during the latter years of Senator Benton's career, a leader in the 
State of the anti-Benton forces, and contributed not a little by his 
influence in the final overthrow of Benton's power in Missouri. 

Dr. Fort was a man of the most exemplary private life ; took the 
right side of all the moral questions of the da}', and being fearless as 
well as discreet in the proclamation of his opinions, left the world 
the better that he had lived in it. Decided in his convictions of 


public policy, he was conservative without being tame, and tolerant 
of opinions differing from his own. In short, he was a strong 
character, and has left his impress on his generation. 

By profession he was a physician, and for many years his practice 
was very successful and extensive. 

William Fray erected the first water mill in Salt Spring township, 
on the East fork of the Chariton river. 


Huntsville is beautifully located upon an elevated and healthful 
plateau, on the north side of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific 

On the 5th of January, 1831, the first steps were taken towards 
locating the county seat at Huntsville, by the appointment of Robert 
Wilson as commissioner. The tract or tracts which comprised the 
original town were donated to the county by William Goggin, Gideon 
Wright, Daniel Hunt and Henry Winburn, and the county surveyor 
was immediately ordered to lay off the land and make a plat thereof. 
Each of these donations consisted of I2V2 acres, which formed an 
exact square, the dome of the new court-house being the centre. 
The town site now covers between seven and eight hundred acres. 

Daniel Hunt, one of the donors above named, was the first settler, 
locating, however, but a little while in advance of the other three. 
These men were from Kentucky. The town was called Huntsville in 
honor of Daniel Hunt, the first settler. 

The first sale of lots took place in the following April, and included 
all of them with the exception of those from number 94 to 99 
inclusive, reserved for court-house, lot 155 for jail lot, and also 
number 32, which it was then thought necessary to hold back for a 
market-house. This market-house lot was subsequently sold, and is 
the one on which stands the present residence of James B. Thompson. 
The highest price then paid for lots was $115, which was paid for 
the lot on which stands the brick store now occupied by M. Hey- 
mann, and the post-office stand, and also for the lot which is the 
present site of the Austin House. Some of the lots sold as low as 
$3.25, which are very valuable property now. 

The original town site of Huntsville -was doubtless covered with 
timber, judging from the following order which was made by the 
county court when the town was located : 

Ordered : That all persons cutting timber in the streets of Hunts- 
ville are required to leave the stumps not more than one foot in height, 
and to clear all timber so cut, together with the brush. 



The pioneer business men of the town were Davis and Currin, to 
whom were issued the first tavern license, granted by the county court 
in 1829. Their place of business was at the house of William Goggin 
(Daniel G. Davis and Waddy T. Currin). The next merchants were 
Garth and Giddings (Dabney C. Garth and Brack Giddings). These 
gentlemen were from Virginia. Garth represented the county in the 

Then came Fielding, Clinton and Grundy Cockerill, who did a 
general merchandise business under the firm name of Cockerill & Co. 
Joseph C. Dameron commenced the mercantile business in the spring 
of 1835, and in 1842 he brought the first piano to the county, its 
strange and inspiring notes being the first ever heard among the classic 
hills of Hunts ville. 

Conway and Lamb were among the earliest merchants. John F. 
Riley was the first gunsmith ; O. D. Carlisle was the first saddler; 
John Gray taught the first school, in a log house located on the public 
square; James C. Ferguson was the first shoemaker; Dr. Waller 
Head was the first physician to locate in the town. He was a native 
of Orange county, Virginia, and located in Huntsville in October, 
1831, where he continued to reside until his death, which occurred in 
August, 1845. Dr. Joseph Rutherford came soon after Head, and 
formed a partnership in the practice of medicine with the latter. 

Ned. Goggin (colored) opened the first bakery, and after accumu- 
lating quite a fortune, he moved to Putnam county, Missouri, where 
he now resides. Joseph Viley erected the first carding machine and 
cotton gin in 1834. Joseph C. Dameron opened the first tobacco 
factory. Dr. J. J. Watts kept the first drug store ; William Smith 
the first livery stable. 

Gen. Robert Wilson was the first lawyer in the town. He was 
also the first county and circuit court clerk, and afterwards became a 
United States Senator from Missouri. Clair Oxley, from Kentucky, 
was the second lawyer; he afterwards died in Santa Fe, New Mexico. 
William Goggin erected the first mill in the town at a very early day. 
It was a horse mill, and was operated for nearly 35 years. 

Almost simultaneously with the founding of the new town, a few of 

the old settlers, anxious to amuse themselves, opened a race track 

near the north-western portion of the town. Here met the sporting 

men and lovers of the turf for several years, drawn hither at stated 



periods to witness the speed of some strange or favorite horse. 
Among the horses whose popularity has come down to us were 
'♦ White Stockings " and " Aleck," the former the property of Bart 
McDameron, and the latter the property of Hancock Jackson. In 1837 
Alphonso Wetmore, the compiler of the "Gazetteer" of Missouri, 
said of Huntsville at that date : — 

. Huntsville, the seat of justice of Randolph, is near the centre of 
the county. This town is flourishing, and contains a good brick 
court-house, seven stores, etc. There is no church in the place ; but 
public worship, by all denominations, is held in the court-house, and 
in the school houses of the town and county. This is a fashion 
throughout Missouri, and it seems rational to occupy one house for 
various purposes in a new country. While the people are building up 
their fortunes, and erecting private houses at the same time, there 
should be indulgence given until they shall be better able to build tem- 
ples, suited in magnificence to the great Being, to whom these will be 


[From the Citizen.] 

By request we publish the following letter, outlining the proceedings 
of a celebration of the Huntsville Division of Sons of Temperance, in 
this place in 1848. It was published in the Glasgow Times of Octo- 
ber 12, 1848, together with the addresses to which it refers. Some 
of the gentlemen whose names are mentioned are still with us, and 
will no doubt cast their mind back over 30 years of their life and 
recognize the proceedings referred to : — 

Huntsville, Mo., Oct. 4, 1848. 
^^ Gentlemen: — The undersigned were appointed a committee, by 
the Huntsville Division of the Sons of Temperance, to have the enclosed 
addresses delivered in this place on Thursday, the 28th September, 
the first celebration of the order in this place, published — and believ- 
ing as we do, that your paper is always open to any and every subject 
that may prove beneficial to the cause of humanity, we thought fit to 
impose upon your generous feelings, so far as to ask permission for 
the patriotic and noble sentiments inculcated in those addresses, a 
place in your columns, and to request other journals, favorable to the 
extension and advancement of the glorious cause of Temperance, to 
copy the same. These speeches were delivered by Miss Mary M. 
Lewis, on behalf of the ladies of Huntsville and vicinity, in present- 
ing a beautiful banner which was made for the order, and by John O. 
Oxley, in behalf of the Division. We would remark also, that on 
that occasion, a Bible was presented, and an excellent address from 
Mrs. M. M. Watts, and responded to by Mr. E. B. Cone, on behalf of 
the Division, which we will also send you in the course of a few days 
for publication. 


" Our celebration was everything to be desired. Besides the eloquent 
and masterly efforts by those who delivered the flag and Bible, and those 
who received them on behall" of the Division, the Rev. Mr. Simpson, 
from Glasgow, George H. Burckhartt and Dr. McLean, of Huntsville 
Division of the Sons of Temperance, delivered most able and inter- 
esting addresses. The cause is prospering finely here, and we hope 
will continue to prosper, until the Demon, Intemperance, is banished 
from our land of liberty. 

" Respectfully, your obedient servants, 

" W. R. Samuel, 
" W. M. Dameron, 
"F.M. M'Lean." 


[From the Huntsville Herald.] 

During the year 1871 over one hundred thousand dollars were spent 
in permanent improvements by the people of the city of Huntsville, 
a partial list of which we give below, not having the data at hand for 
a full report, but the figures we give only fall a few hundred dollars 
short of the true amount given and we are fully satisfied $25,000 ad- 
ditional would not cover the whole expense of improvement in the one 
year of 1871. Our people are fully waked up to the importance of 
building a large town here, and now that the ball is set rolling they 
will keep it going. We have resources untold that need development, 
and it only requires a liberal expenditure of capital with judgment 
and eijergy to make our town one of the most important in North 

Here are the names of the parties and the improvements they have 

The amount expended on the college looks large on paper, but we 
have a detailed statement of expenditures in this office to prove it cor- 
rect. Any doubting " Thomas " can walk in and examine it for him- 

" Huntsville Woolen Mill building, $5,000 ; addition to college and 
boarding house, $19,000; Wm. SmTth's livery stable, $3,500; addi- 
tion to plow factory, $800; Sandison, Murry & Co., two stone store- 
houses, $5,500; Charles Allin, residence, $1,700; William Mayo, 
wagon and blacksmith shop, $225 ; W. H. Taylor, office, $600, re- 
pairs and improvements on his residence, $300; J. N. Taylor, im- 
provement on furniture store, $400 ; J. C. Shaefer, dwelling to rent, 
$1,100; improvements on residence of same, $100; Methodist Church 
South, new church, $6,000; Neal Holman, new dwelling, $1,000; J. 
R. Christian, barn and improvements on residence, $250 ; J. P. Klink, 
improvements on business house, $200; Archie Rutherford, dwelling 
to rent, $1,000; S. Y. Pitts, new dwelling, $3,500; Jno H. Austin, 
dwelling to rent, $475 ; Walter Adams, residence, $900; V. B. C:d- 
houn, residence, $1,200; S. M. Keebaugh, addition to store, $600; 
Mrs. Mary McCampbell, improvements on hotel, $325; J. R. Wisdom, 
house to rent and improvements on his store, $1,600 ; Mrs. Gillis, im- 


provements on dwelling, $200 ; H. Woodbury, improvements on 
dwelling, $300; G. F. Eothwell, house to rent, $550; William Pil- 
ger, dwelling, $350 ; Huntsville Coal Company, shaft and other im- 
provements, $12,500; W. T. Rutherford, five dwelling houses to 
rent, $2,500 ; Taylor & Smothers, three houses to rent, $2,700 ; 
David Reese, two houses to rent, $850 ; Mr. Chas. McCarty, residence, 
$600; G. F. Rothwell, residence, $1,500; John B. Taylor, improve- 
ments on residence, $1,500; J, D. Hunt, residence, $525; T. D. 
Bogie, improvements on residence, $200 ; Mrs. Boulware, improve- 
ments on residence, $250; Will Doc Hunt, residence, $600; H. L. 
Rutherford, improvements on residence, $400; school-house for ne- 
groes, $540; Westley Elay, " dwelling, $1,100; James Chrisman, 
dwelling, $300 ; Nelson Carter, dwelling, $450 ; J. Hummons, dwell- 
ing, $450 ; J. Smith, dwelling, $300 ; David Morton, addition to resi- 
dence, $200; Beverly Lay, residence, $450; Easter Austin, residence, 
$300; L. Henderson, residence, $200 ; jail and jailor's residence, 
$8,000; Jane Walker, improvements on residence. 


[From the Herald.] 

On a Monday morning, in January, 1874, about one o'clock, fire was 
discovered issuing from the rear room of the grocery store of George 
T. Green, on Main street, in this place. The flames spread rapidly, 
and in a few minutes the house of Moses Heymaun, on the west, and 
the City Drug Store of Charles Semple & Co., Avere on fire, and were 
not long in being reduced to ruins. By this time a large crowd had 
gathered, and by the almost superhuman efforts of a few men the prog- 
ress of the flames was checked. The house of Mrs. Lewis, occupied 
by W. T. Jackson as a grocery store, the next store on the east from 
the drug store, was saved without material damage. 

The fire was evidently the work of an incendiary, as no fire had 
been in the store of Mr. Green since the Saturday night previous, and 
in the part of the building where the fire originated there was no stove 
or stove flue, and it is not known that there was any combustible sub- 
stance to create a fire. 


The first house burned was the property of Mr. J. C. Shaefer. It 
was a two-story brick, brick front, about 40 feet deep by 21 feet wide, 
and had a wooden addition on the south end. It was insured in the 
Underwriters' Insurance Company of New York City for $1,500. 
The building is, of course, a total loss. 

The next house on the east was the property of James Wisdom. It 
was a two-story brick, about 40 feet deep, with a brick extension on 
the south. It was fitted up for a drug store, in a very complete 
manner, and was the best house for that purpose in the county. It 
was insured in the American Central, of St. Louis, for $2,500. 


On the corner stood the three-story brick which formerly belonged 
to the estate of John McCampbell, bnt which was purchased some 
time ago by Moses Heymann. This building was not insured, and 
is a total loss. 


Moses Heymann occupied the first story of the corner building, as 
a dry goods and clothing store, and had on hand, he estimates, about 
115,000 in stock, on which there was an insurance in the following 
companies: Equitable, of Nashville ; Fire and Marine, of St. Joseph, 
and Underwriters, of New York — aggregating $8,000. His stock was 
partially saved, but of course more or less damaged in removing. His 
losses will be heavy, but cannot yet be approximated in dollars and cents. 

The second story of this building was occupied by Mr. J. G. Bibb as 
a saddle and harness-maker's shop. His goods were nearly all saved, 
and, we understand, not badly damaged in handling. 

The third story was occupied as a Masonic hall, and the Huntsville 
Lodge and Huntsville Royal Arch Chapter each had all their regalia 
and other fixtures there, which are a total loss, as nothing w^as saved 
from this part of the building. The records of both Lodge and Chap- 
ter were fortunately not in the building, but the charter of each of the 
institutions was burned. 

The first story of the next building was occupied by George T. 
Green, as a family grocery store, and he had on hand a full stock of 
goods in his line. As the fire originated in his back room, only such 
goods as were in the front portion of the store were saved. His losses 
will be heavy. He was insured in the St. Joseph Fire and Marine In- 
surance Company for $2,000 on his stock. The second story was 
occupied by Col. Denny as a law office, in which he kept his books 
and a considerable amount of office furniture. His books were for- 
tunately saved, but his furniture and some valuable papers were 
burned. No insurance. 

The first story of the next building was occupied by Messrs. Charles 
Semple & Co. as a drug store, in which they had a very complete 
stock of drugs, etc. We understand that only about $500 worth of 
their stock was saved, as the oils, etc., in the rear of their store 
burned very rapidly. They are insured in the New York Home Insur- 
ance Company for $2,500. 

The second story of the building was occupied by Mr. Charles 
Semple as a dwelling. He succeeded in saving all his furniture and 
household goods, only losing a little clothing. This completes the 
occupancies of the buildings burned. The above covers the buildings 
that were burned and their occupancy. In addition to this the stocks 
were removed from the remaining buildings in the row, and were of 
course more or less damaged. 

W. T. Jackson is damaged three or four hundred on grocery stock. 
No insurance. The bank moved out their desks and other movable 
fixtures, but there was no particular damage to them. The liquors 
and fixtures of John R. Belsher's saloon were all moved out, and iu 


the effort to take care of them, the liquors were nearly all drank up. 
He lost nearly all his stock which falls heavy on him. G. W, Taylor's 
goods were all moved out into the street, and will be damaged to the 
amount of a thousand or fifteen hundred dollars, covered by insurance. 
The stoves and hardware of V. B. Calhoun were moved out, but the 
damage will be slight, as was also the saddlery of A. J. Ferguson, and 
the stores and hardware of H. P. Hunter, The law books and office 
furniture of John R. Christian were removed, and more or less 
damaged, as were those of I. P. Bibb. 

The total losses by the fire Avill not be far from $20,000, at a very 
moderate estimate. A number of our citizens worked faithfully to 
stop the ravages of the fire, among whom none deserve more praise 
than William and Neal Holman, and R. J. Flouruey, also a man 
named Fowler, from Sedalia, and another named elohn N. Brison, 
from Shelbina. The roof on the house of Dr. J. C. Oliver was torn 
off to stop the fire in case it got that far, but fortunately this was un- 

We cannot close this without saying that a number of ladies who 
live in town did heroic service in assisting to save the goods, for which 
they deserve great credit. 

There have been other fires in Huntsville, but none perhaps more 
destructive than the fire above mentioned. 


The people of Huntsville, ever generous and alive to the calls of 
suffering humanity, met at the court-house, August 31, 1878, during 
the prevalence of yellow fever in the South, and contributed of their 
substance, as will be seen bv the followino: notice : — 

At a meeting at the court-house, on August 31, 1878, to devise 
ways and means to assist the suffering South, G. H. Burckhartt was 
elected chairman; Charles Allin, secretary; and W. R. Samuel, 
treasurer. Committee appointed and following sums subscribed by 
those present : 

W. T. Austin, $5 ; G. H. Burckhartt, $5 ; J. N. Taylor, $5 ; C. H. 
Hance, $5 ; William Smith, $5 ; W. H. Williams, $5 ; W. R. Samuel, 
$5; J. C. Oliver, $5; Charles Allin, $5; Dr. Dameron, $5; I. J. 
Loeb, $2 ; V. B. Calhoun, $1 ; John Swetnam, $2 ; W. Sandison, $2 ; 
A. J. Ferguson, $1 ; J. H. Simms, $1 ; Edward Jackson, $2 ; A. H. 
Waller, $1; V. M. Baker, $1; R. Flournoy, $1; C. H. Hammett, 
$2.50; W. C. Kirby, $1 ; Mrs. Gillis, 25c; total, $67.75. 

Collected by V. B. Calhoun: Thomas B. Reed, $10; Dr. A. L. 
Bibb, $1 ; J. G. Bibb, $1 ; J. D. Head, 50c; T. B. Minor, 25c; J. 
S. Vancleve, 25c; total, $13. 

Collected by V. M. Baker: C. D. Vase, 50c; J. D. Oliver, 25c; 


J. M. Baker, 50c; G. W. Taylor, $1.50; Luther Cobb, 50c; total, 

Collected by l*saac J. Loeb : William Sims, $1; A. Doffnir, 25c; 
M. Heymanii, 50c ; John Hunt, 25c ; L. B. Keebaiigh, 25c ; H. A. 
Clark, 25c; J. W. Hammett, $1 ; E. H. Hammett, 50c; J. Ashurst, 
50c; Henry Burton, 50c; Thomas Herndon, 50c ; Charles Semple, 
50c; Gray Lo wry, 50c; J. D. Moore, 50; John Vaughan, 25c; J. 
H. Smith, 50c; G. P. Dameron, 25c; Cash, 40c; J. H. Eeed, 25c; 
C. R. Ferguson, $2; H. L. Rutherford, 50c; J. G. Dameron, 25c; 
William Cave, 25c ; W. G. Lea, 25c ; George Malone, 25c ; F. M. 
Hammett, $2 ; W. T. Rutherford, $5 ; Jo. Kirby, 40c ; Robert Rains, 
25c ; E. E. Samuel, 50c ; J. G. Baker, 50 ; J. Burk, 50c ; total, $21.30. 

Collected by Mrs. Elmore and Miss Kiernan : Dr. Kiernan, $1 ; 
Mrs. Eberle, 10c ; Mrs. Rebecca Rutherford, 50c ; Mrs. Denny, $1 ; 
Mrs. Gillis, 25c ; Rev. W. Penn, $1.50 ; T. D. Bogie, printing, $2.50 ; 
total, $6.85. 

Collected by J. H. Simms : Edward Stephenson, 50c; S. Harri- 
son, 25c ; J. A. Heether, 90c ; James Murry, $1 ; J. R. Belsher, 50c ; 
G. V. Wright, 50c ; W. Boniface, 25c ; J. N. Stewart, 50c ; W. T. 
Jackson, $1; C. B. Shaefer, 25c; G. W. Crutchfield, 25c; William 
Meyer, 25c; L. M. Hunt, $1; H. P. Hunt, 50c; A. Jordan, 25c; 
A. W. Scott, 25c ; A. Cox, 50c ; G. A. Wright, 25c ; N. J. Smothers, 
50c; total, $9.40. 

Collected by W. H. Williams : A. P. Terrill, $5 ; A. J. Miller, 
$1 ; John Murry, $1.75 ; T. B. Kimbrough, $1 ; Thomas Elmore, $1 ; 
G. W. Keebaugh, $1 ; P. Y. Swetnam, $5 ; Jo. W. Taylor, $1 ; J. 
R. Christian, $1 ; H. Woodbury, $1 ; J. D. Hammett, $2 ; A. J. 
Rambury, 50c ; C. Boyd, $1 ; James Alderson, 50c ; H. Ficklin, 50c ; 
J. R. Terrill, $1; C. F. Rigg, $1; W. H. Taylor, $2.50; John H. 
Penny, $1 ; Joseph Allin, $1 ; W. A. Thomas, $1; W. B. Crutchfield, 
50c ; W. G. Wilson, $1 ; J. R. Hull, 50c ; Miss Dunlap, 15c ; Mahlon 
Hix, $1; James Hardin, $1; I. P. Bibb, $1; E. P. Kirby, $5; 
total, $4i.90. 

Total at court-house, $67.75 ; collected by Williams, $41.90; col- 
lected by Calhoun, $13 ; collected by Baker, $3.25 ; collected by Mrs. 
Elmore, $6.85; collected by J. H. Simms, $9.40; collected by I. J. 
Loeb, $21.30; total, $163.45 ; deduct printing, $2.50; total $160.95. 
This sum was sent to Howard Association to be distributed where 
most needed. 

G. H. Burckhartt, president; Charles Allin, secretary; W. R. 
Samuel, treasurer. The 1. O. O. F. Lodge sent $15 in addition to 
the above. 



The first banking enterprise in Huntsville was inangurated about 
the year 1866 by William M. Wisdom and Courtney Hughes. It was 
a private institution, and continued until the death of Mr. Hughes, 
which occurred in 1867. The bank then did business under the name 
of C. Wisdom & Co., until December 31, 1874, when it was succeeded 
by the Huntsville Savings Bank. The bank was again changed in 
1878, to the private bank of J. M. Hammett & Co., with the follow- 
ing directors and stock-holders : F. M. Hammett, president ; James 
W. Hammett, vice-president; C. H. Hammett, cashier; B. F. Ham- 
mett, J. D. Hammett, W. R. Samuel, M. J. Sears, John R. Christian. 
The bank is supplied with a time-lock, and is in a flourishing condi- 
tion, as the following statement will show: — 

Official statement of the flnancial couditiou of J. M. Hammett & Co., at Huntsville, 

State of Missouri, at the close of business on the 31st day of December, 1883: 
Eesources — 

Loans undoubtedly good on personal or collatei'al security . . # 96,409 36 

Loans and discounts undoubtedly good on real estate security . . 24,000 00 

Overdrafts by solvent customers 10,095 36 

Other bonds and stocks at their present cash market price . . . 3,450 00 

Due from other banks, good on sight draft 8,3S1 00 

Real estate at present cash market value \ , r,nn nn 

Furniture and fixtures J '"" 

Bills of National Banks and legal tender United States notes . . 12,987 00 

Gold coin 3,000 00 

Silver coin 2,4(!0 42 

Total $164,983 14 

Liabilities — 

Capital stock paid in $ 15,900 00 

Surplus funds on hand 3,341 93 

Deposits subject to draft — at sight 145,741 21 

Total $164,983 14 

State of Missouri, \ 
County of Randolph, j 

We, C. H. Hammett and James W. Hammett, two of the partners in or owners of 
said banking business, and each of us, do solemnly swear that the above statement is 
true to the best of our knov/Iege and belief. G. H. Hammett, 

J. W. Hammett. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 8th day of January, A. D. eighteen hun- 
dred and eighty-four. 

[l. s.] Witness my hand and notarial seal hereto affixed, at office in Huntsville, 
the date last aforesaid. (Commissioned and qualified for a term expiring March 15th, 
1887.) Will C. Kirby, Notary Public. 


Huntsville Lodge No 30, A. F. and A. M. — Was chartered by the 
Grand Lodge of Missouri October 8, 1840. The following are the 
only three names of the charter members that appear upon the records : 


Edward Slater, Fleming Terrill, Thomas P. Coates. This lodge owns 
a hall equal to any similar institution to be found in any town not ex- 
ceeding 3,000 inhabitants. 

Huntsville Royal Arch Chapter No. 13 — Was chartered by the 
Grand R. A. Chapter of Missouri, May 23, 1849. Charter members : 
Priestly H. McBride, Edward Slater, William B. Giddings, N. B. 

Coates, Halstead, Garland Ried, John Grigler, James Shirley, 

Milton Bradley and others, whose names could not be obtained, the 
record having been destroyed by fire. 

Randolph Lodge No. 23, 1. 0. 0. F. — Was chartered April 29, 
1847, and organized and officers installed June 10, 1847, by Grand 
Master Isaac M. Veitch, of St. Louis, assisted by Clark H. Green, D. 
D. G. M. Number admitted to membership since organization, 258. 
Charter members were: Henry Bagwell, N. G. ; Thomas Adams, V. 
G. ; William M. Withers, S. ; George Gentry, T. ; William Ander- 
son.^ Present officers : Charles Cartwright, N. G. ; William Pool, V. 
G. ;. James Farquarson, S. ; J. H. Miller, Per. S. ; B. W. Malone, 
T. Term of office expires March 31, 1884. 

Huntsville Lodge No. 101, A. 0. U. W. — Organized in January, 
1879. Charter members: Thomas D. Bogie, Will C. Kirby, H. G. 
Bourn, Joseph Allin, R,. E. Kiernan, August Doffnir, R. F. Poison, 
Charles H. Hance, V. M. Baker, William F. Meyer, D. T. Gentry. 
Officers : D. T. Gentry, P. M. W. ; T. D. Bogie, M. W. ; R. F. Pol- 
son, G. F. ; V. M. Baker, O. S. ; William F. Meyer, Guide ; Will C. 
Kirby, Recorder ; Joseph Allin, Financier ; C. H. Hance, R. ; H. G. 
Bourn, I. G. ; A. Doffnir; O. G. ; R. E. Kiernan, M. E. Trustees : 
R. E. Kiernan, M. D. ; T. D. Bogie, W. F. Meyer. The list of offi- 
cers for 1884 is : W. C. Kirby, P. M. W. ; T. M. Elmore, M. W. ; J. 
A. Heether, Gen. F. ; August Schunaman, O. V. S. ; J. M. Shaefer, 
Recorder; John R. Hull, Financier; William Meyer, Receiver; E. S. 
Bedford, Guide; T. L. Haggard, I. W. ; Moses Rothchild, O. W. ; 
A. Schunaman, William Meyer and T. M. Elmore, trustees. 

Huntsville Lodge No. 2589, K. of H. — Was organized October 24, 
1881. The charter members were: J. W. Heist, L. V. Heether, J. 
P. Hurry, W. V. Hall, G. L. Alexander, J. H. Miller, J. W. Brook- 
ing, J. R. Belcher, F. T. Payne, W. C. Kirby, W. H. Balthis, S. 
C. Matlock, William Isles, J. A. Heether, E. S. Bedford, F. G. 
Parker, A. D. Asbell, F. P. Baird and Charles Sandison. The 
first officers in October, 1881, were: J. W. Heist, Dictator; W. V. 

1 Father of " Bill " Anderson, the guerrilla chief in the War of 1861. 


Hall, p. Dictator ; L. V. Heether, Vice-Dictator ; J. P. Hurry, 
Assistant-Dictator; L. G. Alexander, Chaplain; J.Horace Miller, 
Eeporter ; J. W. Brooking, F. Reporter ; J. R. Belcher, Treasurer ; 
F. T. Payne, Guide; W. V. Hall, D. G. D. Present officers 
(1884): J. P. Hurry, D. ; J. W. Taylor, V. D. ; J. L. Chapman, 
A. D. ; E. E. Samuel, Jr., R. ; W. E. Wade, F. R. ; W. C. Kirby, 
Treasurer; J. C. Samuel, Chaplain; T. C. Jackson, Guide; Eugee 
Jackson, Guardian; R. E. Treloar, Sentinel; W. V. Hall, E. S. 
Bedford, J. H. Miller, Trustees ; E. S. Bedford, Rep. ; Alternate, J. 


The Huntsville Building and Loan Association was chartered 
February 17, 1882. The first officers were William Sandison, 
President; T. M. Elmore, Vice-President; C. H. Hammett, 
Treasurer ; J. C. Shaefer, Secretary. The same officers were con- 
tinued at the last annual election until February, 1885. The Associa- 
tion is in a good and flourishing condition. About 15 family 
residences have been built during its two years' existence by the aid 
of this association, and it is expected that as many, or more, will be 
built during the present year — 1884. 


The Huntsville Baptist church (Missionary) was organized at the 
house of Brother Zephaniah Waldeu, near Huntsville, in August, 
1837, with seven constituent members, to wit : Theophilus Eddine, 
Zephaniah Walden and wife, Mary Thomas, Martha Dameron, Ben- 
jamin Terrill and James Terrill. The first church house in the town 
was erected about 1840. 

The first additions to the church were J. C. Shaefer and wife, in 
September, 1837, on letters of commendation from the Baptist church 
at Charlotfesville, Va. Since then, nearly all the Baptist churches in 
the county have been organized by members dismissed from the Hunts- 
ville church. The present membership is 140. Present clerk, W. R. 
Samuel ; pastor, S. Y. Pitts. The first Sunday-school in the town 
or county was organized by J. C. Shaefer, in August, 1839, and has 
been successfully carried on without intermission to the present time. 
The present superintendent is W. R. Samuel. 

SEMPLe's opera HOUSE. 

This eleo-ant buildino; was finished in Februarv, 1884, and is the 
property of Charles Semple. The building has a frontage of 42 feet 


on Court Square, and a depth of 90 feet, with 19 foot ceiling. The 
lower story of the building is divided into two store rooms, each 21 
by 90 feet. The stage is 42 feet wide and 20 feet deep, and is supplied 
with drop curtains and fly-wings, which have been gotten up in the 
best style of the scenic art. The building is a monument to the good 
taste and liberality of Mr. Seniple, and a great credit to the city of 
Hunts ville. The builders of the Opera House were Frank and Jake 
Walsh, stone builders. The architect was Mr. E. Cook, of Moberly ; 
stage architect, W. O. Thomas ; scenic artists, W. O. Thomas & Co., 
of Kansas City; decorative artist, E. Viets, of Moberly; painter, E. 
W. Stradley, Huntsville ; cornice work, H. Wiles & Co., Kansas 
City ; iron work. Smith, Hill & Co., Quincy, III. ; plasterer, James 
Domm, Huntsville ; gas fitting, P. H. Nise, Moberly ; gas fixtures. 
Fay Gas Fixture Co., St. Louis and William Sandison, Huntsville; 
tin work and heaters, Holman & Payne, Huntsville. The carpeting, 
matting, and chairs were all special orders from St. Louis, and were 
obtained through the agency of Mr. John N. Taylor, of Huntsville. 


This band was organized in November, 1883, and is composed of 
the following persons : J. P. Hurry, E. W. Taylor, J. W. Taylor, 
E. E. Samuel, B. E. Treloar, Philip Maniel, J. O. Simms, Eddie Cal- 
houn, Ed. St. Clair, M. A. Cooley, William Skinner, Prof. Jonahan 


gave its first public performance in January, 1884. The following 
are the members of this company: Prof. B. F. Heaton, J. M. 
Wright, H. L. Ellington, W. K. Smith, J. P. Hurry, Dr. W. B. 
Abbington, B. E. Treloar, Church Brooking, John McClary, D. P. 
Hall, Eugene Jackson, Mrs. V. B. Calhoun, Mrs. J. M. Wright, Miss 
Anna Sears, Miss Minnie Sears, Miss Dora Shaefer, Miss Ella Good- 
ding Miss Maggie Williams, Miss Annie Smith, Miss Jeffie Jones. 
This company, composed exclusively of home talent, has given two 
entertainments, which were largely attended and highly appreciated 
by the citizens of Huntsville. The first earnings of the company are 
to be used to pay for the town clock. 


was formed in November, 1883, with a capital of $10,000, held by 22 
stockholders. Its present officers are W. T. Rutherford, president ; 
T. M, Elmore, vice-president, and J. A. Swetnam, treasurer. This 
company, although it has been doing business but a few weeks, has 


now 100 agents and 116 sub-agents in cliflferent States. Twenty-five 
men are employed, who make about 16 machines per day. 

Huntsville was incorporated March 12, 1859. March 10, 1871, the 
corporation limits were extended. 

L. S. Barrad was the first mayor, and held his office in 1859, 


W. V. Hall, mayor ; W. T. Rutherford, J. W. Hammett, Thomas 
M. Jones, G. M. Keebaugh, councilmen. 


G. M. Keebaugh, clerk; W. T. Rutherford, treasurer; A. M. 
Ellington, city attorney ; J. C. Shaefer, assessor ; T. C. Jackson, 


The public schools were partially organized in Huntsville some 
little time after the close of the war, but the organization was not 
completed until 1877, when the new school building was erected. 
The building and grounds cost about $3,500 ; it is a two-story frame 
structure, and contains eight rooms. In 1877, Prof. M. C. McMellen 
took charge of the school as principal. The white pupils enrolled at 
that time numbered 225, and the colored 75. 

The present enrollment of white pupils numbers 350, colored 
pupils 125, showing an increase over the year 1877 of 145. Under 
the management of Prof. Benjamin F. Heaton, the accomplished and 
popular principal, the schools, both white and colored, are doing Avell. 
Prof. Heaton's aim, from the beg-innino; of his connection with the 
schools, has been to not only raise them to a higher grade, but to so 
conduct them that their utility would soon be recognized and acknowl- 
edged by all. HoAV well he has succeeded is seen in the interest which 
is now manifested upon the part of the citizens of Huntsville. 

The teachers are Prof. Benjamin F. Heaton, principal: Miss 
Bettie Reed, Miss Anna Sears, Miss Dora Bibb, Miss Dora Shaefer, 
Miss Bettie Kiernan. 


In 1853 the citizens of Randolph county, impressed with the need 
of an institution of learning, and wishing to secure to themselves its 
benefits, determined to erect suitable buildinjrs at a cost of not less 
than $10,000. Acting on the advice of Hon. William A. Hall, to put 
the institution under the care and patronage of Mount Pleasant Baptist 
Association, a letter stating the above jDroposal, signed by William A. 


Hall, H. Austin and P.P. Ruby, in behalf of the citizens of Randolph 
county, was addressed to and accepted by the Association, and the 
institution took the name of the Association. Under this arrange- 
ment the money was secured and the building erected. February 28, 
1855, the charter was obtained. In 1857, the building having been 
completed at a cost of $12,500, and a school of 170 pupils under 
Rev. William Thompson, LL. D., President, and Rev. J. H. Carter, 
A. B., Professor of Mathematics, and Miss Bettie Ragland, Principal 
of female department, having been taught with gratifying results one 
year, the institution was formally tendered by the board of trustees to 
the Association and accepted ; the Association at the same time 
promising to endow the college remotely with $25,000, and within 
two years, with $10,000, appointed Rev. Noah Flood to proceed at 
once to secure the last named amount, and pledged himself to main- 
tain sufficient and efficient teachers until the $10,000 endowment was 
secured. Rev. W. R. Rothwell succeeded Dr. Thompson in the 
presidency, and the college ran till 1861, filling the most sanguine 
expectations of its friends. President Rothwell gathered quite an 
extensive library, provided apparatus for chemical, philosophical and 
astronomical purposes, secured a considerable cabinet of minerals and 
fossils, and established the character and reputation of the college. 
The war in 1861 crippled the resources of the school, by cutting off 
students, and a deficit of $580 in teachers' salaries was imposed, which 
failing to be met by the Association, the trustees of the college let it 
to President Rothwell, who, at his own risk, and mainly by his own 
effort, carried the collesre through the clouds of war into the sunshine 
of 1868. The school which had hitherto been self-sustaining, or 
carried by the magnanimity of President Rothwell to 1866, now being 
cut down by the impoverished and unsettled state of the country, 
made a move for an endowment a necessity, and the call became 
imperative. The board of trustees at Mount Gilead church in 1866, 
with emphasis called upon the Association to redeem her past pledges 
for endowment. 

Y. R. Pitts and Wade M. Jackson were appointed solicitors to raise 
$10,000 in twelve months. The next year (1868) the Association at 
Keytesville, through Y. R. Pitts, reported as endowment : — 

In notes $ 5,640 50 

In cash 200 00 

Jerry Kingsberry bequest 2,500 00 

Balance unprovided for •=• 1,660 00 

$10,000 50 


The balance, $1,660, was raised by subscription at that sitting of 
the Association. 

In 1870, Mount Pleasant Association, wishing further to endow the 
college, and learning that Macon Association was contemplating build- 
ing a similar institution of learning at Macon City, m the adjoining 
county, and within 30 miles of Huntsville, proposed to Macon As- 
sociation to consolidate upon Mount Pleasant College, offerinof them 
first, one-half of the board of trustees, and second, requiring them to 
raise $5,000 to be blended with the endowment fund. W. R. Roth- 
well, Benjamin Terrill, Joshua W. Terrill, W. R. Samuel and W. T. 
Beckelheimer were appointed a committee with discretionary power to 
confer with Macon Association. In 1872, Macon Association havinsf 
canvassed her ability to build, and the proposal of Mount Pleasant 
Association, agreed by resolution to co-operate with Mount Pleasant 
Association, in building up Mount Pleasant College, when the com- 
mittee from Mount Pleasant Association guaranteed them one-half of 
the board of trustees except one, leaving a majority of the board in 
Mount Pleasant Association. In 1869, Rev. James W. Terrill suc- 
ceeded President Rothwell. The war being over, confidence restored, 
and the times being prosperous and inviting, the college with other 
enterprises, took new life. Added to this. President Terrill brought 
to the institution a combination of merit, enterprise and energy, 
rarely found in one man, and in producing a new, popular and success- 
ful method of teaching, carried the college to its highest point of suc- 
cess. The question of repairs, additions and betterments (for the 
building had been used for military quarters during the war) now 
arose, and the terms, patronage and success of the school, and the 
earnest protestations of both Mount Pleasant and Macon Associations, 
seemed to demand and encourage immediate action in this direction. 
The trustees concluded to make ample improvement and additions, 
and to the main building added two wings, running out and back of 
the main building, giving in rooms, halls, stairways and closets, a 
building whose size, arrangement, decoration and stability which would 
rank with any in the State. Added to this the patronage and liber- 
ality of the citizens of Randolph county, and especially the citizens of 
Huntsville to the institution, which had ever been marked, the board 
of trustees were induced to build a commodious and tasteful boarding;- 
house, three stories, besides the basement. The citizens of Hunts- 
ville for this purpose furnished $3,000 cash, by which with a loan on 
first mortgage, assisted by a loan of $3,500 endowment fund, secured 
by second mortgage on the building, it was completed. 


These buildings and additions were completed in 1871, and a con- 
siderable debt incurred. In 1873, the financial trouble which had 
been threatening overwhelmed the country, and a wave more damag- 
ing and blighting than war passed over the college. For two years 
longer, under President Terrill, it stood bravely on its feet carrying 
the heavy pressure. But the boarding-house was sold under first 
mortgage, and failing to bring the debt, the second mortgage, $3,500 
endowment fund, was lost and the Jerry Kingsbury bequest, $2,500, 
being swept away, when the bank failed, and the parties failing to 
come to time on their notes, from financial embarrassments, the $10,- 
000 endowment was never realized. 

In 1876, Rev. M. J. Breaker came to the head of the institution, 
and like his worthy predecessor, Rothwell, stood by it in a dark hour 
of peril, and by effort and sacrifice bore her on in her noble mission 
for three years longer, till March 21, 1879, when a judgment haVing 
been obtained against the college for debt, and looking for the execu- 
tion to be levied in June following. President Breaker resigned and 
the school closed — the second time in its existence of 23 years ; once 
before after the close of the war in 1869, under President Rothwell ; 
both times at the spring term. 

Mount Pleasant College, during her 23 years of existence, had been 
presided over by Rev. William Thompson, LL. D., one year; Rev. 
W. R. Rothwell, D.D., twelve years; Rev. J. W. Terrill, seven 
vears, and Rev. M. J. Breaker, three years ; it instructed hosts of 
youths, turned out 109 graduates, blessed the cause of education, ele- 
vated the community, and demonstrated the co-education of the sexes, 
as the fittest and best. 

Rev. A. S. Worrell, D.D., succeeded Mr. Breaker, and was presi- 
dent of the college in 1880-81. Rev. James B. Weber succeeded Dr. 
Worrell, and had charge of the college as its president when the build- 
ing was destroyed by fire (July 13, 1882). At the time the college 
building was destroyed there was a debt on it of $3,000, which was 
known as the (Wiley) Ferguson bequest. All other debts had been 
paid by the friends of the institution. The Ferguson bequest was 
secured by a mortgage on the building and grounds, and in order to 
pay this, the college and grounds were sold in 1883, and Avere pur- 
chased by the court-house building committee. 

There has been no special efi"ort to rebuild the institution, but it is 
hoped that steps will soon be taken in this direction, especially since 
the new court-house which was destroyed soon after the college, b}' fire 
also, has been completed. The college was one of the best and most 


convenient school structures in tlie State. Besides closets and ward- 
robes, the entire building contained 14 large, airy rooms. Its working 
capacity was amply sufficient for 500 students. 

The board of directors and faculty at the time the college was burned 
down in 1882, was : H. T. Fort, President ; T. B. Kimbrough, Sec- 
retary ; W. K. Samuel, Treasurer; J. D. Brown, Stephen Connor, 
J. F. Finks, P. T. Gentry, J. D. Humphrey, G. W. Keebaugh, R. 
J. Mansfield, W. A. Martin, W. D. Wilhite, Alfred Coulter, W. F. 
Elliott, J. T. Fort, W. J. Horsley, W. B. McCrary, S. Y. Pitts, T. T. 
Elliott, J. C. Shaefer. These trustees held the college for the Mount 
Pleasant Baptist Association. Faculty : — Rev. J. B. Weber, A. M., 
President, Professor of Greek, Moral Philosophy and English ; Miss 
Nannie L. Ray, B. A., Assistant in Mathematics and Latin; J. B. 
Weber, Acting Professor of Natural Science ; Mrs. A. E. Weber, 
Principal Preparatory and Primary Departments ; Mrs. M. E. Lasley, 
Principal of the Music Department. 


At a meeting of the citizens of Huntsville, held on Tuesday even- 
ing, March 8th, 185 — , for the purpose of taking into consideration 
the building of a Female College, W. R. Samuel, Esq., was called to 
preside over the meeting, and S. T. Morehead was appointed Sec- 

Aleck Phipps, Esq., was called upon to explain the objects of the 
meeting, which he did in a brief and appropriate manner. 

Col. Barrows, of Macon City, was called upon and made a very in- 
teresting and earnest address in behalf of the cause of education, and 
the necessity of a Female College in this community. 

Mr. Overall, of Macon City; G. F. Rothwell and I. B. Porter 
were also called for, and responded in appropriate speeches. 

Capt. W. T. Austin then offered the following resolutions, which 
were adopted : — 

Resolved, 1. That while the Female College, proposed to be erected 
at Huntsville, by the citizens of Randolph and adjoining counties, is 
not designed to be sectarian in its 2:overnment and control, vet we be- 
lieve that the successful establishment of the proposed college demands 
that it be placed under the control of some religious denomination. 

Resolved, 2. That as the Baptist brethren have their Mount Pleas- 
ant College in Huntsville, Randolph county, the Presbyterian brethren 
their McGee College in Macon county, and the Methodist brethren 
their Central College in Howard county, we therefore do declare it to 
be the sense of this meeting that the proposed college would be more 


conducive of success by placing said college under the control of the 
brethren of the Christian church. 

A motion was made and carried that a committee of four gentlemen 
and four ladies be appointed to solicit subscriptions for the proposed 
college. The chairman then appointed the following named gentle- 
men and ladies : — 

Gentlemen — W. T. Eutherford, M. J. Sears, Charles AUin, J. M. 

Ladies — Mrs. Annie Wisdom, Mrs. Goodding, Mrs. A. J. Fergu- 
son and Mrs. V. B. Calhoun. 

On motion the meeting adjourned until the following Monday even- 
ing. W. K. Samuel, President. 
S. T. MoREHEAD, Secretary. 

This college was never erected. 


The first fair was held at Huntsville in the fall of 1854. D. C. 
Garth was president, Wallace McCampbell, vice-president ; William 
D. Malone, secretary ; Robert Y. Gilman, treasurer. The directors 
were: Dr. W. T. Dameron, James M. Hammett, Col. Thomas P. 
Ruby, Hon. James F. Wright, F. M. McLean, N. B. Christian. The 
last fair was held in 1876. The officers were: H. T. Rutherford, 
president ; J. M. Summers, first vice-president ; F. M. Hammett, 
second vice-president. The directors were Louis Heether, W. T. 
Rutherford, James F. Robinson, Capt. Thomas B. Reed, James M. 
Baker, Neal Holman, G. H. Burckhartt, S. T. Morehead. 

The following includes the business and professions in Huntsville : 
Four dry goods and clothing stores, one newspaper, four groceries, 
two shoemakers, two meat markets, three tobacco factories, three 
wagon makers, four saloons, one tailor, one tobacco and cigar store, 
three carpenters, one furniture store, one barber, three millinery, 
two insurance agents, one bakery and tobacco, four ministers, one 
shoe store, five lawyers, two drug stores, five physicians, one bank, 
two dentists, two hardware, three hotels, one sewing machine, one 
restaurant and confectionery, two jewelers, three blacksmiths, one 
harness shop, one livery and feed stable, two flour mills, two saw 
mills, one woolen mill, one lumber and hardware. 

The population of the place is 2,000. 



Introductory Remarks — Judge David Todd — Judge John F. Ryland — Hon. Joseph 
Davis — Gov. Thomas Reynolds — Gen. Robert Wilson — Gen. John B. Clark, Sr. — 
Robert W. Wells. 

Horace Greeley once said that the only good use a lawyer could be 
put to was hanging, and a great many other people entertain the same 
opinion. There may be cause for condemning the course of certain 
practitioners of the law, but the same may be said within the ranks of 
all other professions. Such men should not be criticised as lawyers, 
doctors, or the like, but rather as individuals who seek, through a pro- 
fession that is quite as essential to the welfare of the body politic, as 
the science of medicine is to that of the physical well being, or theology 
to the perfection of the moral nature, to carry out their nefarious and 
dishonest designs, which are usually for the rapid accumulation of 
money, although at times for far more evil and sinister purposes, and 
which are the instincts of naturally depraved and vicious natures. 
None of the professions stand alone in being thus afflicted. All suffer 
alike. The most holy and sacred offices have been prostituted to base 
uses. And it would be quite as unreasonable to hold the entire medi- 
cal fraternity in contempt for the malpractice and quackery of some 
of its unscrupulous members, or the church with its thousands of sin- 
cere and noble teachers and followers, in derision for the hypocrisy 
and deceit of the few, who simply use it as a cloak to conceal the in- 
tentions of a rotten heart and a corrupt nature, as to saddle upon a 
profession as great as either the shortcomings of some of its individual 

By a wise ordination of Providence, law and order govern every- 
thing in the vast and complex system of the universe. Law is every- 
thing — lawyers nothing. Law would still exist, though every one of 
its professors and teachers should perish from the face of the earth. 
And should such a thing occur, and a new race spring up, the first 
instinctive desire of its best men would be to bring order out of chaos 
by the enactment and promulgation of wise and beneficial laws. Law 
in the a1)stract is as much a component part of our planet as are the 
elements, earth, air, fire and water. In a concrete sense, as ap^Dlied 


to the government of races, nations and people, it plays almost an 
equally important part. Indeed, so grand is the science and so noble 
are the objects sought to be accomplished through it, that it has in- 
spired some of the best and greatest men of ancient and modern times 
to an investigation and study of its principles ; and in the long line of 
great names handed down to us from the dim and shadowy portals of 
the past, quite as many great men will be found enrolled as members 
of the legal profession as in any of the others, and owe their greatness 
to a sound knowledge of the principles of law, and a strict and impar- 
tial application of them, Draco, among the first and greatest of 
Athenian law-givers, was hailed as the deliverer of those people 
because of his enacting laws and enforcing them for the prevention of 
vice and crime, and looking to the protection of the masses from 
oppression and lawlessness. It is true that many of the penalties he 
attached to the violation of the law were severe, and even barbarous, 
but this severity proceeded from an honorable nature, with an earnest 
desire to improve the condition of his fellow-men. Triptolemus, his 
contemporary, proclaimed as laws : "Honor your parents, worship 
the gods, hurt not animals." Solon, perhaps the wisest and greatest 
of them all, a man of remarkable purity of life and noble impulses, 
whose moral character was so great, and conviction as to the public 
good so strong, that he could and did refuse supreme and despotic 
power when thrust upon him, thus replied to the sneers of his 
friends : — 

Nor wisdom's plan, nor deep laid policy, 
Can Solon boast. For, when its noble blessings 
Heaven poured into his lap, he spurned them from him. 
Where were his sense and spirit, when enclosed 
He found the choicest prey, nor deigned to draw it? 
Who to command fair Athens but one day 
Would not himself, with all his race, have fallen 
Contented on the morrow? 

What is true of one nation or race in this particular is true of all, 
viz. : that the wisest and greatest of all law-makers and lawyers have 
always been pure and good men, perhaps the most notable exceptions 
being Justinian and Tribonianus. Their sfreat learning; and wisdom 
enabled them to rear as their everlasting monument the Pandects and 
Justinian Code, which, however, they sadly defaced by the immoralities 
and excesses of their private lives. Among the revered and modern 
nations will be found, conspicuous for their great services to their 
fellows, innumerable lawyers. To the Frenchman the mention of the 


names of Tronchet, Le Brun, Portalis, Roederer and Thibaudeau 
excites a thrill of pride, of greatness, and of gratitude for theit good- 
ness. What Englishman, or American either, but that takes just pride 
in the splendid reputation and character of the long line of England's 
loyal lawyer sons? The Bacons, father and son, who, with Lord Bur- 
leigh, were selected by England's greatest queen to administer the 
affairs of state, and Somers and Hardwicke, Cowper and Dunning, 
Elden, Blackstone, Coke, Stowell and Curran, who, with all the bold- 
ness of a giant and eloquence of Demosthenes, struck such vigorous 
blows against kingly tyranny and oppression ; and Erskine and Mans- 
field and a score of others. 

These are the men who form the criterion by which the profession 
should be judged. And in our own country have we not names 
among the dead as sacred and among the living as dear? In the 
bright pages of the history of a country, founded for the sole benefit 
of the people, and all kinds of people, who, more than our lawyers, 
are recorded as assisting in its formation, preservation, and working 
for its perpetuity? 

The American will ever turn with special pride to the great Web- 
ster, Rufus Choate, William Wirt, Taney, Marshall, and a hundred 
others, who reflected the greatest honor upon the profession in our 
own country. And among the truest and best sons of Missouri are 
her lawyers, and even in the good old county of Randolph, some of 
her most highly esteemed and most responsible citizens are members 
of this noble profession. 

The following sketches include only some of the earliest attorneys, 
who either presided upon the bench or practiced at the bar of the 
Randolph circuit court : — 


Judge Todd presided over the first circuit court that was held in 
Randolph county, in 1829. Few of the early judges of Missouri 
were better known than him. He was a native of Kentucky, and was 
born about the year 1790, in Fayette county. He came to Missouri 
at an early day, and located in Old Franklin, in Howard county, 
where he had to contend with such men as Judge Leonard, Charles 
French, Gov. Hamilton R. Gamble, and others no less distinguished 
as eminent lawyers and jurists. He was appointed judge of the 
Howard circuit, which afterwards included Randolph county ; he 
was an impartial, conscientious, and upright judge. He died in 
Columbia, Boone county, Missouri, in 1859. 



King and Queen county, Virginia, was the birthplace of Judge 
Ryland — that event occurring in November, 1797. He also settled 
in Old Franklin, in the year 1819, and practiced law until 1830, when 
he was appointed judge of the sixth judicial circuit. In 1848 he 
was appointed judge of the supreme court. He died in 1873. He 
was one of God's noblemen, and bore the judicial robe with a dig- 
nity suited to the high and responsible position — neither strained 
nor assumed, but easy, natural, and commanding. Judge Ryland 
was one of the lawyers who appeared at the Randolph county bar in 
1829, the year before he was appointed judge of the sixth district. 


He was born in Christian county, Kentucky, in January, 1804, and 
came with his parents to Missouri in 1818, and settled near Fayette, 
in Howard county. He was a clerk in the land office at Old Frank- 
lin — pursued the study of his profession a part of the time with 
Gen. John Wilson, and the remainder with Edward Bates, of St. 
Louis. He first opened an office in Old Franklin, but afterwards 
moved to Fayette. He was one of the commissioners to lay out a 
road from Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. He was made colonel 
of a reo-iment in the Indian War, and commanded a brigade in the 
Morman difficulties. He served in the Legislature from 1844 to 1864, 
and died in October, 1871. 


In November, 1796, near Staunton, Augusta county, Virginia, Gen. 
Robert Wilson was born. In the spring of 1820, he located at Old 
Franklin. After the removal of the county seat of Howard county 
to Fayette, he located there. He was appointed probate judge of 
Howard county in 1823. About 1829 he was appointed clerk of the 
circuit and county courts of Randolph county. He was appointed 
brigadier-general of militia in 1838. He was a member of the Leg- 
islature in 1844-5, and soon after, of the State Senate. He was a 
member of the Constitutional convention in 1861, and a member of 
the U. S. Senate in 1862. His death occurred in St. Joseph, Mo. 


Among the many distinguished professional men of the early bar of 
the Western country was the subject of this sketch, who still survives 
at his home in Fayette, Missouri, at the advanced age of 82 years. 


He was born in Madison county, Kentucky, in 1802, and came with 
his father's family to Howard county, Missouri, in 1818. He was 
appointed clerk of the Howard county court in 1823 ; elected captain 
of militia in 1823 ; colonel in 1825 ; participated in the Indian War 
in 1829 ; in the Black Hawk War in 1832 ; was twice wounded ; 
elected brigadier-general of militia in 1830, and ma]'or-genei;al in 1836. 
In 1849 he was elected to the Legislature ; in 1854, elected to 
Congress, whither he went for three successive terms. 

He became brigadier-general in the Southern army in the War of 
1861, and was a member of the Confederate Congress and Senate. The 
General even now (1884) possesses a strong mind and vigorous mem- 
ory, and were it not for the fact that he is blind, he would still be an 
active man. During many years of his eventful life, he was one of the 
most prominent Whig politicians of Missouri, and made in behalf of 
his party some of the ablest and most aggressive campaigns ever 
made in the State. He has affiliated with the Democratic party since 
1854. As a lawyer. Gen. Clark was very successful, and was always 
strong before a jury. ^ 


As Mr, Wells was the first prosecuting attorney who appeared be- 
fore the Eandolph county circuit court, we shall present in this 
chapter a sketch of his life. 

We are conscious, however, that any sketch of the early life and 
career of this able jurist and long tried public servant which may be 
prepared from the scanty material on hand, must necessarily be very 

He was a son of Richard Wells, of Winchester, Virginia, and was 
born there in 1795. The impression that his education was classical 
and thorough seems to have been generally entertained, but the con- 
trary is true, for the only school he ever attended was an ordinary 
common-field school, such as prevailed at that early day throughout 
the Old Dominion. None but wealthy planters and gentlemen of 
fortune were able to send their sons to a college, and as Richard 
Wells did not fall within either of these classes, he was forced, from 
necessity, to deny his son the benefits of a liberal education. But he 
instilled into his young mind the necessity of self-exertion, and en- 
couraged him by pointing to the brilliant career of many self-made 
men, who had attained the highest distinction in the various pursuits 
of life, with no adventitious circumstances to aid them. Young Wells 
was fond of his books, being a constant reader, and with the assistance 


of such translations of ancient authors as fell in his way, he acquired 
a fair knowledge of the classics. He must have studied Latin under 
some private tutor — most probably about the time he was preparing 
himself for admission to the bar — for in after years, in his large 
library, many Latin works were found, which bore evidences of much 
use, with marginal notes and references in his own handwriting. 

When he reached his nineteenth or twentieth year, he entered upon 
the study of law with Judge Vinton, of Marietta, Ohio, and nearly 
completed his studies with that gentleman. He then came to Mis- 
souri and commenced his professional life at St. Charles. This was 
during our Territorial government, and was probably as early as 1818 
or 1819, if not before that time, for upon the admission of the State into 
the Union he had acquired considerable practice, and was appointed 
prosecuting attorney in the St. Charles circuit, embracing St. Charles, 
Lincoln, Pike, Kails and other counties. Judge Rufus Pettibone 
was the judge of the circuit, and the first appointed under the State 

The political trouble growing out of the admission of Missouri, 
formed one of the most exciting and important epochs in our nation's 
history, and came very near precipitating us in a bloody revolution. 
Some of the strongest articles which appeared upon that subject in 
the Missouri press were attributed to the pen of Mr. Wells. He was 
certainly a writer of more than ordinary ability. We are unable to 
state how long he filled the office of circuit attorney, but most proba- 
bly until the time he was appointed Attorney-General of the State, which 
was January 21, 1826. This responsible and highly honorable office, 
which had previously been filled by Edward Bates and Rufus Easton, 
was held by Mr. Wells for a period of ten years. It was no sinecure, 
for the Attorney-General was ex-officio reporter of the decisions of the 
Supreme Court, Prosecuting Attorney for the Cole Circuit, superin- 
tendent of common schools, one of the Advisory Board of the Peni- 
tentiary, and legal adviser of the Legislature, Governor and all other 
State officers. The long period for which his services were retained 
is the best evidence of his diligent and faithful discharge of the com- 
plicated and laborious duties of the office. 

Upon retiring from the office of Attorney-General he was appointed 
Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Missouri, 
and continued in this position until his death, which occurred April 2, 
1865, at Bowling Green, Ky., while on a visit to his married daugh- 
ter. He had nearly reached his seventieth year. 

Judge Wells was twice married, the first time in 1832 to a daughter 
of Major Elias Barcroft, of St. Louis county. Major Barcroft was 


State Auditor from 1823 to 1833. By this marriage he had a son and 
two daughters. A few years after the death of his first wife, in June, 
1840, he married Miss Covington, of Lexington, Ky., a very estima- 
ble lady, who was living in 1878, and by this marriage he had two 
daughters. One of his daughters, by his first marriage, married 
Gen. Monroe Parsons, who was waylaid and murdered by Mexican 
outlaws. Though a slave-holder during most of his life, Judge Wells 
became satisfied that the institution became a stumbling block in the 
progress of this State, and at a very early time advocated a gradual 
system of emanciiDation. With him it was a question of interest, for 
he had no prejudices to encounter in opposition to slavery. He saw 
no hope for the development of our agricultural and mineral resources 
except through free labor and capital, neither of which would en- 
counter slave labor. With him, therefore, it was a question of dollars 
and cents, of local interest, and he was ready to adopt any policy 
which, in his judgment, would invite immigration, labor and capital. 
In 1845 a State convention was called to revise the constitution, 
and Judge Wells was elected a delegate from the Cole Senatorial Dis- 
trict, and upon the reassembling of the convention was selected as its 
presiding officer. During the session he made several speeches, evinc- 
ing much knowledge of constitutional law. He was a close, logical 
reasoner, and always secured the full attention of his hearers, but he 
had but few of the elements of oratory. His voice was sharp, shrill, 
and effeminate, and he was anything but graceful in his gestures or 
delivery. He never spoke without ample preparation, and was happy 
and effective in his illustrations. 

A constitution was framed and submitted to a vote of the people, 
but, by reason of one or two unfortunate provisions, became ob- 
noxious, and was rejected at the polls. Judge Wells was a consistent 
Democrat through life, and though not a man who had many warm 
personal friends, was greatly admired for his general learning and 
legal erudition. He intended, after completing his visit to his 
daughter in Kentucky, to spend a few months in the East to recruit 
his health, but he never left her house alive. As soon as his death 
was telegraphed to St. Louis a bar meeting was held in the city and 
appropriate resolutions adopted, eulogistic of his character as a man 
and as a jurist. These resolutions were spread upon the records of 
the Federal and State courts held in St. Louis. A committee was 
also appointed to receive his remains at the depot, on the opposite 
side of the river, and to escort them through St. Louis on their way 
to Jefferson City. The bar of Cole county also assembled and paid 
a suitable tribute to his memory. 



First and Second Executions which occurred in the County under Sentence of Law — 
Melancholy Affair— A Man Shot and Killed near Moberly— The Murder— Peter 
Casper — Woman Shot and Man Hung — Railroad Collision — The last of Corlew, 
l^e Ravisher — James Hayden Brown Pays the Penalty of his Crime — Brown's 
Wife Commits Suicide — Murder most Foul — Distressing Fatal Accident — James 
A. Wright Commits Suicide. 

There have been but three legal executions in Randolph county. 
As a community, the people of the county are as law-abiding in their 
character as the people of any county in the State. Yet there have 
been many crimes committed within her borders, a full and complete 
history of which would occupy too much space in our book for record. 
We have, therefore, recorded only some of the most prominent of 
these, including a few suicides, believing that a perusal of the same 
will be of great interest to the reader. 

The first man who was executed iu the county, under sentence of 
law, was George Bruce, a slave, for killing his master Benjamin 

The next person was John Owens, a free negro. Both of the above 
named persons were hanged between the years 1853 and 1860. 


[From the Citizen of 1861.] 
Perhaps there is no feature more alarming in our social history than 
the rapid increase of the mania for self-destruction. Within the last 
few years it has been reaping a rich harvest of victims, and the com- 
munities are rare which can plead a total exemption from the effects 
of this fatal delusion. It becomes our painful duty to chronicle a case 
which has just occurred in our own county, the facts of which are 
about as follows : Mr. Robert Trimble, an old gentlemen, some 75 or 
80 years of age, possessed of a fine property, surrounded by a 
respectable family of sons and daughters, and enjoying the respect 
and esteem of all his neighbors, was found dead, on Saturday last, 
suspended to a limb of an oak tree near a small ravine in a Mr. 
Baker's field, about two miles south of Durkville, in this county. 
When found, a rope was twisted tightly about his neck ; he was on 
his knees, and no marks of violence were perceivable. 



Coroner Calhoun, on being notified of the sad occurrence, promptly 
repaired to the scene Sunday morning, and proceeded to hold an 
inquest. The verdict rendered was, in substance, that the deceased 
came to his death by his own act by hanging. We append the testi- 
mony elicted at the inquest, from which it will be seen that the old 
gentleman had been laboring under some mental derangement, super- 
induced, perhaps, by a severe chronic affliction, and had repeatedly 
meditated self-destruction before the rash act was finally consum- 
mated. It is truly a melancholy affair, and the surviving relatives 
have our deepest sympathy in their great sorrow. 


G. W. Chapman, of lawful age, being sworn, said: I went with 
Mr. Trimble, Mr. Waters and Mrs. Wright to hunt Mr. Kobert 
Trimble. We found him in a branch on the farm of Mr. A. Baker; 
found him dead with a rope around his neck, and attached to a limb 
above his head ; appeared to have been strangled to death ; we found 
him on his knees; no marks of violence perceivable ; I think he came 
to his death by the rope ; it was tight around his neck ; I helped to 
take the body down, and helped to bring him to Mrs. Wright's house. 

E. Waters, of lawful age, being duly sworn, said : I was out on the 
hunt of Mr. Trimble with Preston Wright, E. H. Trimble and George 
W. Chapman. We found him in a branch in A. Baker's field ; he was 
hanging on a limb ; I helped to take him down and put him in a 

E. H. Trimble, of lawful age, being duly sworn, said : My father has 
been sufiering for some years with chronic diarrhoea, and for the last 
five or six months has shown repeated signs of a deranged mind, more 
especially in regard to his financial matters. He has lived with me 
the greater portion of the time since the 15th of Ma}^ and on several 
occasions has talked of putting an end to himself, which gave me a 
great deal of uneasiness when he was not in my sight. I was with E. 
Waters, Preston Wright and George W. Chapman. We found him 
suspended to a limb by a rope around his neck, to a burr oak tree in 
a small ravine, in A. Baker's field. I have no doubt but that he came 
to his death at his own hands. I was present when he was removed. 
I never knew him to attempt to commit suicide before. There were 
no other tracks discernable about where he was hung. We found him 
by his tracks. 

Mrs. Eliza J. Wright, being of lawful age, and duly sworn, said: 
My father has been staying with me for the last two weeks. I heard 
him say several times that he wished he was dead, and that he thought 
it best to kill himself. Last Wednesday morning he went up stairs 
and got his pistol and stepped out, and I went up stairs to see if his 
pistol was gone, and found it was. 1 saw him up in the field, and I 
ran and called him, and he answered. I managed to get the pistol 
away, and locked it up. He slipped out yesterday a little after three 
o'clock. I was not very uneasy as I knew he had no weapons. I 


never thought about a rope. They all hunted, and reported his 
absence until about twelve o'clock last night. I went with them to 
fetch him home after they had found him. He did not say what he 
was going to do with his pistol, but I believe that he was going to kill 
himself, and if I had not run and called him, I believe that he would 
have performed the deed then. I have reason to believe he wanted 
to kill himself. He showed no sign of self-destruction yesterday until 
he was missing. I have been watching him heretofore, suspecting 
that he wanted to kill himself, and I believe he came to his death of 
his own accord. 

[From the Citizen.] 

On Sunday morning last, 1869, near the residence of John A. 
McDaniel, Esq., in the neighborhood of Moberly, in this county, 
John Duggan, a laborer on the Hannibal and Moberly Railroad, came 
to his death under the following circumstances : He had been loiter- 
ing around Mr. McDaniel's house for several days, apparently crazy, 
and on Sunday morning his movements were such as to occasion some 
alarm, and Mr. McD. determined to have him arrested, and started to 
Moberly for an officer, charging his sons (two little boys) to keep a 
watch upon Duggan until his return with the officer. The boys went 
to a neighbor's house and called upon George Boyd, a young man 
employed in the neighborhood, to come and assist them, telling him 
to bring a gun, as it might be needed to defend themselves. The 
boys returned, when Duggan made for them with a stick. The boys 
ran (McDaniel's sous in front), and Boyd, with his gun, between 
them and Duggan. The latter continued to gain upon them, when 
Boyd stopped, and after repeatedly halting Duggan and warning him 
that he would hurt him, fired upon him, the shot taking fatal effect. 
Mr. McDaniel heard the report of the gun, when about a half mile on 
his way, and returned to find Duggan dead. Coroner Calhoun, of 
this place, was sent for to hold an inquest, by which these facts were 
elicited. Boyd surrendered himself to a justice of the peace at Mo- 
berly and was discharged. Duggan is said to have been indulging 
strongly in liquor for several days, and his insanity was attributable 
to this cause. It is reporte^l he leaves a family in St. Louis. 


Editor Citizen : I feel it a duty I owe to the citizens of Randolph, 
and perhaps kindred and friends, to give an account of such a scene 
of horror as never occurred before in our community, to my recollec- 
tion . 

On the 22d of May, 1870, a man was found dead in the neighbor- 
hood of Mrs. Betsy Elliott's, in this county. The way in which he 
was discovered was by the stench that came from his body. Two of 
Mrs. Elliott's sons walked out from the house to see about something 


pertaining to their business, when they were arrested by a very offen- 
sive smell, which caused them to examine from whence it came, and 
upon examination found the body of a strange man concealed in a 
tree-top. One of the boys immediately repaired to the residence of 
M. H. Rice, a justice of the peace, and the justice, supposing that 
the body found was over 10 miles distant from the coroner of the 
county, issued his writ commanding the constable of Chariton town- 
ship to summon a jury to hold an inquest on the body of the deceased, 
and after the jury was sworn and received their charge, they brought 
in the following verdict : — 

*' We, the undersigned, a jury summoned to hold an inquestupon the 
body of an unknown man found dead near the premises of Mrs. Elli- 
ott, find that the deceased came to his death by being murdered by 
some unknown person or persons. As revealed by n post moi'letn ex- 
amination, his skull had been broken in five different places ; no other 
marks of violence were found on his body, and he is supposed to have 
been dead some 10 or 15 days. 

" Mc. B. Broaddus, Henry Brogan, 

" A. M. Brogan, George Summers, 

«' H. F. Dennis, David Wright, 

" Robert Terrill, M. D." 

Since this thing has come to light in the shape that it has, it has 
caused considerable excitement, from an occurrence that took place in 
the neighborhood somewhere about the 12th of this month. In the 
evening of that day a two-horse wagon, with one man in sight (it is 
supposed there were more in the wagon, but they could not be seen, 
as it was covered), passed through Darkville about dusk and inquired 
the way to Macon City. They were directed to that place. The 
next we hear of them is at Hugh Trimble's, where they stopped and 
asked him if he could tell them where a man by the name of Frank 
Davis lived, telling Mr. Trimble that he had sold Mr. Davis a piece of 
land, and that Davis had sent him word that. if he would come and see 
him he would pay him (the traveler) some money on the land, and he 
had heard that Davis lived about 8 or 10 miles from Huntsville, 
and although coming from the direction of Huntsville at the time, he 
asked Mr. Trimble jf there was not a road east of that, that led to 
Huntsville. The next we hear of them is at Mrs. Elliott's, between eight 
and nine o'clock at night. Stopping the wagon before approaching the 
house, one of the men went to the house and inquired for this same 
Frank Davis. On being informed that they knew nothing of such a 
man, he asked if there was a house ahead that he could stay at. They 
told him they did not know. He then hallooed, " Come on, boys," 
when the wagon advanced in the direction of the house and passed by, 
and about half a mile from the spot where the dead man was found 
secreted by the side of the road — a road that is but very little trav- 
eled. The next account that we have of them is at A. H. Rice's, 
still later at night, inquiring for this same Davis. They were in- 
formed that they knew nothing of such a man, and they passed on. 


The next account Ave have of them was at Silas Wright's, near Dark- 
ville, where they asked if they were on the road to Hiintsville, when 
the said Wright directed them the right way, and they proceeded in 
that direction. On this road that they passed over tliat night, close 
to the residence of Jesse Rutherford, a day or two after, it was discov- 
ered there had been some things burned, supposed to have been 
clothes, as a piece of goods was found that was not consumed. A 
pocket-book was also found, and in addition some plates of ambro- 
types, together with the irons of a satchel or trunk. These, Mr. 
Editor, are the facts in the case as near as could be given under the 
circumstances, and we hope the citizens of Huntsville and vicinity 
will take this matter into consideration and endeavor to ferret it out. 

A Citizen of Chariton Township. 

[From the Herald.] 

Our readers will doubtless many of them recollect the circumstances 
of the killing of Clement Jeter, in 1871, by Peter Casper, on the farm 
of the latter, in Union township, in this county. The death of Jeter 
was caused by a gun-shot wound, produced by a small single barrel 
shot-gun in the hands of Casper. At the time the affair occurred, 
Casper was arrested and taken before a justice of the peace, but as 
Jeter's wound was not considered fatal, he was released on $600 bail. 
Afterward, when it became evident that Jeter would die, Casper were 
scared into running off from the county rather than stand a trial, and 
his $600 bail bond was forfeited and paid. His whereabouts were 
discovered by Dick Powell, of Moberly, and after the Governor had 
offered a reward for Casper's apprehension, Dick went over to Illinois 
and brought him back, the circumstances of which we gave in this 
paper a short time since. 

On a Thursday morning in .Tuly, 1875, the day agreed upon, the 
trial of Peter Casper for murder in the first degree, for the killing of 
Clement Jeter, was commenced in our circuit court. Messrs. W. N. 
Rutherford, J. C. Crawley, G. F. Rothwell and W. T. McCanne, all 
of Moberly, appeared for the prosecution, and William Hinkleman, 
of Belleville, Illinois, and J. R. Christian, of Huntsville, for the 

The following jurors were selected to decide the case : — 

M. S. Turner, Joel Rucker, Thomas Stockton, W. B. Hardister, 
John Hendrix, George D. Brock, M. T. Halliburton, A. L. Miller, W. 
C. Kirby, P. S. Baker, L. D. Maupin, Charles H. Hammett. 

The jury were duly charged and placed in charge of Sheriff Will- 
iams, and were not permitted to separate again until after they had 
rendered a verdict, which they did on Saturday evening, having been 
guarded by the sheriff three days. 

We have not space to give the evidence in detail, but the sum and 
substance amounts to about this : Casper had an oat field that a mare 

244 HISTORY or Randolph county. 

of Jeter's had been trespassing upon, and an unfriendly feeling had 
sprung up between them on this account. Casper went with his gun, 
accompanied by his wife, to Jeter's house on Sunday morning, a few 
days before the shooting, and notified Jeter to keep his mare out of 
his oats, and it is also said he threatened to shoot Jeter. A few days 
later, Jeter's mare again got into Casper's oat field, and Casper sent 
for two of his neighbors to come and assess the damage done, but be- 
fore they arrived Jeter came for the mare. Casper told him he could 
not get her until the neighbors came and assessed the damage, and 
ordered Jeter out of the field and off his premises. Jeter started to 
comply with this order, but when he got to the fence, he changed his 
notion and again returned for his mare. Casper saw him coming, and 
endeavored to keep between Jeter and the mare, but Jeter advanced 
on him, and grabbing the muzzle of his gun with his left hand, struck 
Casper over the head with the bridle and bridle bit he held in his right 
hand. After this lick Casper fired the fatal shot. This is as good an 
account of the evidence as we can give in so short a space. 

The evidence was all in, the jury was first addressed by Mr. Mc- 
Canne, for the prosecution, in an able speech of about an hour's length. 
He was followed by Mr. Hinkleman, in a speech of one and three- 
quarter hours in length, which was well delivered and was considered 
a masterly speech for the defense. He was followed by Mr. Rutherford 
in a speech of about one hour for the prosecution, which set forth the 
evidence in some points very clearly, but as a whole was more of an 
appeal for law and order than a prosecuting speech : then followed J, 
R. Christian for the defense in the master speech of the whole trial, 
it requiring two and a half hours for its delivery. John astonished 
his most intimate friends in the clearness and force with which he 
brought the evidence and circumstances of the case clearly and vividly 
before the jury, and we were confidentially informed by one of the 
jurymen that this speech saved Casper from the penitentiary. Mr. 
Crawley closed the case for the prosecution, but we had heard so much 
speech-making that we only remained to hear a portion of his speech. 
The case was then given to the jury. 

The jury returned to court after an absence of about one hour, with 
the following verdict : — 

" We, the jury, find the defendant not guilty." 

George D. Brock, Foreman. 

After the reading of the verdict, the defendant, as well as the jury, 
were discharged, and all felt free again. 

[From the Huntsville Herald.] 
We are called upon this week to record a terrible tragedy and its 
sequel, which followed close after and is no less horrible. John W. 
Green, a farmer living on the farm of William Embree, two miles 
north-east of Roanoke, in this county, on Saturday morning last, July 
12, 1877, about one o'clock, shot his wife, so badly wounding her that 


she died in about 10 hours afterwards. Green ckiimed that he was 
trying to shoot a dog, and in passing through a door the gun was ac- 
cidentally discharged, with the result stated. The ante mortem state- 
ments of Mrs. Green and other circumstances led people to believe 
that a foul murder had been committed, and on proper process being 
issued, Mr. Dameron, the constable of Silver Creek township, arrested 
Green on Saturday night last. He brought him to the residence of 
the constable's father, Mr. G. W. Dameron, near Silver Creek church, 
where he kept him under guard until Monday evening. Having sus- 
picions that an attempt would be made on Monday night to lynch the 
prisoner, the constable mov(jd him for greater safety to the residence 
of H. S. Newby. He was right in his surmises, for about twelve 
o'clock that night a body of men, variously estimated at from 40 to 
75, visited the residence of Mr. G. W. Dameron, in search of the 
prisoner. On being told that he was not there, they searched some 
barns and outbuildinofs, and not findins; him returned and searched 
the house. But they were not to be thus baffled, for they immedi- 
ately began to search the neighborhood, and about two o'clock in the 
night found him. They were not long in overpowering the constable 
and guard and soon secured the prisoner. They then issued a writ- 
ten order to the constable not to follow them, and also stating that 
his body would be found next morning near Silver Creek church. 
This last statement proved true, for early Tuesday morning Green 
was found dead, suspended by the neck, where they had stated, his 
feet not being more than two feet from the ground. He was hung 
with an ordinary plow line, and in such a manner as to make sure 
work. Up to this time nothing is known of the men who composed 
the mob, but it is supposed that they were from the neighborhood of 
Washington church, in Howard county, as many of the dead woman's 
relations dwell in that section. The man hung was a son of 'Squire 
Green, a farmer living near Sturgeon, Avho is a quiet, well disposed 
man, much respected in his neighborhood, and the sad fate of his son 
is much to be regretted on his father's account. 

The people of Eandolph are peaceable and law-abiding, and while it 
is the general belief that this mob was from Howard, yet it is painful 
to us to be called upon to record such a i)roceeding on our own soil, 
tho' we doubt not that every man who engaged in hanging this man 
felt that he was discharging a sacred duty conscientiously and for the 
good of the community and his fellow man. 

It is our hope that Randolph may never again have such an occur- 
rence within her borders. 


[From the Herald.] 

Two trains tried to pass each other on the same track, in the south 
part of Huntsville on Tuesday night, November 28, 1879, about six 
p. M. One was the regular eastern bound freight train drawn by engine 
No. 25, with C. Blessins; as euo-ineer. The other was a construction 


train drawn by engine No. 71, with Engineer Johnson as driver. 
When the collision occurred the construction train was nearly at a 
dead stand but the freight train was moving very rapidly. The 
engineer of the freight train, Mr. Blessing, was caught between the 
engine and tender and so horribly crushed that he died in a short time. 
If he had remained on his seat he would possibly have escaped without 
serious hurt. No other person was seriously hurt, though some work- 
men on the construction train ran a narrow risk of instant death, as 
they were on a flat car in the rear of the tender which telescoped with 
the car. Fortunately they were sitting on a tool-box which was 
knocked out of the way. 

The accident was caused by the freight train passing the depot 
without orders. 

The damage to the trains is much smaller than usual with railroad 
accidents, as none of the cars were thrown from the track, and none 
of them damaged beyond the loss of draw heads. The cow-catchers 
and front portions of the engines were torn up and very much 
damaged, but we think none of the fine machinery about either engine 
was seriously damaged. 

The wreck was cleared away that night and no trains were seriously 
delayed by it. 

The dead man leaves a wife and probably a family at Kansas City. 

[From the Moberly Headlight of July 29, 1880.] 
Another horror has been added to the list possessed by Moberly. 
A deed has been done, which, though just in the eyes of all men ac- 
quainted with the provocation, will make the name of our fair city a 
by-word and a reproach in other States, furnish political capital for 
unscrupulous politicians, and cause law-abiding men to look with dis- 
trust upon the county of Kandolph. 

This morning about 8 :30 o'clock Sheriff Matlock brought the 
prisoner, Corlew, over from Huntsville, to stand his trial for rape, in 
the Moberly court of common pleas. The prisoner, guarded by the 
sheriff and deputies, came from the jail in a light two-horse spring 
wa^on, and just alighted on the corner of Fourth and Reed streets, 
at the fo©t of the steps leading to the court-house, and had turned to 
o-o up the steps when Mr. Crump, the woman's husband, who had 
just come across the street with Mr. Waller, the prosecuting attorney, 
drew a self-cocking revolver and fired at the prisoner. His aim was 
disconcerted by Mr. Waller grabbing hold of his arm, and the ball 
passed through the right sleeve of Corlew' s coat, setting it afire, 
burnino" quite a hole. The thoroughly frightened man ran up the 
steps into the court-room, pursued by Crump. In the meantime 
Marshal Lynch and others grabbed hold of Mr. Crump, but the 
o-leam of revolvers in the hands of his friends made them let go. The 
court-room had but few spectators in it. Corlew ran through, or 
around the room, and was caught by Esquire Clarkson, who supposed 


the mail was trying to get away. Corlew broke loose from his grasp 
and ran again, catching hold of an old man named Trimble, pulling 
him down on top of him. Rising hastily he ran out of the room, 
down the stairs and diagonally across the street in the direction of 
Hance & Hardin's store. While in the street he was shot in the back 
by Crump, but the ball did not check his speed. He returned and 
ran up street, through Werries' dry goods store, followed by Crump, 
who endeavored to shoot him there, but could not get his pistol to 
work. The prisoner ran into the alley, next to Nise's building, 
across Reed street, through Harvey's grocery store, across Fourth 
street and darted up the steps leading to August Nitzsche's shoe shop, 
over Chris & George's saloon. He ran through the shop into the 
room adjoining, used as a store room, where Crump emptied his revolver 
into the poor wretch, finishing him, as he supposed, but he lived for 
at least half an hour afterwards, wholly unconscious. Crump then 
went down stairs, mounted his horse and rode off. 

From the appearance of the room there must have ensued a des- 
perate struggle, as there were several shots in the ceiling and wall, 
showing that Crump's pistol must have been struck, and it is probable 
that he was clinched by Corlew, The last wound, made back of the 
left ear, was badly powder burnt, and the pistol must have been 
shoved against his head. 

The room was quickly thronged with excited individuals, anxious to 
catch a glimpse of the miserable wretch Avho was gasping his life away. 
He lay upon a lounge, upon the slats only, his feet hanging over the 
end, his coat rolled up for a pillow under his head, the head of the 
lounge lifted and resting upon a box. Cold, clammy sweat stood out 
in big beads over his face and neck ; his lips were white, and his eyes 
had a vacant, wandering look, and not a gleam of intelligence escaped 
from them ; though when he was moved, bystanders could see he was 
conscious and suffering terribly. His pulse was strong and full 
almost up to his last breath, which was drawn so quietly that it 
seemed as if he had gone to sleep ; his features were not distorted 
at all, but bore the calm, placid expression so noticeable in all who die 
from the effects of o-un-shot wounds. Before he died the room was 
cleared of all except physicians and reporters. An examination 
showed that he was shot three times in the head and once in the small 
of the back, near the spinal column, any of which wounds would have 
caused death. 

The excitement attending the shooting was intense, though it seemed 
to be the general verdict that the fiend met with the punishment he 
deserved, though all regret that the law was not allowed to take its 
course, for the man would have undoubtedly been hanged. 

The remains were taken in charge by the coroner and an inquest 
held. The jury returned the following verdict : — 

" We, the jury, having viewed the body of Corlew, deceased, find 
that he came to his death by gun or pistol shots fired by unknown 
hands to the jury." 



The crime for which Corlew met his fate is fresh in the minds of 
many of our readers, but as there are some who may not be acquainted 
with the facts a short account of the transaction is given : — 

Tuesday night, the 17th of February last, a woman with two chil- 
dren arrived at Moberly from some phice north of here, coming in on 
the north branch of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Road. The 
train reaches here about midnight. The woman and her children 
were sitting in the ladies' waiting room at the depot. She was ap- 
proached by a stranger who told her there was no train going east 
for some time and that she had better accompany him to a hotel. He 
said his mother was keeping a hotel just across the street, and that he 
would take pleasure in giving her and the children a bed free of charge 
until morning. By such persuasions he induced the woman to accom- 
pany him to the Depot Hotel, and, representing to the clerk that the 
woman was his wife, he secured a room, and taking one of the chil- 
dren in his arms carried it up stairs, depositing it in the room. Im- 
mediately locking the door, he drew a pistol and forced the woman to 
submit to his hellish lust. The woman and children left next morn- 
ing after telling her story to the landlady of the hotel. A representa- 
tive of this paper traced the matter up and caused Corlew' s arrest, but 
as nothing could be proven against him then, he was released and went 
to Huntsville, where he was subsequently arrested and lodged in jail. 
On the preliminary examination he was identified by the woman, 
picked out of a number of men, and was bound over for trial, being 
removed to Kansas City for safe keeping. The case has been post- 
poned again and again on account of the illness of Mrs. Crump. 

When Corlew was arrested he gave his name as Burton, and had a 
woman with him who claimed to be his wife, and probably was; at 
least she was a wife to him in all that the name implies. 

An attempt was made to mob Corlew once, but the jailor was noti- 
fied in time and removed his prisoner out of harm's way. It has 
been a conceded fact in the minds of many that Corlew would never have 
a trial, and they were correct. 

It seems the prisoner had a premonition of his fate, for while in the 
Kansas City jail he was made the recipient of a little Testament, the 
front fly-leaf of which has the following : — 


"May you take into your heart the words of this precious little book, 
as they have eternal life through the Son of God. 

" M. M. RoBSON. 
" See Luke xv : 17-20." 

On the back fly-leaf and on the inside of the back is the following 
letter, probably written for his wife : — 

" Artie, Darling: When you read these lines I may be with our 
little Willie, and I hope you may meet me and him in a better land. 


You can if you put all your trust in our great God. Remember 
Charlie. If anything should happen to me I want my dear wife 
Artie to have this little book, and may it do her good. 

" Charlie M. C." 

The letter and inscription are both undated, and there is nothing to 
tell when they were written. Several poems clipped from news- 
papers are found between the pages of the Testament, and several 
pressed flowers. In the poem of Moore, beginning, " Come rest on 
this bosom, my own stricken dear," under the line, " Thro' the fur- 
nace thy steps I'll pursue," he has penciled, " If, Artie, you're 

A tin type of his wife and a photograph, probably of his mother, 
were also found in the book. A postal card from his mother, dated 
July 27th, 1880, is as follows : — 

" My Dear Boy : Your cards came to hand, but will not try to 
express my feelings ; they are too sad for words. I can do nothing 
without money — have done all I can. (Name illegible) lied to me. 
Told me he would go down until the last moment, then refused to aro. 
I knew " Ai't " was with you. Heard she was in La Plata. I will try 
if I can come down. Try and keep your trial oft' as long as you can. 
At least until I see if I can get there. 

"Your Mother." 

Several letters from his wife while she was at Huntsville are also in 
his effects. The letters are all full of devotion, but are miserably 
written and poorly spelled. Among his papers is a letter written 
June 3d, by. himself, to his wife. It is too long to give, })ut the tenor 
of it is despair for her desertion of him, A letter from Hade Brown 
is also found, which is given : — 

"Kansas City, June 2, 1880. 

"Dear Friend Burton: You must not give up. You must keep 
up, and if your wife has gone home, let her go. Mr, Haley says she 
can't do you no good if she was here. He says that clerk and the 
hotel keeper are all the witnesses you want. He says they can't con- 
vict you on her evidence to save the world. Burton, you must not 
give up ; you must keep up in good heart ; you will get out all right, 
Terry Jackson said he was going to see you would geV out all right. 
Burton, if Artie has gone, let her go ; she is not true if she has gone 
home. She ain't no true wife, I would be glad she was gone, if she 
was a wife of mine, for that showed she wanted your money, and when 
your money is gone she leaves you. Ah ! I hope she is not gone, I 
hope she will be true and stand to you while you are in your trouble, 
is my wishes. Burton, keep up in your spirits, and whenever old 
Ferald will let my wife come around I will send her around to you. 
She wanted to go and see you Sunday, but Ferald would not let her 
go around. Keep in good spirits. You are young and can get another 
wife if she is gone home. Goodnight, Your true friend, 

"J, H, Brown," 


Brown's letter is chiefly remarkable from his never once alluding to 
himself, but it showed he was no true prophet, however good he might 
be at consoling. 

Well, the deed is done. "We regret that Moberly was made the 
scene of such a bloody transaction, but the way of the transgressor is 
hard, and Corlew deserved death, but not that way. Comments are 
useless and we will let it rest. We have tried to glean the facts in the 
case, but not being an eye-witness have to depend on the statement of 
others, and they disagree in some minor particulars. However, our 
version of the tragedy will be found to be, in the main, correct. 

Corlew' s mother came down from Kansas City on the twelve o'clock 
train. She knew nothing of the fate of her son till arriving in the 
city. His two brothers, living in Kansas City, have been telegraphed 
for and will come down on first train. It is not known where he will 
be buried. 


[From the Huntsville Herald.] 

On Friday morning last, June the 25th, 1880, the day fixed by the 
Supreme Court of the State for the execution of James Hayden Brown, 
the murderer of his mother-in-law, Mrs. Dr. Parrish, the sun rose clear 
and beautiful — not a cloud was visible in any part of the horizon. 
All nature seemed to smile approvingly upon the incoming day, as if 
rejoicing that, at last, retributive justice was about to be meted out 
to the red-handed assassin and mul'derer, who had willfully and 
wickedly violated the laws of God and man. Years had elapsed since 
the commission of the horrible crime, but justice at last stood ready 
and determined to demand the full penalty of the law — a life for a 

On Thursday before the day of execution, Sheriff Matlock, accom- 
panied by L. V. Heether, J. K. Belsher, James Eagsdale, E. L. Duval, 
Harry Wallace, Henry Herndon and G. L. Alexander, returned from 
Kansas City with the condemned murderer. A large crowd of men, 
women and children, attracted by that morbid curiosity that creates 
in human nature an uncontrollable desire to behold the doomed or the 
dead, awaited them at the depot, all excited and anxious to feast their 
eyes upon the'poor doomed criminal who was so soon to pay the just 
penalty of his awful crime. He was taken from the cars pale and 
trembling, for the first time seeming to realize his true situation. He, 
however, soon recovered his usual levity, and greeted cordially all whom 
he recognized. He expressed great anxiety to have all persons whom 
he had wronged or offended to come forward and forgive him. He 
was incarcerated in the county jail, and securely guarded to await the 
hour of his execution. 


At the jail in Kansas City Sherifi" Matlock had an interview with 
Brown, and although he had on many occasions sworn vengeance 


against Mr. Matlock, he promised to do all that would be asked of 
him. He was in a very pensive mood, exhibiting no signs of anger, 
but on the contrary melting to tears when he spoke with the officer in 
regard to the execution. He asked the sheriff to forgive him for all 
the hard things he had said about him and trouble he had given him, 
and then remarked : " I've got to die and I propose to show the world 
that I can die like a man. I know it is just, and if anybody had 
killed my mother I should want him to be hung." 

A Kansas City Times reporter had the following interview with him 
the day previous : — 

" Well, Mr. Brown, how do you feel to-day? " 

" Very well, thank you. I am all right as far as I know." 

" You had quite a lively time down here tlie other night? " 

" Yes, I was angry and did'nt know what I was doing. One of the 
men calTed me a bad name and I didn't like it. If they had asked me 
for that poison I should have given it to them." 

" Did you have any poison the officer did not get? " 

" Of course I did. They thought they were very smart, and as 
soon as they got the stuff out of my mouth thought they had it all but 
they hadn't," with a sly twinkle of his eye. "I had some more, 
enough to kill all the men in this jail, in my shoe, and when they 
went away I took it out and showed it to Hoge, here.'^ 

" Have you taken any since thatinight? " 

" Yes. I took some on Tuesday morning, but it was an overdose, 
and I threw it up." 

" How did you get the poison? " 

" Some of it was handed to me through the bars when one of the 
deputies was standing beside my friend but he didn't see it. That 
wasn't all, either. Some came in here under a plate of victuals, sent 
b}'^ one of my friends." 

" Did your wife bring any of the morphine to you? " 

" No, sir. She bought it though, and sent it by her friends. She 
bouo;ht it at Dr. Morrison's drus; store." 

" Did you ever have any other poison? " 

" I should say I did. When I came from St. Louis I had a lot of 
it tucked under the lining of my cap, and the officers searched me but 
didn't find it. I had enouoh to kill 100 men — it was arsenic." 

" Did you ever use any of it? " 

" Certainly, I have a dozen times or more, but every time 1 threw 
it up, I couldn't make it stick on my stomach." This w,ith a smile. 

" What made you think of committing suicide? " 

"Well, I saw in some of the papers that I was to be hanged in a 
wigwam and that there were tickets being sold for people to see me 
executed, and I didn't like that, and I made up my mind that I would 
not hang, but I know that it is all right now and I shall submit and 
not try to do anything bad." 

"You are a Catholic, are you not, Mr. Brown?" 

"Yes, lam. The priests used to come and see me before this 
scrape Monday night, but since that they have kept away. I shall 


telegraph to Father O'Shay, of St. Louis, to come and see me before 
I die. I used to go to church when I was there." 

" You won't attempt any more trouble? " 

" No, I shall not, I have made up my mind that I am going off like 
a man." Turning to the marshal, he said: "Mr. Ligget, I want 
everybody to forgive me, and I forgive everybody that has injured 
me. I want to go olF now without any trouble, and shall go with the 
officers when they want to take me. I know I have done wrong, but I 
know I shall be forgiven. If not in this world in the next," and his 
eyes filled with tears. 


At early dawn Friday the eager crowd came pouring into town from 
every direction and in every conceivable way, until by noon the streets 
and alleys were completely packed and jammed with one living mass 
of human beings, all anxious to get a look at the doomed man. Early 
in the morning Brown swallowed a white powder from a paper sup- 
posed to contain morphine. Dr. W. H. Taylor was called in, but 
found upon examination that the drug h^id no perceptible effect upon 
him. Brown sent for Dr. Oliver and gave him a druggist's envelope, 
carefully folded up, requesting him not to open it until he (Brown) 
was dead, saying the doctor would then learn the cause of his death. 
He evidently desired to produce the impression that he had taken 
poison with the intention of committing suicide. Upon inspection. 
Dr. Oliver found the envelope marked, "Morphia; Dr. H. C. Mor- 
rison, Druggist, 12th St., between Locust & Cherry, Kansas City, 
Mo," but it contained nothing, having been previously rifled of its 

During the morning the little three-year-old orphan child was taken 
to the cell of his doomed father to bid him an eternal farewell. The 
meetino; was heart-rending and bevond description. The anguish of 
the father as he clasped to his breast the innocent child whom he had 
doubly orphaned, covering his face with kisses and tears, was ex- 
treme. His brother Frankie, a boy about 15 years of age, was also 
admitted to the cell. Hade presented him with his breastpin and 
asked him to wear it for his wretched brother's sake. He also ad- 
vised Frankie to take warning from his fate, and shun all dissipation 
and wickedness, they having been the cause of his disgrace and ruin. 

His mother, who is a good and true woman, was not present to wit- 
ness the sad fate of her wayward and undutiful son. Had he heeded 
her nurture and admonitions this sad fate would never have befallen 

His last night on earth was a restless and sleepless one, spent 
principally in conversation with the guards and a few friends and 
acquaintances who were permitted to visit him. His mood was ex- 
tremely versatile — sometimes joking and laughing, telling anecdotes, 
relating his exploits before and since the commission of his crime; 
but when the subject of his wife and child was mentioned he became 
unmanned, and gave way to feelings of grief and despair. 


About nine o'clock Rev. W. T. Ellington, of the Methodist church, 
was sent for, and administered to the criminal the rite of baptism. 
The scene was one that impressed the audience with great solemnity, 
which was made manifest by the free effusion of tears from the eyes 
of all who witnessed it. The doomed man seemed to be exceedingly 
penitent, and expressed faith in Jesus. 

A few minutes after twelve, shackled and accompanied by armed 
o;uards, Brown came out and climbed into the wao^on, takino; a seat on 
his coflSn, which was lying on the bottom of the open wagon. The 
vehicle did not start for some minutes, during which a number of 
Brown's old acquaintances came up and shook hands with him. He 
received them pleasantly, betraying little or no emotion but showing 
a firmness that betokened the great change that had recently taken 
place in his disposition. Slowly the procession marched to the place 
of execution along a dusty road crowded with vehicles of all kinds, 
horses ridden by eager spectators, and still more eager men on foot 
walking to the place of death. 

Arriving at the scaffold, which was erected in a woodland pasture, 
distant about one mile east of the court-house, on the Moberly road. 
Brown ascended to the platform with a firm step and seated himself 
on a bench placed at the north side. He was accompanied by Sheriff 
Matlock, Deputy Sheriff William Matlock, Sheriff Glasscock, of 
Audrain county. Rev. W. T. Ellington, and a number of reporters. 
Brown looked about him at the vast crowd, which is estimated to have 
numbered 15,000, and seemed to search the vast concourse for faces 
that he knew. His countenance was that of a person deeply inter- 
ested but fearless. He looked like he had been contending with him- 
self, and had conquered. After prayer by Mr. Ellington, the sheriff 
asked Brown if he had anything to say, to which the condemned man 
answered affirmatively. He stepped to the railing and said : — 

" If you all will keep still a few minutes I will say a few words in 
regard to myself, to both young and old, men, women and children. 
I was a free man once, and never thought to be hung as I am to-day. 
As I was on my way out here awhile ago, I noticed several young 
men I used to know and was raised with, riding along near the wagon, 
coming to my — funeral, so to say, reeling on their horses. I was 
sorry to see them, and it made me shudder, for it was this that 
brought me where I am. Oh, God, the trouble it has brought in the 
world. I feel as though I hadn't an enemy in the crowd. I hope 
you all have forgiven me, as I have forgiven everybody. My God 
is the only one who has given me strength to believe this, and I 
hope it is so. I am going to meet my dear, sweet wife, who died for 
me. She loved me better than all the world. They say I put her up to 
it, but as my God in Heaven knows I never did it, and knew nothing of it. 
I committed a heinous crime, but didn't know it. It was done, and 1 
must suffer for it on the gallows. I hope I have not an enemy here to- 
day. I forgive everybody and hope everybody forgives me. I ask pardon 
of Dr. Parrish and all his family. Oh, God ! the trouble Icaused them. 


If MissLutie Ptirrish, Sarah Parrisli, Dr. Parrish, Mr. Chris. Parrish, 
Mr. Henry Fort, or any of the rest of the family are her&, won't they 
please to hold up their hands to show that they have forgiven me? 
[Here Mr. Chris. Parrish held up his hand.] Thank God! there is 
one. Are there any others? I see none. If any of you should 
meet my mother, brother, or darling child, don't snarl at them, but 
meet them in a nice way. It was the dying I'equest of my wife that 
we be buried together in the same coffin, in the same grave. I want 
her family's consent to be buried by my side, and if they object let 
some of them say so now. I hope every one of you may remember 
the poor creature who stands here to-day, and I hope none hold 
malice, for I would die the most miserable of men if I thought so. 
Now, I have here some flowers that I want placed in my wife's sweet 
hand. If there is any lady in the crowd who will attend to this for 
me will she please raise her little hand? [One does.] Thank you. 
Now here are some others I want put on the breast of my coat. Will 
some one attend to this for me. Jesus Christ has given me courage 
to stand here to-day. I want you ail to see that I am buried with my 
dear, sweet wife ; and pray God for me, as wicked a man as I am. 
May God have mercy on every one of you." 

Having finished his remarks, the prisoner took a seat on the scaf- 
fold bench and looked around over the immense crowd, while Deputy 
Sheriff Will Matlock read in a clear, distinct voice the death warrant, 
after which Brown was asked to take his stand on the fatal trap. 
He complied with this requirement promptly and like a brave man, 
and as Deputy Sherifi" Will Matlock placed the black cap over his head 
he remarked, " Now, Will, don't make a botch of it," which were his 
last words. The noose was adjusted by Sheriff Glasscock, of Audrain 
county, and at 1:28 o'clock the trap was sprung by Sherifl" N. G. 
Matlock, resulting in instant death from a broken neck. Drs. Taylor, 
Oliver, Dameron and Aldridge examined the body and pronounced 
life extinct in 6V2 minutes. The body was cut down in 20 minutes, 
placed in a handsome double coffin and turned over to his relatives, 
who conveyed it to the depot to await the arrival of the remains of 
his wife, who committed suicide in Kansas City the Monday night 
previous, a full account of which appeared in last week's Herald. 
The bodies of the two unfortunates were conveyed on the night ex- 
press train to Moberly, and at the depot in that city the remains of 
the two were placed together in the same coffin, according to 
their dying wish. The most perfect repose rested upon the face of 
the dead woman, the features wearing a pleased expression and being 
in a perfect state of preservation. I^rown's face wore a look of calm- 
ness and presented only slight discoloration. The lady who promised 
the doomed man on the gallows to place the bunch of flowers in the 
dead hands of his wife was present and performed her mission faith- 
fully, after midnight, when the vast throng who observed her make 
the promise were wrapped in slumber. She refused to give her name, 
but it is said she resides at Higbee. The two ])odies were placed in 


each other's arms, and the roses lay between them . They were shipped 
on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Road to Madison, Monroe county, 
and were buried the following day at a family burying ground three 
miles from Milton in this county. The coffin, transportation, etc., 
were paid for out of private subscriptions raised in Huntsville and 
Moberly, the citizens of each place contributing about 



James Hayden Brown, the murderer of Mrs. Dr. Parrish, was born 
in Cairo township, Randolph county, Missouri, July 12, 1856, near 
the place where the crime was committed. He was a son of the 
notorious Bill Brown, who murdered William Penny at Jacksonville, 
in this county, in 1865, and who was afterwards shot and killed by 
his brother-in-law, young Hayden, for the brutal abuse of his wife. 
He was endowed with an ungovernable temper, had been an unruly, 
turbulent, bad boy during his whole life, ever ready to shoot, cut or 
kill whoever or whatever crossed his path, and always boasted of his 
ability to whip or kill any one who dared to insult him. At the age 
of nineteen he married, against the will of her parents. Miss Susan 
Parrish, the daughter of Dr. J. C. Parrish, a respectable and highly 
esteemed gentleman of this county. Soon after the marriage Hade's 
devilish temper and cruel disposition was manifested towards his wife, 
which resulted in his whipping and otherwise cruelly treating her, all 
of which she bore with fortitude until forbearance ceased to be a 
virtue, when she left home and appealed to her parents for protection. 
They advised her to return home and live with him if possible. She 
returned, but his cruel treatment soon again compelled her to flee for 
safety. She naturally sought that protection which is due from loving 
parents to their children. She appealed to their sj'mpathies, protested 
against again returning home to be beaten and cursed like a cur. 
The parents, in their goodness of heart, yielded to her entreaties, and 
her father carried her otf to his son's home in Howard county. When 
Brown found that his wife had gone out of his reach, he became en- 
raged and threatened to kill his wife's parents for affording her 
shelter and protection against his cruelty, which threat he carried into 
execution on the 23d of July, 1877, by shooting the Doctor and killing 
Mrs. Parrish, the mother of his wife, one of the kindest and most 
affectionate mothers that ever lived, thus committing one of the most 
cruel and cold-blooded murders that marks the annals of crime. 
After the murder Brown made his escape, eluding the most diligent 
search of the officers of the law, and 11 months afterwards was 
captured in the distant State of Minnesota, and returned to this 
county for trial. 

Brown's first trial was in February, 1879, and resulted in a hung 
jury. The case was again set for December, 1879. The jury had 
been selected and the taking of testimony commenced, when one of 
the jurvmen was taken seriously ill. The judge discharged the re- 
maining jurors, ordered the sheriff to summon another panel of 40 


men, and set the case for trial January 26, 1880. The greater part 
of the first two days was occupied in an effort to get a change of venue. 
The trial proper commenced Thursday at one o'clock p. m., and by 
Monday night following the testimony was all in. Tuesday and the 
early part of Wednesday was consumed in arguing the case. The 
defense was most ably represented by Messrs. Martin, Priest, 
Christian and Provine, while the prosecution was well conducted by 
Messrs. Porter, Hall and Waller. 

The case was given to t^ie jury Wednesday morning, and they were 
only out some 15 minutes when they returned a verdict of guilty of 
murder in the first degree. 

The Supreme court was appealed to by the defense, with the hope 
of having the case reversed. But on the 6th day of May, a decision 
was rendered affirming the finding of the court below. The day of 
execution was fixed for June 25, 1880. 

Below we give a synopsis of the important testimony in the case : — 


On the 23d of July, 1877, I was in the lane east of my house ; 
Brown was there in my lane ; the old lady Parrish came driving up 
the lane from the east: Brown said here comes the d — d old b — h 
now, I'll go and give her a couple of loads ; I said Brown you wouldn't 
shoot an old woman ; he said yes I'll finish her ; he reached the wagon, 
and ffot off his horse ; Mrs. Parrish dumb out of the wao;on and 
seemed to try to keep the wagon between Brown and her ; he shot her 
once and she started to run when he shot her again, when she was 
brought to my house ; the middle of the lane running by my house is 
the line between Cairo and Salt River township ; the shooting was in 
Cairo township. 

Mr. Priest here objected to the indictment, on the ground that the 
court had no jurisdiction in Cairo township. 

Prior to the shooting of Mrs. Parrish, Brown was at my house, about 
noon ; I didn't hear Brown sav anvthino; about the shooting of Dr. 
Parrish ; I didn't see Brown shoot Dr. Parrish ; heard the report and 
saw Dr. Parrish l)leeding ; it wasn't but a few moments till Brown 
made the remarks al)out Mrs. Parrish until he shot her; I was about 
300 yards from where he shot Mrs. Parrish ; there was nothing to ob- 
struct my view ; my eyesight is g(»od ; I have never had to wear glasses 
until the last year. 

Crt)ss-examined : The first time I ever saw Brown was the day of 
his father's sale ; have known him for several years ; I saw Brown 
first that day about noon ; I was sitting at the table ; he drove up to 
the house and stopped; I told my wife to tell him to come in and eat 
his dinner ; had no conversation with Brown that day, prior to his 
difficulty with Dr. Parrish ; my wife was talking to him but I do not 
remember any of the conversation ; he had a donble-l)arreled shot-gun 
in his buggy ; did not see him just previous to the difficulty ; did not 
see Dr. Parrish before I heard the gun ; did not see the shots fired but 


heard two shots, and when I went to the hme I saw Brown riding oflf 
with his gun in his hand ; Dr. Parrish came to my house and ran in ; 
did not follow the Doctor into my house until Brown shot the old lady ; 
the Doctor said nothing to me as he passed me ; while Dr. Parrish was 
in my house I saw no lire arms in his possession. 

I stood in the lane until Brown went to his house and returned ; his 
house is in full view of me ; he was riding fast; Brown's house and 
Dr. Parrish's house are in view of each other; do not know what 
Brown said when he came back to my house, but think he said some- 
thing about shooting him again for taking otf his wife and child ; he 
hitched his horse a little south of my house, went round in the pas- 
ture and said he would shoot Parrish again if he had to shoot him 
through the window ; he had just returned from the pasture when he 
saw Mrs. Parrish coming ; he then made the remark: There comes 
the d — d old b — h ; he was walking about, talking about Dr. Parrish 
taking off his wife and child ; did not hear Brown swear, laugh or 
cry ; before she came he picked up a wagon seat and slammed it over 
the fence a time or two, I cannot recollect what he said ; it was Par- 
rish's wagon seat ; didn't see him tear off or break any palings ; didn't 
see him load his gun after shooting Dr. Parrish ; Lou Patten, Jack 
Amick, young Jack Amick, George Amick and John Will Smith were 
in the lane. Lthink there were but three in the lane when Brown 
came up. Patten said to him : Hade, leave that old woman alone. 
He (Brown) then started for his horse with his gun in his hand. When 
Brown and Dr. Parrish met, I suppose Parrish was going home. I 
did not state at the former trial that Dr. Parrish was going home and 
that Brown was going to Cairo with a cow. It was a mistake. I did 
not say so. When Brown returned from his house he appeared to be 
out of humor. Did not seem to be excited. He wasn't swearing, at 
least in ray presence. Will Palmer was in the yard. Did not see him 
in the lane. My wife met Brown at the fence. I think Mrs. Amick 
met him at the gate. It is prairie in front of my house. There was 
no wagon in the lane or anj^thing else to obstruct my view. When 
Brown shot Dr. Parrish it frightened the horses and they ran off. Do not 
know what speed Brown was going when he left my house to meet Mrs. 
Parrish. Don't know what speed the wagon was coming. Think a negro 
was driving. Beatty Clutter was riding horseback behind the wagon. 
Did not see Clutter stick a rifle through the fence just before Brown 
met the wagon. Don't know if Clutter was working for Dr. Parrish. 
Don't know what became of Brown after he shot Mrs. Parrish second 
time. I saw him no more. Mrs. Parrish was riding on the west side 
of the wagon and Brown was sitting on his horse on the east side of 
the wagon. Mrs. Parrish walked towards the heads of the mules in a 
stooping posture and then walked and raised her head when Brown 
shot her. George Amick went with Brown to his house from mine. 
I do not know what he went for. While at my house Brown was talk- 
ing of some diflBculty with Dr. Parrish, I did not pay particular at- 
tention to what he was talkino; about. Saw some of the shot extracted 


from Dr. Parr ish's face. They were small shot, not the smallest or 
the largest. 

Re-direct : I do not know where William Palmer was when Brown 
started down to meet Mrs. Parrish. When I went back into the yard 
he was in rear of my kitchen. Did not see him in the lane at all. 
He would have had to pass by me had he gone into the lane. He did 
not pass me. Plat of ground shown. 

Objected to by defense, objection sustained. Questions asked as 
to height of fences and other questions of minor importance. 


Am a daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Parrish. I was present in the lane 
near Mr. Bennett's the day mother was killed. I first saw Brown 
within a quarter mile of Mr. Bennett's. He was in front of Mr. Ben- 
nett's. When Brovvn met us he said, by G — d stop that wagon. 
Mother said O, go on he didn't want us to stop. He said yes, 1 do. 
Get out of the wagon. Ma said don't shoot me. He said yes I will. 
Ma ofot out of the waggon on the west side and went toward the liead 
of the mules, then came back and he shot her. After shooting her 
she came back and rested her head on the wheel of the wagon ; I asked 
her if she was shot and she replied that she was, "right here," point- 
ing to her neck. I said don't shoot any more. His answer, oh, by 
G — d she ain't dead yet. I told her to run which she did, up the fence, 
when he fired again. I reached my mother's side and asked her to 
speak and she tried to and couldn't. There was present in the lane 
at that time, Mrs. Osborne, my sister, Jack Amick, Beatty Clutter 
and the negro. That was all there until Mrs. Bennett came. She 
told me to run to the house, which I did. 

Cross-examination : I am a sister-in-law of defendant. They had 
been married for about two years. They did not marry at home. 
They ran off and got married. They first visited at our house. There 
was not very kindly feeling between Mr. Brown and my father. It 
was at Brown's solicitation that father let him live on the place. I 
once saw a difficulty between Brown and father, vvhen he attempted 
to shoot Brown but was prevented from so doing by my brother-in- 
law. Father always carried a pistol ; had one the day he was shot by 
Brown; never heard him say he would kill Brown; we met. Beatty 
Clutter and he joined us ; asked if he had a gun, answered in the 
affirmative, but the question was objected to and objection sustained. 
When Brown came up to the wagon he spoke about shooting, nothing 
else that I heard; said nothing about mother having tried to poison 
him ; if he said anything to Mrs. Osborne about his wife and child I 
did not hear it. Beatty Clutter and I never talked about what our 
testimony would be on the trial. When at the wagon he told ma he 
was going to kill lier ; my sister asked him not to kill her. He replied : 
" Hush up, or I'll kill you." The horses to wagon were going in a 
trot, his horse was walking. I just saw Mr. Brown. Ma made Mr. 
Clutter put his gun away. Do not know why he had it, it was father's. 


Do not know when he got it. When we first met him he had been up 
towards Mr. Bennett's with the gun, but on turning around to accom- 
pany us mother made him leave the gun. Do not remember of mother 
telling him she would tell him where his wife and child were if he would 
not shoot her. If I stated at former trial that Brown seemed to be 
very mad it is correct. Did not hear him say ; " I am a dying sinner 
of the cross, I am going to die and go to hell and want to carry a few 
passengers with me." I heard Brown tell mother that he had father. 
I have told all I know. Am not conscious of remembering anything 
I have not told. 

Re-direct: I met Beatty Clutter at the bridge, this side of our 
house, going towards the house. It was about a quarter of a mile 
from our house when he put the gun away at mother's request. The 
diificulty between father and Brown happened at our yard fence two 
months before mother was killed. Do not know if Brown and father 
ever met afterwards. Mrs. Brown came to our house. Mother never 
went there, I and my sisters visited there. Father took Brown's wife 
away from him the Saturday before mother was killed. She came to 
our house and left from there with father. Sister Sarah went with 
Mrs. Brown and father when they left. 


I was at home on the 23d of July, 1877. I first saw Hade Brown at 
my house that day. I was on my porch when Dr. Parrish was shot. 
It was near five o'clock that day. He saw Dr. Parrish and shot him. 
He came back to the house and tried to shoot him again. When he 
saw the wagon coming he said, " There they come now." He made no 
threats. I then left to take Mrs. Brown, his mother, some things, 
which put my back to him. I met John Will Smith ; he told me to go 
down there as there would be trouble. When in about 25 yards of the 
wagon I saw Mrs. Parrish in a stooping posture on the west side of 
the wagon. Brown was on the east side. When she raised her head 
he fired, she then started to run towards me when he fired again. She 
fell at the crack of the second barrel. Mrs. Osborne, Lutie and my- 
self reached her about the same time. Lutie first. They were afraid 
of Brown and ran to my house. I staid with her till she died — about 
20 minutes. Mrs. Osborne, Lutie Parrish, Beatty Clutter, Jacky 
Amick and the negro, Frank, were all that were there in the lane. 

Cross-examination : It was about noon when Brown was at ray 
house ; there was quite a good many there when he was, his mother, 
sister and others. I heard at church Sunday that his wife had 
left him. His mother told me that day that Susan had left him. 
He seemed in cheerful spirits that day, and said he was going to have 

his child, that he didn't give ad d for his wife. When Dr. Parrish 

was coming up, his mother said, " There comes Hade, and they will 
meet." Dr. Parrish was in a two-horse spring wagon with his daugh- 
ter Sarah. When Brown shot the second time, the horses ran away. 
We took the Doctor in the house and cared for him, as he looked like 


he would die. When Hade left, after shooting the Doctor, he left in 
a hurry, but soon came back. I saw a pistol taken from the Doctor's 
person ; it was a small one. Know it was not a five or six-shooter ; 
do not know what kind of one it was. When he came back, he ripped 
around, and made threats that he would finish Dr. Parrish ; he tried to 
get in, but did not try very bad ; he was prancing around and making 
threats. I saw him cry once ; it was when he said his mother had 
thrown him away, and his wife and child had been taken away from 
him. I stated last winter that he acted like a wild fool ; I meant a 
mad fool. He did not act like a crazy fool. Saw him break up the 
wagon seat, and he said what he could not destroy one way he would 
another. I went down to see if Hade would not let Mrs. Parrish 
come and see the Doctor. I was not near enoug^h to hear anvthino; 
that was said. I did not see him stop the wagon. After he shot Mrs. 
Parrish, he loaded his gun, got on his horse, and called Lou Patten 
to him, and told him to see that Frank had his horse, and to kiss his 
wife and child. He then rode to Mrs. Kunnell's and stopped awhile ; 
rode in a canter when he left. If 1 said last winter that Brown said 
give the black horse to Frank Wilson, I don't think I knew the 
negro's name was Wilson. I said last winter that he acted like a gen- 
tleman while at the house ; I meant at dinner. I am not an enemy to 
Brown, only to the crime he has done. He has always treated me 
gentlemanly. When he was talking about his mother, while on the 
fence, I saw the spittle flying from his mouth ; did not see the slobber 
running down his mouth ; if I said slobber last winter, I meant spit. 
He said that he meant to kill that many more, throwing up his hand, 
and then die in the same house old Bill Brown died in, the bravest 
man that ever lived. I asked him if he was prepared to die ; he said, 
" Hell, no ! " I don't know how fast he rode when he left after kill- 
ing Mrs. Parrish. 

Re-direct : When examined last winter I was so hoarse I could not 
speak, and Sheriff Williams had to interpret what I said. When he 
came back he called his mother, and she left, saying, " I will have to 
get away from here." When he called her, she would not go. 


I was present on the 23d day of July, 1877, when Mrs. Parrish was 
killed. I was in Mr. Bennett's field when Dr. Parrish was shot. I 
then went to Dr. Parrish' s house after Mrs. Parrish. I left the house 
with Mrs. Parrish, the girls, and the driver in a wagon. When close 
to Mr. Bennett's I met Brown. He stopped the wagon and told Mrs. 
Parrish he was going to shoot her, and did shoot her. When I first saw 
Brown he was about 200 yards distant at Mr. Bennett's. When he 
came to the wagon, he told Mrs. Parrish if she had anything to say to 
Lutie, she had better say it, as he was going to kill her; told me and 
the negro man to get out of the wagon. Brown was on the east side 
of the wagon when he shot. When Brown first shot Mrs. Parrish was 
standing near the front of the mules ; she ran north, and he shot her 


a^ain. He walked around to the back part of the wagon to get to her. 
Before he shot Mrs. Parrish, Brown said to her that she had taken his 
wife away. She said she would like for them to live together if they 
could ; she begged him not to kill her and to let her go to the house 
and see Dr. Parrish. I was sitting on the spring seat of the wagon. 
He told Mrs. Osborne he was going to kill her, too, for giving a couple 
of dresses to his wife for his child. Mrs. Osborne told him his wife 
wanted them and she thought she would give them to' her. Those 
present at the time of the shooting were: Mrs. Osborne, Sarah Par- 
rish, Lutie Parrish, Beatty Clutter, Mrs. Osborne's children, Mrs. 
Parrish, the negro Frank, and myself. After Mrs. Parrish was shot 
the second time, others came down ; Mrs. Bennett was one. Brown, 
after shooting Mrs, Parrish the second time, went towards the black- 
smith shop. 

Cross-examination : I testified at former trial. All the part of the 
clitEculty I saw was at the wagon. First saw Beatty Clutter at Dr. 
Parrish's. Mrs. Parrish asked him to come and go along with us to 
Mrs. Bennett's. I saw Brown shortly before he shot Mrs. Parrish 
sitting on his horse in the road, between the blacksmith shop and Mr. 
Bennett's. When he came to the wagon, he said something about 
his wife and child ; did not ask where they were ; do not remember 
of her telling him she would tell him where his wife and child were 
if he would let her go to her husband ; remember something of the 
kind. Heard Brown say to Mrs. Parrish that she had tried to poison 
him, and he could prove it by the doctors at Cairo. She denied it, and 
he said he was going to kill her; saw Brown laugh ; don't remember 
what he said before laughing ; did not hear Mrs. Osborne say she would 
have Mr. Osborne to whip him for talking : did not see Brown talking 
with Lou Patten ; don't remember of Brown's having any c(^nversa- 
tion with Mrs. Osborne. I heard him tell Beatty Clutter he believed 
he was taking the Parrish's part, and threatened to shoot him. I 
asked Brown to let Mrs. Parrish go to the house. He drew his gun 
on me and told me to hush or he would shoot me. I don't remember 
of seeing Palmer ; heard Brown say that he had killed Dr. Parrish, 
was going to kill Mrs. Parrish, and expected to die before sunrise 
next morning, and that they would be buried together. Did not see 
Clutter put the gun down ; it was a rifle. Saw no revolver in the 
party. Clutter had the gun when he came to the house ; do not know 
whose gun it was ; have not heard since ; don't know if I ever saw it 
before. Miss Lutie Parrish was at home when I got there ; don't know 
whose horse Clutter was riding. I was at Mrs. Bennett's when Brown 
took dinner ; he ate before I did. Had no conversation with Brown 
that day. Met Brown that day close to Cairo in a buggy ; if he had a 
gun I did not see it. Don't think I saw Brown the day before. I 
was not at church. Did not see him on Saturday as I remember of. 

About the 1st of April last, the Sherifl' believing it unsafe for Brown 
to remain in the county jail, removed him to Kansas City for safe 
keeping. During his incarceration at Kansas City he kept up the 


character he had established, defying God and man, and showing no 
signs of contrition for his dreadful deeds up to a short time before 
the day fixed for his execution. When the paper was handed him 
containing the last decision of the supreme court in his case, he called 
his fellow prisoners around him, and with curses upon the courts and 
the officers of the law, read in mock judicial tones the decision that 
doomed him to die upon the gallows, and made his little child the son 
of an executed felon. Later, as her letters unquestionably indicate, 
he conspired with his true and devoted wife to simultaneously commit 
suicide, thereby doubly orphaning his innocent and helpless child. 
His never faltering wife, brave little woman that she was, had the . 
courage to fulfill her part of the compact, but he seems to have shrank 
from his, and clung to life to the last possible moment, and died an 
ignominious death upon the scaffold. 

brown's wife commits suicide. 

[From the Kansas City Times, June 22d, 1880]. 

It was half-past seven o'clock last evening that the rej^ort of a pistol 
shot was heard near the corner of Cherry and Thirteenth streets. 
Mrs. Fisher, who resides at 1305 Cherry street, was sitting on her 
front porch at the time. It seemed to her as if the shot had been fired 
near the rear of her house. Her first thought was of burglars, and 
she stepped quickly through the hall into her bedroom. From the 
threshold of the door she saw the sight that explained the mysterious 
shot. A woman lying dead on the floor, a pistol by her side, a hole 
in the forehead, and the thin clouds of smoke curling up to the ceil- 
ing — that was all, yet it told the story of the last act of a brave, 
faithful little woman. Hade Brown's wife dead — dead by her own 
hand, just four days before the time appointed for the execution of 
her unworthy husband. Hers, had been a sad, weary life, full of 
anxiety, care, excitement, sufi"ering, disgrace and sorrow. For three 
years past, during all the while her husband had been hunted by the 
officers of the law, during his trial, during the suspense of waiting for 
the final decree of the highest tribunal, and during the last weeks of 
the doomed man's stay on earth, this wife had been true to him, cease- 
less in her attentions, tireless in her devotion, unremitting in her love. 
A more beautiful and touching instance of womanly fidelity and wifely 
devotion the world never knew. 

The story of Hade Brown's crime is familiar to every one. In a fit 
of passion he slew his mother-in-law. He fled to Iowa and for a year 
lurked about, pursued by detectives. He was finally captured and 
taken back to Randolph county, the scene of his crime. He was 
doomed to death on the gallows. The supreme court was appealed 
to as a last resort. Pending their decision he was removed to Kansas 
City. The supreme court refused to interfere in his behalf, and the 
Governor declined to interpose his executive clemency. The date of 
the execution was fixed for Friday, the 25th, only three days hence. . 


When the wife heard that her husband must die, she came at once 
to Kansas City, bringing with her an only child, a little boy just past 
his third birthday. The meeting between the doomed man and his 
family was touching in the extreme. The woman gave vent to her 
sorrow in heartrending shrieks and a flood of tears. Hade Brown — 
the careless, blasphemous and scared wretch that they called him — was 
overcome by emotion. The woman and the child were all he loved. 
During his trial and when sentence was passed on him he had expressed 
himself only in oaths and threats. Now the sight of the woman and 
child unnerved him. He was the braggart no longer. He dropped on 
his knees and wept and sobbed as though his heart would break. 

That was four weeks ago. Ever since that time the woman has been 
a ministerino; ang-el to the man. Each day she has trudged to the 
jail, through rain or shine, to renew her pledges of devotion and offi- 
ces of love to the husband already under the shadow of death. 

The woman loved the man . He had disgraced her. He had blighted 
her young life. He had amassed a heritage of shame for her child. 
He had broken her heart. And yet she loved him, and Avhen the 
hope that he might be spared was dead, the resolve came upon her 
that she would die too and sleep in the same grave with him. The 
end came quickly. A pistol shot — a gasp — a sigh — and the 
troubled soul was at rest. 


Yesterday afternoon Hade Brown was visited in his cell by his wife. 
What passed between them is not known and probably never will be. 
It is known, however, that both man and woman had made up their 
minds to perish by suicide. This plan had been discussed before. 
All along Hade Brown has, with the most hideous oaths, declared he 
would never perish on the gallows. These declarations did not par- 
ticularly impress the authorities, as Brown was supposed to be more 
expert at threatening than at executing. Nevertheless, as is usual in the 
case of criminals about to die, he was closely watched, and no means 
for accomplishing his self-destruction were suff*ered to come within 
his grasp. There was no suspicion that the wife would convey to him 
any weapon or poison by which his threats at suicide might be carried 
into efiect. Sue Brown was regarded as a quiet, modest, shrinking 
little woman, one who would naturally revolt at any such action, which 
it now appears she was so ready to perform, and of course was not 
watched. The visit to the jail yesterday was for two purposes. The 
first was to bid her husband an eternal farewell, for she had resolved 
to die. The second was to provide him with means whereby he might 
end his life and thus escape the gallows. The means she had to offer 
him were poison — a heavy dose of morphine, which, secreted in the 
folds of her dress, she had no difficulty in conveying to his cell. 
Where she obtained the morphine has not yet been developed. That 
may come out among the dry details of the coroner's inquest, but 
probably not. Hade Brown took the deadly powder and placed it in 


his vest pocket. It was decided between the two that the wife was to 
die first ; she probably told him how she intended to end her wretched 
lite. She was to leave a note for a friend, and the friend was to hasten 
to the jail and "tell Hade that Sne was dead." That was to be the 
signal for the husband's preparations for death to begin. He was 
then to take the poison, retire to his pallet and pass to his eternal 
sleep. The morning was to find his body dead and stark and stiif in 
the cell. 

When the two parted there was no unusual display of emotion be- 
tween them. There Avas not a look nor a gesture nor a word that was 
calculated to excite suspicion. They kissed each other good-bye, and 
the wife said : " We will see each other in the morning," and these 
were her last words to him. She had said the same words many times 
before, and the guards took no particular notice of them. 

At the door she turned and looked back at him, but said nothing. 
The door closed, the man went to his cell and the woman went to her 


Upon her return to Mrs. Fisher's residence on Cherry street, there 
was nothing in Mrs. Brown's appearance or actions to convey even the 
remotest hint of the dreadful purpose she had in mind. She ate her 
supper with the family and conversed as usual. After supper she 
took the child over to a neighbor's and left him there to play. She 
was observed to embrace him and kiss him before she left him. The 
child went about his play in his bright, nervous way. 

She returned to Mrs. Fisher's house and found Mrs. Fisher sitting 
on the front porch talking to a lady friend. She passed into the house 
and was not seen alive again. From the evidences at hand, it is clear 
that upon leaving Mrs. Fisher she went into the bedroom, near the 
rear of the house, and wrote the two letters found after her death — 
wrote them in the dim, uncertain light of day, upon two slips of com- 
mercial bill-heads, and in very uncertain scrawling chirography. This 
accomplished, she took a comforter from the bed and with it made a 
pallet on the floor. In one of the bureau drawers there was a small 
thirty-eight caliber five-shooter. The woman opened the bureau 
drawer, took out the weapon, stretched herself out on the pallet, 
placed the weapon to her right temple and discharged it. The bullet 
crushed through the bone and lodged in the brain. Death was instan- 

When Mrs. Fisher found her lying there dead, the body was turned 
slightly over on the left side, but the attitude was so natural and easy 
that the repose might have been mistaken for that of sleep instead of 
death. Mrs. Fisher was terribly shocked. Her cries soon attracted 
the neighbors, who came pouring in, and among them the little boy 
whom his mother had but a half hour previously kissed good-bye for 
the last time. 

What did the child know of death? When he saw the woman lying 
there, he tip-toed softly back to the staring, frightened group of women 


and said softly, *' Mamma is asleep — we mustn't talk or we'll wake 
her up." 

Everybody wept — the strong men as well as the weaker women. 
A lady took the child up and carried him out into the street and there 
he romped and played as gaily as if he were not indeed the loneliest 
and most blighted of orphans. 


Two letters were found, conveying the last wishes of the unhappy 
woman. The first was pinned on the bosom of her dress and read as 
follows : — 

" Mrs. Fisher. — Please tell my darling husband immediately, will 
you, that these are my dying words. Please see that Hade's relations 
take me to Sundell graveyard and bury me with my dear husband, 
and in the same grave and coffin. These are my dying words, good- 
bye forever and ever. Please see that my child is raised right no 
matter who takes charge of him. I forgive every one who has 
wronged me and ask forgiveness. Good-bye to Chris and his family, 
and to Moses and those sweet children ; also my sister and dear old 
father and Mr. and Mrs. Fisher, and last of all my dear, sweet child 
and husband. Oh forgive me, God, is my prayer, for the time draws 
near when I must die. Good-bye, my dear, darling child and hus- 
band. This is written by Sue Brown." 

The other letter was found on the bureau and was as follows : — 

" To MY darling husband and child and my fried Belle Fisher, 


husband and I will both die to-night. My life is a misery to me for I 
know that James is to hang, and I am ver\'^ near craz}'^ over my troubles, 
they are more than I can bear. Oh, how T hate to leave my darling, 
precious babe. I hope my relations will take charge of him, and 
raise him right, and always be good and kind to him and for my sake 
never let him be imposed upon. I love my dear husband better than 
the whole world, and he can't live and I won't — we Avill both die' 
together. I want to be buried in my darling's arms, and in the same 
coffin with him. 

" Mrs. Fisher, will you please see to us and not let them separate us 
in death is my dying wish. That God will forgive me and take me 
safely home is my dying prayer. I want my sisters, Sarah and 
Luta, to have my things between them. A farewell kiss to my dear 
old father, one I love. Mrs. Fisher, will you please for my sake have 
this published. I want you to take the news to Hade, it makes no 
difference who says no." 


The discovery and perusal of the two letters left by Mrs. Brown 
let the authorities into the secret that there was an understanding 
between the murderer and his wife, and that the murderer himself con- 


templated suicide and was probably in possession of the means 
whereby to accomplish that result. To frustrate any such design, 
Deputy Marshal Freeman, accompanied by Jailor Farrell, Sergeants 
Deitch and Snider, officer Barrons and several other patrolmen, made 
haste to the jail and quietly slipped up in front of Hade Brown's cell. 

" Come outside, Hade," said Freeman, in as careless a tone as he 
could feign. 

Brown looked up and saw the squad of officers. In a flash he 
divined that something deeply affecting him had transpired. He did 
not know what, nor did he care. As quick as lightning he plunged 
his hand in his vest pocket, drew out the package of morphine and 
crammed it into his mouth. Before he could swallow the fatal drug, 
however, the officers had seized him and powerful hands had fastened 
their vice-like clutch about his neck. Then ensued a frightful 
struggle. The baffled wretch floundered and fought with the despera- 
tion of a madman. His blasphemies and oaths and imprecations 
were too terrible for recital in a public print. Alternately he cursed 
himself and his assailants. 

" Kill me, you dogs of — ! " he shrieked. *<I've got to die any- 
way next Friday, and I might just as well die here and now." 

It was a dreadful scene. The struggle lasted several moments, till 
absolutely exhausted, blue in the face, his eyeballs protruding from 
his head and the froth bubbling from his mouth, the miserable wretch 
lay feebly writhing on the jail floor. As if he had been a beast, his 
mouth was pried open and the poisonous package dragged forth. 
Then he was hauled to his cell and placed under heavy guard, and 
even then, exhausted as he was, he continued to utter the most revolt- 
ing blasphemies and imprecations. 

It was decided not to communicate to him the fact of his wife's 
death till to-day. * 

[From the Moberly Headlight.] 

One of the most dastardly, cold-blooded and unprovoked murders 
on record has just come to light in this county, and speedy justice 
has already been meted out to the bloody perpetrators by an infu- 
riated mob, composed almost wholly, if not entirely, of colored 

Some three weeks ago, George Matthews, an old negro man of in- 
dustrious habits and good character, living four or five miles east of 
Moberly, suddenly disappeared from his home, and his continued 
absence aroused the suspicion that he had been foully made way with, 
and the people of the neighborhood, enlisting the aid of officials, set 
to work last Saturday to ferret out the mystery, and they were not 
Ions: in brin^ins: to lio;ht one of the most brutal murders on record. 
On Monday the body of old George was found in Elk fork, a creek 
close to his late residence, with a bullet hole through the head and the 
head badly beat up. 


Abe Lincoln, a stepson of the murdered man, aged about 20 years, 
Henry, a negro boy about 17 years old, Alfred Cason, a negro neigh- 
bor, the wife of the victim and another negro were arrested and taken 
to Moberly, charged with the crime. At the coroner's inquest in Mo- 
berly, Tuesday, Abe Lincoln, the stepson of the murdered man, con- 
fessed to having shot his stepfather, and implicated the boy Henry 
with him in the murder. According to his confession, they went to 
the residence of the old man in the afternoon of the day of the mur- 
der for the express purpose of killing him. They found him alone, 
and sat and talked with him for an hour or two, when they arose and 
set about their bloody work. The stepson put his pistol to the old 
man's head and fired, inflicting a deadly wound and causing the old 
man to fall to the floor in a heap. The boy Henry then stepped to 
the door, gathered a club he had left on the outside, and dealt the 
dying man several heavy blows on the head with it. The stepson then 
took the club and proceeded to beat the last spark of life out of the 
prostrate body, after which the two dragged it from the house into a 
fence-corner near by, and then went to Cason' s and stayed all night. 
They returned about sunrise the following morning, dragged the body 
to the creek and threw it in. 

No cause whatever is assigned for the brutal deed, but the negro 
Cason is supposed to be the principal instigator and the planner of the 
affair, and all the parties arrested and some others are believed to be 
more or less implicated. It seems that Matthews' wife and his step- 
daughters are of a very loose character, and that he protested against 
feeding and entertaining the worthless characters that this case of 
affairs drew aroun.d him, which, no doubt, led to the bloody deed. 

Between eleven and twelve o'clock Tuesday night a body of heavily 
armed men rode up to the Moberly calaboose and made the guards give 
up the prisoners — Henry Mitchell, Dick Yancy (Abe Lincoln) and 
Alfred Cason. They were taken to a trestle bridge, about a 
mile east of town, on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, and all 
three swung up. Cason was let down and then swung up again. 
He would not or could not confess anything, and was let down 
and sent back to the calaboose. Mitchell and Yancy were left 
hanging until the following morning, when they were cut down 
and an inquest held over them. The jury returned verdicts to 
the efiect that deceased came to their deaths at the hands of un- 
known parties. The mob was not masked, and a good many are 
known, but the ones who know will not tell. The negro, Cason, is 
scared half to death, and will answer no questions. The bodies were 
taken in charge by an undertaker and buried. Everything was con- 
ducted quietly, and few in Moberly knew anything had happened 
until the following morning. 


[From the Herald.] 
The old tank pond just east of the corporate limits of Huntsville, 
which contains a large body of Avater, from 10 to 12 feet in depth, was 


the scene of a most distressing accident between five and six o'clock 
on Wednesday evening of last week, January 13, 1881, whereby one 
happy home was made suddenly desolate by the loss of its head and 
protecter. Mr. Richard Hotchkiss, an industrious and hard-working 
coal miner, living in the east side of the town, having finished his day's 
work in the pit, hitched his horse to his buggy, and with his two 
little boys drove to this pond for the purpose of washing off the 
vehicle. Not knowing the depth of the water, and being unable to 
swim, he unhitched the horse and rode him in to try it before driving 
the buggy in. He had only got a few yards from the bank when his 
horse suddenly struck deep swimming water. The first plunge of the 
animal jerked the rider's hat off, and in attempting to recover it, he 
fell off the horse and was drowuied. The only witnesses to this sad 
tragedy were the two little boys, who, upon seeing their father sink 
beneath the water the third time, ran for their home screaming at the 
top of their voices. As soon as the sorrowful news reached the ears 
of the unsuspecting wife, she was almost crazed with grief, and rush- 
ing wildly to the pond she attempted to plunge into the deep water 
after the body of her husband, whose face she had looked upon but a few 
moments before in perfect health ; but, happily, a number of persons 
were attracted to the place before her by the screams of the children 
and prevented her from becoming a victim of her own rashness. It was 
only a short time until the banks of the pond were lined with pe()[)le, 
and the work of dragging the pond was at once commenced and kept up 
until between eleven and twelve o'clock, when the b(Kly was recovered. 
The face showed a number of bruises and cuts, and bled freely for 
hours. It is more than probable that these injuries were inflicted by 
the horse's fore feet, for it is an established fact that all horses become 
greatly frightened Avhen they first strike swimming water, and if a 
rider falls off at such a time the horse will in every instance claw the 
water desperately to get to him. 

The deceased was 31 years of age, and leaves a devoted wife and 
three interesting little boys to mourn his untimely death ; and these 
have the sincere sympathy of our entire people in this their hour of 
sad affliction. He was an honest, upright man ; was loved by his 
friends, and respected by all. His remains were buried Thursday 
evening in the city cemetery by the Odd Fellows, of which fraternity 
he was an honored member, and were followed to their last resting 
place by a large concourse of people. 

Peace to his ashes, and may the good God comfort the bereaved 


John H. AVright, a young married man about 32 years of age, re- 
siding with his wife and two children four miles south of Huntsville, 
on a farm adjoining the one occupied by his father,Mr. James Wright, 
committed suicide about nine o'clock Tuesday morning, January 29, 
1884, by hanging himself to a tree in a woods pasture about a half a mile 



from his house. He got up Tuesday morning and dressed himself 
and walked over to see his father. Finding that his father had gone 
to see a neighbor, a Mr. Yager, he returned home, told his wife that he 
was going over to Mr. Hunt's, another neighbor, and started in that 
direction. He walked down the road over which his father would have 
to return to a point about half a mile from his house, climbed over 
the fence, walked about 50 yards to the edge of the woods pasture, 
tied a comfort around his head and deliberately hung himself with a 
rope which he had with him, dying from strangulation. Life could 
not have been extinct very long when his father returned over the road 
in company with Mr. William Bagby, who noticed the dangling 
object and called Mr. Wright's attention to it, saying he believed it 
was a man. Mr. Wright replied, he guessed not — it was only a " scare- 
crow." But Mr. Bagby kept his eye on the object, and again de- 
clared his belief with more firmness, when Mr. Wright thought it 
might be and that they had better go over and investigate, and they 
did. Finding that it was a man in fact, but not knowing who it was 
because of the face being concealed by the comfort tied over it, Mr. 
Wright suggested that they had better go and get some of the neigh- 
bors before interfering with the body, and they each started in dif- 
ferent directions for neighbors. Mr. Bagby and his companions 
returned first and cut the body down and removed the comfort, 
when they recognized the face, and the body of the dead man was 
at once removed to the home of his parents. A note found pinned 
on the coat stated that the deceased was tired of living, asked to be 
buried in the clothes he had on and that no inquest be held on his 

The cause is ascribed to physical infirmities. He had been in poor 
health for several years and a few months before he had a severe 
spell of sickness, which left him in a still more enfeebled condition. 
He had been quite despondent for some time, and about a month 
previous bought laudanum with the view of taking his life, but his wife 
persuaded him from it. His wife says their domestic relations were 
the most pleasant and happy, and that he had never given her a cross 

At an inquest held on the body a verdict in accordance with the 
above facts was found. 


"War of 1812 — ludian War of 1832 — California Emigrants — Mexican War — Address 
of W. R. Samuel — The Civil War of 1861 — Officers Commanding Companies — 
Non-combatants Killed in tiie County. 

** Our heroes of the former days 
Deserved and gained their never fading bays." 

Randolph county has never been wanting in patriotism, but, upon 
the contrary, her citizens have always been among the first to respond 
to the call of their country when its honor or its liberty were im- 
periled. Whether they were called to meet the savage Indian at 
home, or the scarcely less civilized Mexican under the burning suns 
of a foreign clime, they have responded with the same alacrity, and 
gone forth to do battle with an enthusiasm and courage that have ever 
characterized the true soldier. 

A few of these men have seen service in four different wars. The 
veterans of 1812 have all passed away except Durett Bruce, William 
McCanne and Elijah Williams, who will, ere long, join their comrades 
on the other side of the river. 


In answer to a call which had been generally made by the papers 
of North Missouri, the surviving soldiers of the War of 1812 assembled 
together at Moberly, October 20th, 1871, and were royally entertained 
by the patriotic citizens of that place. There were in all about 30 
of the old heroes, and they enjoyed the reunion after the good old 
fashion of the past. 

The meeting was appropriately opened with prayer by Elder F. R. 
Palmer, himself one of the veterans, breathing a spirit of thankfulness 
that so many of those who had breasted the tide of British invasion in 
those trying times were permitted to meet and greet each other at so 
late a period of life, and invoking the blessings of heaven to rest upon 
the land which they aided in rescuing from the domination of a 
haughty tyrant. An able, entertaining and beautiful address was 
delivered by Col. W. F. Switzler, of the Columbia Statesman, and 
the party repaired to the Tate House to partake of a magnificent ban- 
quet which the munificence of the landlord in conjunction with that of 
the good people of the place had provided for their entertainment. 


The utmost good feeling and social cheer characterized the occasion, 
and marked it as one of the most interesting epochs in the history of 
the county. Following are the names of the glorious old gray-beards 
who were in attendance, with their ages and places of residence : — 

B. C. Wright, aged 85 ; William McCanne, Sr., aged 76 ; William 
Eoiltree, aged 76 ; William Haines, aged 83 ; Durett Bruce, aged 81, 
now (1884) resides in Moberly ; Elijah Williams, aged 74, now 
(1884) resides in Moberly; B. Owen, aged 76; Abraham Goodding, 
aged 76 ; Robert Boucher, aged 77 ; S. C. Davis, aged 76 ; Louis 
Osburn, aged S2 ; all of Randolph county. F. R. Palmer, Clay 
county, aged 82. George Brown, aged 72 ; William Sulson, aged 76 ; 
both of Macon county. William Woodruff, aged 82, Linn county. 
Abajiah Woods, Grundy county, aged 75. Thompson Hardin, aged 
84; F. Herndon, aged 78; William Acton, aged 77; John Daven- 
port, aged 77 ; Gabriel Parker, aged 77 ; William Summers, aged 80 ; 
Martin G. Buckler, aged 74 ; Brice Edwards, aged 79 ; all of Boone 
county. Robert P. Jones, Callaway county, aged 79. J. M. Chadsey, 
aged 73 ; Thomas G. Grant, aged 72 ; John Adkinson, aged 84 ; 
George T. Naylor, aged 84 ; all of Monroe county. 


The following are the names of a number of soldiers who enlisted 
in the Lidian War from Randolph county: Iverson Sears, James 
Ratcliff, Joseph Holman, James Holman, Capt. Robert Boucher, Jo- 
seph Goodding, Capt. Abraham Goodding, Joseph M. Hammett, 
Thomas J. Samuel, Tarrett Rose, John Dysart, Ignatius Noble, Dr. 
C. F. Burckhartt, May Burton, Jefferson Hockersmith, Benjamin 
Hardin, Samuel Hardin. 


The years 1849 and 1850 will be remembered by the old settlers of 
Randolph county as the periods when the gold excitement in Cali- 
fornia reached its highest point, and as the years when the people 
generally throughout the American Union, as well as Randolph coun- 
ty, were alike smitten with the gold fever. The early settlers, like 
their descendants of to-day, soon learned that 

" Gold is the strWgth, the sinew of the world ; 
The health, the soul, the beauty most divine;" 

and manifested their love and appreciation of the saffron-hued metal 
by separating themselves from their homes and friends, and taking up 
their line of march to the gold fields of California. 


Randolph county sent forth many of her sons, some of whom were 
men with gray beards, and others were boys still in their teens, to 
that far distant region, all animated with the hope that their labors, 
their sacrifices, and their bravery would be rewarded with an abun- 
dance of the glittering and precious ore. 

Very few of these gold-hunters ever accumulated anything, and a 
number lost all they had, including even " their lives, their fortunes, 
and their sacred honor." The persons who really gained by the gold 
excitement were those who remained at home and sold their produce 
to the infatuated emigrants. The rush which had commenced in the 
spring of 1849 continued until about the first of June, 1850, when 
the great surging tide began to abate, although belated gold-hunters 
continued to pass through the country for some time. 

But the excitement began to die away, and those citizens who had 
judgment enough to resist the contagion, now settled down in quiet 
to pursue the even tenor of their way. 

The following list embraces the names of many of the parties who 
went from Randolph county to California in 1849 and in 1850 : — 


G. W. Taylor, John Taylor, E. T. Owen, Thomas H. B. Owen, 
James Murphy, Joseph Murphy, H. Lassiter, Thomas J. Gorham, R. 
T. Gorham, Abraham Lassiter, Tony Fort, Dr. G. T. Fort, A. J. 
Fort, A. G. Lea, James P. Dameron, James Collins, Granvil Wilcox, 
Jerry Taylor, E. B. Cone, George Hunt, Milton Hunt, J. B. Hunt, 
F. M. Hammett, Daniel Hunt, Major Hunt, William Hunt, Charles 
Hunt, John Gaines, John Dameron, Willis Dameron, Jeptha Baker, 
Charles Fletcher, F. M. McLane, William Dunn, J. V. DunU, John 
Callahan, John Tillotson, William Hardister, Capt. W. T. Austin, J. 
H. Austin, Felix Austin, Henry Austin, Sr., James Atterbury, Uras- 
mus Atterbury, Asa Fidler, J. A. Brown, Henry Austin, Jr., Joseph 
Yowell, James Emerson, Sr., James Emerson, Jr., Rufus Emerson, 
George Pool, J. C. Boney, Hugh McCanne, Charles Ragsdale, Julius 
Ragsdale, John Maupin, Z. P. Gray, William Gladwell, William Al- 
verson, Robert Brown, Ban Hutchison, Robert Skinner, Samuel Skin- 
ner, Randall Sears, James Summers, Doc. Summers, Frank Summers, 
James Head, Charles Turner, Jesse Suimiiers, Joseph Yowell, Martin 
Shriver, Gabriel Austin,^ William Austin,^ Lewis Austin^ (colored). 

1 Were given their freedom in California. 



Ill July, 1846, upon the call of the President of the United States, 
a company of men was organized in Randolph county for the Mexican 
War. The company consisted of about 100 men, and left Huntsville 
on the first Monday in August, 1846. Before leaving the company 
was presented with a beautiful silk flag, made by the ladies of Ran- 
dolph county. This flag was carried by the men through all their 
long marches and engagements, and when they returned home, in No- 
vember, 1847, it was, with a list of the names of the men, stored 
away in the court-house for safe keeping, and, unfortunately, de- 
stroyed by fire when the court-house was burned. This list, being 
thus destroyed, we are unable to give all the names of the men who 
made up the company ; the list, however, is as complete as we can 
make it : — 

Hancock Jackson, captain, dead ; Clair Oxley, first lieutenant, dead ; 
R. G. Gilman, second lieutenant, dead ; W. R. Samuel, third lieuten- 
ant, living; William Ketchum, first sergeant, died in the army; W. 
L. Fletcher, first sergeant, died in Texas in 1883; L. W. T. Allin, 
second sergeant, died in the army ; Eldridge Cross, second sergeant, 
died in Adair county ; Vincent Barnes, fourth sergeant, died in the 
army ; Isaac Larrick, fourth sergeant, died in the army ; Thos. L. 
Gorham, first corporal, died in Montana ; Robert C. Reed, third cor- 
poral, died in California ; E. C. Montgomery, fourth corporal, died in 
North Carolina; R. M. Proffitt, first bugler, dead; W. C. Holman, 
second bugler, dead; Harrigan Barnett, dead; A. Bradigan, black- 
smith, Lincoln county ; N. B. Bris well, dead ; W. P. Baker, dead ; 
John W. Burris, dead ; James H. Brown, dead ; Francis Condon, 
dead ; George R. Caton, dead ; Jeremiah Clarkston, in Macon county ; 
Asa K. Collett, in Adair county ; James Cole, dead ; Lewis R. Col- 
lier, in Rudolph county; William Embree, in Randolph county; O, 
N. P. Flagett, dead ; David A. Gray, dead ; Samuel P. Gray, dead ; 
William N. Gist, dead ; Benjamin F. Heaton,dead ; Lewis Haggard, 
dead ; James Heaton, dead ; A. O. John ; N. T. Johnson, in Randolph 
county; F. M. Morris, dead ; John F. Miller, dead ; Daniel C. Moore, 
dead ; E. A. Matney, in Macon county ; James N. Marshall, in Macon 
county; William Murley, Adair county; Monroe Mullion, Monroe 
county ; John F. McDavitt, died in the army ; O. P. Magee, died in 
T^xas; A. McDonald; John O. Oxby, dead; F. E. W. Patton, in 
the mountains; James Phillips, Macon ; M. H. Parker; E. W. Par- 


sels, Adair ; John Roberts ; H. H. Richardson, in Chariton county ; 
John W. Richardson, in Texas; W. T. Redd, in California; W. G. 
Riley, in Randolph county; S. D. Richardson, dead; Martin Riddle; 
P. M. Richardson ; John W. Latta, in Illinois ; Harvey C. Ray ; 
James Ramy, in Platte county ; James G. Smith, in Randolph county ; 
W. R. Shiter; Paul Shirley, in California; E. K. Wilson, in Macon 
county; G. H. Wilson, in Randolph county; William H. Wilson, in 
California ; O. H. P. Fizell ; William Roberts and A. M. C. Donald. 

This company belonged to the Second Regiment Missouri Mounted 
Volunteers, and was under the command of Gen. Sterling Price, and 
Lieut. -Col. D. D. Mitchell, two as brave and gallant officers as 
ever commanded a regiment in any war. 

The men were in two small engagements, one at Taos, and the other 
in the Moreau Valley, and like the American forces generally, came 
out victorious. 

Two young men from Randolph county, joined the army away from 
home. Their names were Chilton B. Samuel, and his cousin, Edmond 
T. Taylor. The former joined Capt. O. P. Moss' companjs Doni- 
phan's regiment, and the latter Captain Barber's company, of Linn 
county. They were true-hearted and brave ; one died with the con- 
sumption (Samuel), and the other (Taylor) died from an attack of 
measles, and was buried far away from home and friends, on the top 
of a lonely mountain in New Mexico. 

September 21, 1877, during the progress of the fair which was then 
being held at Huntsville, W. R. Samuel delivered the following ad- 
dress to many of the surviving soldiers of Capt. Hancock Jackson's 
company, who were on that day present : — 

Fellow Soldiers of the Mexican War : Thirty-one years ago, 
the first Monday in August last, after casting our votes as American 
freemen, for men of our choice to represent us in our State and 
National councils, we left for the seat of war. Our enlistment as 
soldiers in the Mexican War was only a few days prior to the close of an 
exciting contest in the political arena, in which the good old Whig and 
Democratic parties were the contestants. Our departure was postponed 
for a few days, in order that we might enjoy this inestimable privilege of 
voting, which no good citizen, we take occasion to say, should ever 
neglect. A company of about 100 men, raised and organized princi- 
pally by Capt. Hancock Jackson, was drawn up in line, mounted 
and equipped, in the public square of Huntsville, and was presented 
with a beautiful silk flag by the ladies of Huntsville and vicinity, the 
presentation speech being made by a handsome young lady, then a 
resident of Huntsville, now a resident of Randolph county. The la^y 
is now some older of course, but still good looking, and if you have 


fo¥gotten her I refer you to Judge Burckhartt who knows every lady, 
especially the handsome ones, that have lived in this vicinity since he 
was 10 years old, and that has been, / guess, nearly 50 years, but for 
fear he will not tell you, I will say that it was Miss Harriet Amanda 
Head, now the wife of our Representative, the Hon. James F. Wight. 
I being ensign and second lieutenant, was the happy recipient of that 
ilag, and also the bearer of it, and am glad to be able to say that it was 
never dishonored, trailed in the dust, surrendered or captured. We 
all made it a point to preserve it and defend it, not only because it 
bore the stars and stripes, emblematic of the American Union, our 
native land, but also as a valuable memento of the parting gift of our 
many fair friends left behind. We brouo:ht it back untarnished, it 
having waved in triumph in all the contests in which we were engaged. 
We started on our destination, we knew not where, but with strong 
resolutions to do our duty, and with many misgivings as to whether 
we would hold, out faithful. The whole people, en masse, vied one 
with another in loading us with presents of various kinds, and provi- 
sions in abundance, and after many warm expressions of regret at our 
departure and expressing the hope of our safe return, we were rapidly 
marched to Fort Leavenworth, then on the western borders of civili- 
zation, but now not far from the center of a populated empire. There 
we found Col. Sterling Price and Lieut. -Col. D. D. Mitchell, both 
noble men, generous, kind and brave, organizing a regiment of which 
we were to form a part. We were kept at the Fort drilling, breaking 
mules and oxen, and doing camp duty in the heat and dust for a week 
or ten days, which some of us at least considered hard work, still not 
knowing whether we were destined for New or Old Mexico, or whether 
we were to embark by land or water, all becoming, in the meantime, 
restless and anxious to be started to some point. If the order had 
come to disband and go home, some of us would have rejoiced more 
than we did when the order was finally promulgated to be ready to march 
at daylight next morning. It was, however, a great relief to be able to 
leave the abominable Fort. We were, while there, under the orders 
of regular army officers, and the discipline was rather severe for raw 
volunteers, and although we were considered a part of the garrison of 
the Fort, we were neither permitted to eat or sleep inside its walls, 
but were to do our eating and sleeping on the bleak hills a mile or so 
beyond. We started out 1000 strong, our destination proving to be 
Santa Fe, in New Mexico, whither Col. A. W. Doniphan's regiment 
had preceded us a short time, and whose place in that country we 
were to supply. We had a weary march of 1000 miles, harassed oc- 
casionally by the wild savages then inhabiting the foot hills of the 
desert plains. We were frequently short of provisions, and some- 
times almost famishing for water, but I can say with sincerity and 
truth, we had no murmuring, for no company had a better set of men 
than Co. C. Others may have had as good, none better. It is 
true that we had a few that were unruly and turbulent, but the good 
and true so greatly predominated that such hard cases were held in 


check. We had but one man in our company that so disgraced the 
name of a soldier that we had to drum him out of the service, and 
never permitted him to enter the ranks again. He afterwards, I be- 
lieve, joined the Mexicans; but the quick dismissal of this one from 
the ranks by unanimous consent (for he was not court-martialed), 
only showed how severely any dishonorable act would be condemned 
and punished. 

Although the troops occupying New Mexico never had to fight any 
such hard battles as were fought at Cerro Gordo, Resaco de la Palma, 
Buena Vista, Churubusco, and Monterey, and in which it was proven, 
beyond question, that American soldiers are unrivalled, yet what little 
fighting we did, though greatly outnumbered, we always came ofi" 
victorious ; and then we were at all times ready to go where danger 
or duty called, and that was all that could be expected of us. We 
were constantly exposed to armies larger than ours, and it frequently 
happened that small detachments were taken prisoners, and notwith- 
standing the Mexican treachery and the many outrages committed on 
our men who were captured, and notwithstanding the causes thus 
given for retaliation, we committed no acts of vandalism, nor punished 
the innocent for acts of the guilty, but when parties fell into our 
hands who were proven, beyond doubt, to be the leaders in murdering 
small detachments of our men, whom they had taken prisoners, you 
may be sure speedy justice was meted out to them. 

While we had many hardships and privations to encounter in this 
campaign, which were sometimes severe and trying, we enjoyed many 
seasons of pleasure and satisfaction. Our company was, comparatively 
speaking, a band of brothers or a family. We were in a foreign land, 
many miles from home, surrounded on every hand by bitter and 
relentless enemies. These circumstances, perhaps, knit us together 
more closely as friends — at any rate we were friends, and fast ones 
too, and I am truly proud to be able to say on this occasion, that as 
an officer of the company, I had the unbounded confidence of nearly 
the entire company ; they had mine also. I never called upon any of 
you, or those who have gone from us, for a favor that you did not 
cheerfully grant, nor did I ever give an order that was not promptly 
obeyed, but I was always careful not to make an order that was not 
necessary to be executed, nor one I was not willing to help to execute 
myself. In -this way mutual confidence was established and fully 
maintained, and no honors of the war are so gratifying as this reflec- 
tion to-day. We went forth 100 strong. We came back many short 
of that number. We buried rudely, though tenderly, some of our 
noble men on the sandy plains and on the hills around Santa Fe and 
Las Vegas. Many more since our return have crossed the turbid 
stream, and gone to that bourne whence no traveler returns. I am 
the only commissioned officer of the company now living, and of the 
rank and file not more than 20 now survive. It seems, in imagina- 
tion, but a short time since we chased together buffiilo and antelope 
on the plains, and Mexicans in the mountains around Moreau and Taos. 



But what wonderful events have transpired in the intervening period? 
I have no idea that five men in our company had ever seen a raih'oad 
track or a steam car. Now our country is dotted all over with them, 
and the whistle of the iron horse has echoed in the mountains of the 
Far West, and the two oceans are brought apparently in close prox- 
imity, when in reality they are 3,000 miles apart. And as for 
telegraphing, they had never dreamed of such a thing. And now 
the Atlantic cables enable the Old World and the New to communicate 
in an instant; of time, and from the signs of the times it is thought 
conversation can actually be carried on by two persons thousands of 
miles apart, orally, by means of the telephone. 

Since that time the great Civil War raged in our own hitherto 
happy and united country. Its results and consequences are well 
known to us all. But to enumerate all the wonderful events and 
changes that have taken place even in our own land and country, 
would occupy too much time, and weary your patience, hence I will 
pass on to say that those of us who were fortunate enough to reach 
our old homes were given a hearty welcome. A grand barbecue was 
given in our honor, attended by a vast concourse of the good people 
of Randolph, for which we are still thankful. In behalf of you all, I 
tender our sincere thanks to the Fair Company for so kindly remem- 
bering: us so long after the events to which I have referred. But it is 
right to honor men who have thus gone forth to battle for their coun- 
try's honor or their country's rights. It has been the custom, of all 
nations to do so, especially when the benefits resulting from the war 
in which they have been engaged are of such magnitude as were t he 
events resulting from the Mexican War. And if the benefits resulting 
from the war with Mexico were to be paid for in dollars and cents, and 
if the soldiers who did the fighting were to receive the pay, it would 
make them all rich. Whatever was the primary cause of the war and 
whether right or wrong to wage, the American armies were every- 
where victorious, and on the 13th of September, 1847, the frowning 
citadel of Chapultepec was carried by storm, and in the darkness of 
that night Santa Anna and his officers fled, and on the morning of the 
14th, the regiments of Gen. Scott filed through the streets of the 
beautiful City of Mexico, and at six o'clock the flag of the United 
States floated over the halls of the Montezumas, and as history tells 
us, so ended one of the most brilliant campaigns known in modern 
history. The United States acquired, as the result of this war, 
1,000,000 square miles of territory, including within the boundary 
California and the fertile valleys and mining country of the Pacific 
slope as well as New Mexico. Mexico was also severely chastised 
for its barbarity to Texas, and taught them a lesson which they 
will doubtless long remember ; that she must respect American 
rights as well as American citizens. And while the moral sense of 
the world should be shocked by war, it sometimes seems to be the 
least of two evils ; let us hope such was the case in the Mexican 
War. Notwithstanding the great expanse of territory, rich, not only 


in minerals, but also in agricultural resources, and now settled up 
by many thousand pioneers, belonged to us by right of conquest, 
yet the General Government, in its generosity and magnanimity, paid 
to the Mexican government over $18,000,000 for it, thus indicating 
that in this case, at least, the ordinary sense of justice was not alto- 
gether quenched or smothered. And while this magnanimity to a con- 
quered foe was all right and highly commendable, the government 
ought also recollect that it ought to be magnanimous to the soldiers 
who did the fighting, and to their widows and orphan children at least, 
and give to each surviving soldier of that war, or to his widow or 
children under 16 years of age, not less than eight dollars per 
month. This would be a great help to many who are old, and some 
of them, doubtless, quite poor. And we should urge upon our Con- 
gressmen and Senators the justice of our cause. Let Congress pass a 
law taxing government bonds as other property, which should have 
been done long ago, and also making silver and greenbacks legal ten- 
der for all dues, whether to bondholder or the government, and 
enough money would be saved in one year to pension all the surviving 
soldiers and widows of soldiers of the Mexican War as long as one of 
them are left in the land of the living. These measures are demanded 
by the great mass of the people ; and they ought to be proclaimed in 
thunder tones to the ear of the nation's representatives, until the ser- 
vants of the people obeyed the voice of their masters. If there ever 
was a time in the history of our nation when the great truth, uttered 
by the immortal Washington, " Eternal vigilance is the price of lib- 
erty," should be remembered and obeyed, it has come. 

And now, fellow-veterans of the Mexican War — so many of us and 
yet so few — may never have the pleasure of all meeting together 
again this side of the grave, let us hope and pray that we may meet in 
a brighter clime and a more glorious home, where war nor rumors of 
war are neither heard of nor seen» and where happiness will last for- 


When the first gun was fired upon Fort Sumpter (April 12, 1861), 
little did the citizens of the remote county of Eandolph dream that the 
war which was then inaugurated would eventually, like the simul- 
taneous disemboguement of a hundred volcanoes, shake this great na- 
tion from its center to its circumference. 

Little did they then dream that the smoke of the bursting shells, 
which hurtled and hissed as they sped with lurid glare from rebel bat- 
teries upon that fatal morning, foreboded ravaged plains — 

"And burning towns and ruined homes, 
And mangled limbs and dying groans, 
And widows' tears and orphan's moans, 
And all that misery's hand bestows 
To fill the catalogue of human woes."- 


Little did they dream that the war cloud which had risen above the 
waters of Charleston harbor would increase in size and o-loora until 
its black banners had been unfurled throughout the leno;th and breadth 
of the land. 

Little did they imagine that war, with all its horrors, would invade 
their quiet homes, and with ruthless hand tear away from their fire- 
side altars their dearest and most cherished idols. 

Could the North and the South have foreseen the results of that in- 
ternecine strife, there would be to-day hundreds of thousands of hap- 
pier homes in the land, hundreds of thousands less hillocks in our 
cemeteries, hundreds of thousands less widows, hundreds of thousands 
less orphans, no unpleasant memories, and no legacies of hatred and 
bitterness left to rankle in the breasts of the living, who espoused the 
fortunes of the opposing forces. 

All that transpired during that memorable struggle would fill a large 
volume. Randolph county, as did the State of Missouri generally, 
sufi^ered much. Her territory was nearly all the time occupied by either 
one or the other antagonistic elements, and her citizens were called 
up(ni to contribute to the support of first one side and then the other. 
However much we might desire to enter into the details of the war, 
we could not do so, as the material for such a history is not at hand. 
Indeed, were it even possible to present the facts as they occurred, 
we doubt the propriety of doing so, as we would thereby reopen the 
wounds which have partially been healed by the flight of time and the 
hopes of the future. It were better, perhaps, to let the passions and 
the deep asperities which were then engendered, and all that serves to 
remind us of that unhappy period, be forgotten. We have tried in 
vain to obtain the number and names of the men who entered the Con- 
federate army from Randolph county. No record of them has ever 
been preserved, either by the officers who commanded the men, or by 
the Confederate government. 

Among those who commanded companies which were partially or 
entirely raised from Randolph county for the Southern army were 
Col. H. T. Fort, Col. John A. Poindexter, Capt. Frank Davis, Capt. 
John W. Bagby, Capt. Benjamin E. Guthrie, and Col. C. J. Perkins. 
Some of the above named officers were from adjoining counties, but 
recruited portions of their companies from Randolph county. 

Among those who raised companies for the Union army were Capts. 
T. B. Reed, C. F. Mayo, W. T. Austin, N. S. Burckhartt, W. A. 
Skinner, M. S. Durham and Alexander Denny. The number of men 


entering each army was about the same — numbering between 600 
and 900. 

During the war a few non-combatants were killed in the county : 
James Harris, Martin Green, James K. Carter, Andrew J. Herndon, 
and two or three colored men were shot to death at their homes or in 
the county. 

The above statement, in reference to the number of men entering 
the two armies, does not in any manner indicate the political complex- 
ion of the county at the breaking out of the Civil War. 

There was among the people a strong Union sentiment, which was 
retained by them until Fort Siimpter was fired upon, and until the call 
for 75,000 men was made by the government to suppress the insurrec- 
tion. After that call was made, the people of Kandolph county, as 
did the people of Missouri generally, became the friends of the South, 
and so strong was the sympathy of the people with their Southern 
brethren that the number in favor of the South was about as twenty 
to one. 



Man is so constituted that in order to make any appreciable progress 
in prosperity and intelligence he must live in a state of civil society. 
One's wants are so diverse and innumerable, and the physical con- 
ditions of the country in which he lives so varied, that he cannot 
possibly supply his needs, either by his individual exertions or from 
the products of any one district of country. Hence, trade and com- 
merce become necessities. One, with given talents and aptitudes, in 
certain territorial conditions, produces to the best advantage a partic- 
ular class of commodities in excess of what he needs, whilst he is able 
to produce only at great disadvantage, or not at all, other commodities 
quite as needful to him as the first ; another produces these needed 
commodoties in excess of what he personally requires, but none of 
those which the industry of his neighbor yields. Thus sprino-g up 
trade between the two, and to the advantage of both. As with indi- 
viduals, so with communities and peoples. Nations cannot live and 
prosper independent of each other, any more than families can live 
independent of their neighbors and prosper. So that, as prosperity 
constitutes the foundation of human progress and civilization, and 
since this cannot be attained except by means of trade and commerce, 
these become the indispensable conditions to advancement in material 
affairs and in intelligence. 

But neither trade nor commerce can flourish without practicable, 
efficient means of transportation. Products must be carried to the 
place of demand at a cost that will leave the producer just compensa- 
tion for his toil after they are delivered and sold and the cost of 
carriage paid. Hence, an adequate means of transportation, means 
sufficiently cheap and expeditious, becomes a matter of the first 
importance. Without some such system communities cannot be built 
up or be made to flourish. So we see that in earlier times and even 
yet, where regions of country were and are not thus favored, they 
have been and still are either uninhabited, or peopled by semi- 
civilized or barbarous populations. Take the map of the Old World 
and scan it ; it more than justifies what is here said. In the past 
most and, indeed, all of the more advanced nations inhabited regions 



of country washed by the seas or drained by navigable rivers or other 
inland waters. Navigation afforded and still aifordsto such countries, 
to a measurable degree, at least, the means of transportation required 
for their prosperity and advancement. But the interior, or regions 
far removed from navigation, remained either unpeopled or in a savage 
or tribal state. So such regiens, not penetrated by railways, remain 
to-day, as for instance, the non-navigable districts of India and Russia 
and other countries. 

The problem of meeting this desideratwin of transportation into 
non-navigable regions, which constitute a large portion of the best 
lands of the globe, came to be looked upon in early times as, and 
continued up to our own time, one of the greatest with which man- 
kind had to deal. In every country were vast regions with every 
other advantage for supporting prosperous and enlightened commu- 
nities which, on account of their want of transportation facilities, were 
valueless, or worse than valueless — the homes of wild and warlike 
tribes. As more enlightened and progressive peoples sought td ex- 
tend themselves into those regions, the efibrt was made to supply 
their want of transportation facilities by means of canals, which were 
constructed on quite an extensive scale in some and, indeed, in most 
of the leading countries of Europe. But the districts of country 
through which canals could be constructed were, of course, compara- 
tively small, and the great problem of interior transportation, so far 
as non-navigable regions were concerned, continued open and to 
attract the thought and experiment of the best minds of all countries 
and of every age. At last Stephens' experiment, in 1825, solved the 
great problem. 

It is beyond question that no invention of the present century, and 
perhaps of all time, has proved so beneficial to, and mighty in its 
influence upon the material aflairs of mankind, if not for the general 
progress of the human race, as that of land transportation by steam, 
as represented in our present railway system. An eminent French 
writer has said that " the railway trebled the area of the inhabitable 
globe." It has not only brought and is bringing vast regions hith- 
erto valueless under the dominion of civilized man, but has quickened 
and is quickening every movement of humanity in the onward march 
of civilization. Wonderful as have been its results in the develop- 
ment and civilization of our own continent, results at which the world 
stands struck with astonishment and admiration ; wonderful as have 
been its results elsewhere, and wherever it has penetrated, its achieve- 
ments in the past compared to what it is destined to accomplish in 



the future, are as the dust that floats in the air to the suns that people 
the infinity of space. 

The railway has been chiefly instrumental in transforming the wilds 
©f this country into great and prosperous States, and in placing the 
American Union in the front rank of the great nations of the earth. 
Speaking of this, in an article in the February number (1884) of the 
Nineteenth Century, in which he strongly urges the establishment of 
an extensive railway system in India, as the surest means of develop- 
ing the natural resources of that magnificent country, Hon. William 
Fowler, Member of Parliament for Cambridge, says : " But if encour- 
agement be needed, it is well to consider what has been done on the 
other side of the Atlantic. Before the railway came to Illinois, it was 
little more than a prairie. In a very few years its produce doubled, 
and now it stands as one of the first producing States of the Union, 
and can point to Chicago as an evidence of its progress. It is difficult 
to imagine what would have been its present condition had not the rail- 
way come to its aid. Missouri had much facility of water carriage, 
but its progress was very slow until railways traversed it. Nebraska, 
now a most flourishing young State, has been created by the railway. 
Its vast agricultural wealth must have been locked up indefinitely Init 
for the locomotive. The same remark applies to Kansas, now ad- 
vancing with rapid strides. 

" Shareholders may grumble at competition in America, and bond- 
holders may tremble, but the producer flourishes in low rates of 
carriage, and no economical facts are so wonderful as those pre- 
sented by the progress of the United States since the development 
of the railway system. The experience of Canada is hardly less 
remarkable, for I am informed by Mr. Macpherson, of Ottawa, 
that during last year 25,000,000 acres of land were allotted by the 
Dominion Government to settlers or companies. The great temp- 
tation of those who settle in that severe climate is the excellence 
of the wheat land, but it is obvious that without cheap carriage 
no such settlement would be possible, for the produce would be 
unsalable." Thus, the railway is rapidly peopling and developing 
this continent. What it is doing here, it can do elsewhere — in 
India, Australia, Interior Russia, South America, and everywhere, 
where the physical conditions of territory and climate render possibl.- 
the abode of man. It is the great civilizer of modern times, and 
wherever the headlight of its locomotive gleams out or the shrill echo 
of its whistle is heard, barbarism falls back as the darkness of ignor- 
ance before the light of knowledge. . 


By the railway communities and States, separated from each other 
by thousands of miles, are made neighbors and the populations of 
whole continents are not only enabled to intermingle and thus benefit 
by association and interchange of ideas, but trade and commerce be- 
tween them, the life-blood of all prosperity and advancement, are 
reduced to a perfect system and to the minimum of expense. Under 
its influence the nations of Europe have been brought more nearly 
under the government of common interests and ideas — in fact, are 
nearer one people, — than the shires and manors of England were 
under the feudal system. And its influence in this direction, as in all 
others for the betterment of the condition of mankind, will go on 
and on, as the ages roll away, until ultimately the dream of the 
noblest philosophers who have conned the afliiirs of men shall have 
been realized — the universal brotherhood of man. 

By the railway space is already practically obliterated. To illus- 
trate this, a fact or two will suflice : The present rate on a bushel of 
wheat from Huntsville, Missouri, to St. Louis is about 8V2 cents ; the 
rate on to New York is IOV2 ; and from New York to Liverpool, or 
Glasgow, 4 cents — thus making the rate from Huntsville to Great 
Britain about 22 cents per bushel, or about $7.25 per ton. This is 
but little more than it cost, before the era of railroads, to haul the 
same amount of wheat from Randolph county to Glasgow, Missouri ; 
so that, practically, the market at Glasgow, Scotland, and, indeed, 
the markets of the whole world have been brought nearly as close to 
the farmers of this county as the market at Glasgow, "on the Missouri 
river, only twenty or thirty miles away, was in former times. What 
is true of wheat is true, in a greater or less measure, of other products 
and of merchandise, and of everything that ministers to the comfort 
and happiness of man. 

But without this system of railway transportation the present vast 
products of agriculture in the interior would have been impossible, 
and population would still have been compelled to hug closely to the 
coasts of seas and to the shores of inland navigable waters. "Had 
one been asked ten years ago," says Mr. E. Atkinson, of Boston, in 
his paper, in 1880, on " The Eallroads of the United States and their 
Effects on Farming and Production," " 'Can 150,000,000 bushels of 
grain be removed from the prairies of the West 5,000 miles in a single 
season, to feed the suffering millions of Europe, and prevent almost a 
famine amongst the nations?' he who ansAvered 'Yes; it is only nec- 
essary to apply the inventions already made to accomplish that,' would 
have been deemed visionary.. It has been accomplished." And, 


illustrating the same point, a writer, under the caption " The Railroad 
and the Farmer," in the ^me?7ca?i Agricultural Revieio for August, 
1882, speaking for Oregon, says: " Our export of wheat to Europe 
had hardly begun ten years ago for lack of cheap transportation to 
the ship. * * * Before the advent of railroads the nominal price 
of farm land was from $5 to $10 per acre, yet its average productive- 
ness was from 25 to 30 bushels of wheat per acre. * * * When 
railroads were built, or since 1873, improved farm land sells readily 
at from $15 to $100 per acre. Wheat has become the principal prod- 
uct. The export of wheat and flour, mostly to Europe, has risen from 
zero to about 5,000,000 bushels per annum, with regular yearly 

It is this means of getting the products of the interior to market 
that renders the land of non-navigable regions valuable, and indeed 
inhabitable, by civilized man. Ten years ago Oregon exported no 
wheat, for want of railwa}^ facilities of transportation. In 1880 
she exported $5,000,000 worth, and her exports will continue to in- 
crease until her vast wheat lands, hardly touched yet with the plow, 
are covered with rich harvests, and all her territory is filled with a 
prosperous and enlightened population. Who can be found, then, 
bold enough to say that that great Commonwealth will not owe its 
greatness more directly to the railway than to any other and all other 
physical causes combined ? What is true of Oregon is true of all the 
States of the West, and, in only a less measure, of the other States of 
the Union. Missouri, though essentially a river State, has been built 
up almost alone by the railway since the war. Her vast area of grain 
and stock lands and her other resources have been opened up by the 
railway to industrial development, for by it the markets of the world 
have been brought to her very door. So of Kansas and Nebraska, 
and of Arkansas and Texas. Texas, although with a vast extent of 
sea-coast, has been developed by railway transportation, and there is 
hardly a parallel, even in the history of the Great West, to the won- 
derful progress that State has made in material development, and in 
population, and in wealth and in intelligence. 

No people under the sun have shown the enterprise, even by com- 
parison, shown by the people of this country in railroad building, and 
no people have increased in population and in every measure of ad- 
vancement in a ratio even approaching the progress made by the 
United States. But for railroads this could not, of course, have been 
done, for the regions accessible by navigable waters would long since 
have been taken up and overcrowded. This country, or rather, the 


people of the country, s;iw iit a glance the importance of railway 
transportation to their material prosperity and general interests. 
Every community, wherever settled, turned its attention to railroad 
building in order to open up the territory tributary to it. The result 
was that railroads were pushed in all directions, and are still being 
extended, so that the whole land is rapidly being warped and woofed 
with a perfect labyrinth of railway tracks. Speaking of this, a recent 
English writer says : " The American, confident of the future, pushes 
forward the railway into the wilderness, certain that the unoccupied 
land will be settled, and that he will get his reward in the increased 
value of this land, as well as in the traffic on his railway." At first, 
in order to make his road self-sustaining, on account of the sparseness 
of population (indeed, there is often no population at all in large 
regions through which his road passes), and the consequent lightness 
©f business, he is compelled to charge high rates of traffic and of 
travel, and often these rates do not save him, for it is the experience 
of most roads through new States and Territories that in their early 
years they pass into the hands of a receiver. But soon the country 
tributary to them settles up and the volume of business increases, so 
that they become prosperous enterprises. 

And it is a remarkable fact that, although railroads in this country 
have had more to contend against and more to discourage them than 
those in any other, they have shown a degree of public spirit and a 
regard for the interests of the communities through which they pass 
unequaled by any other roads on the globe. To those who get their 
information from the average politician, anxious for an office or solici- 
tous to retain one, and who has been refused a pass, this statement 
may sound strange. To begin with, the rates of traffic on railroads 
were higher here than those on the roads of any country in Europe, 
as it would seem they ought to be, for wages and everything else are 
higher, and in most of this country traffic is much lighter than it is in 
Europe. But to-day railway freight rates in the United States are 
lower than the rates in any other country. 

And it is this fact that has proved the salvation of the American 
farmer and, therefore, of the prosperity of the whole country. But 
for the high railway rates in India and Russia and in Australia, Ameri- 
can wheat would long since have been driven from the markets of 
Europe. "It costs considerably more," says a recent writer, "to 
carry a ton of wheat 600 miles over the Great Indian Peninsula Rail- 
way than it does to carry the same quantity 1,000 miles over an 
American line." There labor is incomparaV)ly cheaper than it is in 



this country, the hinds are quite as fertile and cheap, and the ship 
rates to Europe are nearly or quite as favorable as ours. But here 
wheat can be carried from Iowa to New York by rail so cheap that the 
Indian grower, with his present railway rates, cannot compete to 
advantage with the American farmer in European markets. In the 
United States rates have been reduced to less than one-fourth of what 
they were in 1865. This reduction is still going on, and with the 
improvements constantly being made in the railway system, it will 
doubtless continue to go «n until rates are far below what they are 
to-day. The following table, in which are given the average pas- 
seno;er and freisfht rates of six leadinsr Western roads since 1865, 
shows the steady reduction in tariffs : — 



Freight Rate 

Bates Per 

Per Ton 



Per Mile, 

























• •••.••..•• 









1875 • 






























These are the general averages of rates of Western roads, the dif- 
ferent classes and the relative amounts of each class considered, and 
both through and local rates computed. Similar estimates for East- 
ern roads would of course show much lower rates, as would estimates 
of through rates from the West to the East, as, for instance, grain is 
now being shipped (April, 1884,) from St. Louis to New York at 
171/2 cts. per 100 pounds, and from Chicago to New York at 15 cts. 
These are the present pool rates, which show a ton-rate per mile of 
about .33 of a cent, instead of .89, as given above. Surely, when a 


ton of grain can be hauled three miles for a cent, rates ought to be 
satisfactory to the producer. It is not, therefore, surprising that 
American farmers are the most prosperous class of agriculturists 
on the globe. If, on account of the cheapness, fertility and abun- 
dance of land they can raise produce at a comparatively nominal cost, 
and, by the cheapness of transportation rates, they are placed almost 
as near the markets of Europe as the farmer of France, England or 
Germany, why should they not prosper? The saving to the producer 
and consumer in this country in a single year from the reductions of 
freight rates made between 1865 and 1879, according to Mr. Poor, an 
American statistician recognized as authority in both America and 
Europe, amounted to over $35,000,000. During the same period the 
rates from Chicago to New York were reduced over $13.50 on the ton. 

Nor does it follow that because these reductions have been made, 
freights could have been carried at lower rates than were previously 
charged. As has been said, the increase of population and traffic and 
the improvements made in the railway system have made these re- 
ductions possible. Freights can now be carried at little more than, if 
indeed not half the rates charged ten years ago. Explaining this, a 
prominent Eastern railroad official recently said: "The economies 
that are being introduced in the management of the railroads of this 
country are very poorly appreciated by the public. With the in- 
troduction of steel rails, with which all the leading lines are now 
equipped, the improved condition of rolling stock, the enormous 
increase in the strength and power of the locomotives and the solidity 
of road-beds, that can only be attained after many years' use, to- 
gether with a multitude of economies that cannot be learned without 
many years' practical experience, where so many men are employed 
as are required to handle one of our trunk lines, the actual cost of 
transportation has been reduced far below the point at which a few 
years ago the most sanguine advocate of railroad transportation, as 
the economical successor of all other means of moving freight, did 
jiot dream." 

The people of the country are rapidly coming to understand and ap- 
preciate the importance the railway is to their highest and best inter- 
ests. The old prejudice against railroads is rapidly dying out. States 
and communities, — counties, towns and townships, — and the Na- 
tional Government showed commendable public spirit in assisting in the 
construction of railroads in the infancy of the development of our rail- 
way system, and because the roads, when constructed, were compelled 
for a time to charge what seemed hio:h rates of traffic, much wrath was 


visited upon the railway, or rather upon railway management. But 
whether these rates were necessary is shown by the result. More 
men of means have been bankrupted by rail wa}^ investments, — not 
from mismanagement of the roads, only in exceptional cases, but be- 
cause, by the best management they could not be made to pay at the 
rates charged, — than by any other class of investments. More roads 
have gone into the hands of receivers than any other enterprises have 
in the country, numbers and importance considered, and fewer for- 
tunes have been made by railway investments. True, a few great 
fortunes have been accumulated, for the interests involved were of the 
greatest magnitude, so that, if one fails, he fails as Villard did, but if 
he succeeds, he succeeds as Gould has. 

But, however much railways have cost the public generally, who is 
there to question that they have been of greater public benefit than 
their cost, a thousandfold? Missouri's railways cost her in State and 
municipal bonds (county, city, etc.), about $29,000,000. In one 
year alone, 1883, her taxable wealth increased $63,349,625, not in- 
cluding the increase in the value of railway property ; and the increase 
of the present year will probably carry the aggregate up to $800,000,- 
000. No one will claim that this would have been possible without 
the railway, for Missouri is an agricultural State and to her, efficient 
practicable transportation is everything. So far as the railroads are 
concerned, they are of far greater benefit and profit to the public at 
large, and especially to the farmer and business man, than to their 
owners. A fact or two will illustrate this : ^The net earnings of Mis- 
souri railroads in 1882, after deducting operating expenses, were in 
round numbers $11,000,000, which was about $2,444 a mile, or less 
than four per cent on the capital they represent. This is a fair aver- 
age of the profits of the roads generally throughout the country. 
Where is the farmer or business man whose profits are no more than 
these who would not feel outrao;ed if his customers were to denounce 
him for extortion or overcharges? The more one looks for the rea- 
sons of the late outcry against railroads, the more unreasonable he 
finds it to have been. 

Whilst, in common with all human enterprises and institutions, it 
cannot be claimed that railways have always been an unmixed blessing, it 
may be safely said of them that they have been productive of less harm 
to humanity and have resulted in less injury in proportion to the good 
that they have done than any other influence in material affairs. They 
have done more to develop the wealth and resources, to stimulate the 
industry, to reward the labor, and to promote the general comfort 


and prosperity of the country than any other, and perhaps all other, 
mere physical causes combined. They scatter the productions of the 
press and literature broadcast through the country with amazing ra- 
pidity. There is scarcely a want, wish or aspiration they do not in 
some measure help to gratify. They promote the pleasures of social 
life and of friendship ; they bring the skilled physician swiftly from a 
distance to attend the sick, and enable a friend to be at the bedside of 
the dying. They have more than realized the fabulous conception of 
the Eastern imagination, which pictured the genii as transporting in- 
habited palaces through the air. They take whole trains of inhabited 
palaces from the Atlantic coast, and with marvelous swiftness deposit 
them on the shores that are washed by the Pacific seas. In war they 
transport armies and supplies of Government with the utmost ce- 
lerity, and carry forward on the wings of the wind, as it were, relief 
and comfort to those who are stretched bleeding and wounded on the 
field of battle. 

As a means of inland transportation the locomotive has exceeded 
the expectations of even those most sanguine of its usefulness. Since 
its introduction canals have been practically abandoned and river trans- 
portation has become a matter of comparative unimportance. Missouri 
has a river outlet to the sea, but only an insignificant percentage of her 
products transported to the Atlantic is carried down the river. While 
a few large shippers of heavy freights in the cities, here and there, and 
the politicians are agitating interior water transportation, the vast 
body of the people are shipping by the railroad. In this age " time 
is money," and the time occupied by freight shipped by river is gen- 
erally of more consequence to those interested, than the small differ- 
ence of rates between river and railway charges ; and in most instances 
this alleged difference is more imaginary than real. The railroads 
from St. Louis make the same rates on freights for New Orleans that 
are charged by the steamers, and the difference of rates from St. 
Louis to the latter city, and from the former to New York, are merely 

By the railway the shipper, informed what the prices are at the 
wholesale markets to-day, may have his products delivered at those 
markets in twelve, twenty-four, or thirty-six hours, and thus feel 
reasonably safe in the estimates of the prices he expects to get. And 
by abolishing space and uniting the communities of a whole continent 
in one confederacy of trade and interests, regularity and stability 
are given to prices, for the supply of one section, if that of an- 
other fails, tends to regulate the s^eneral demand. This fall the 


farmer may sow his wheat and this winter fatten his stock with an in- 
telligent and safe estimate of the approximate returns he is to receive 
the succeeding year. Nor does a rich harvest in one State glut the 
markets and depreciate the prices to ruinous figures, for the markets 
of the whole world are almost equally accessible, so far as the cost of 
carriage is concerned. The farmer of Missouri is practically as near to 
London, England, to-day as was the farmer in the vicinity of Cambridge 
less than half a century ago, and all Christendom is reduced to 
narrower limits, so far as time of transit is concerned, than the limits 
of this country prior to the era of railroads. Galveston, Texas, is 
nearer to New York by railway travel to-day than Kansas City was to 
Huntsville a few years ago. In making Texas a neighbor to New 
York State and Missouri to Massachusetts, in penetrating the great 
West, the railways have opened up this mighty region to the flood- 
tides of immigration from the East and all the world which have 
poured into it and are still pouring in, establishing here the greatest 
and most prosperous commonwealths in the Union. 

Foremost among the railway systems of the West, and, indeed, the 
greatest combination of railway systems on the globe, is that of 
Gould's Western System, which include the Missouri Pacific, or 
South-Western system, the Wabash, and the Union Pacific systems, 
aggregating, in all, over 15,000 miles of main track. The lines of 
these systems penetrate every State of the West and nearly every 
Territory, and aggregate more miles of track than are laid in any 
country in Europe except Germany, France and Great Britain, each 
of which they closely approach in mileage. These three systems are 
run in harmony with each other, and the last two, the South-Western 
and the Wabash, are practically under one management, or, in other 
words, constitute virtually one system of railways. Together they 
aggregate over 10,000 miles of road, and include lines of travel in 
twelve of the great States of the Union and in the Indian Territory. 
The South-Western and Wabash systems constitute one of the most 
valuable and prosperous combinations of railroads in the United 
States. They were built up of many independent lines in the different 
States, and the Missouri Pacific proper and the old Wabash were 
taken for the bases of the systems. The original roads, of which 
these systems were finally formed, were in many instances in financial 
and business embarrassment, and some of them were in the hands of 
receivers. Largely by the genius of one man, through the assistance 
of the able men he drew around him, they were gathered up, one by 
one, and were united and made to prosper, so that we have seen 


built up in a few years the greatest combination of railroads of the 
age, a work that has been accomplished with such success that one 
cannot but view it with mingled admiration and surprise. We can- 
not go into the details of the history of these roads at this time, 
but must confine ourselves to an outline of the respective systems, 
the South-Western and the Wabash. 


This system includes and operates 5,983 miles of railroad, which 
lie in Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Arkansas, the Indian Territory, 
Louisiana and Texas, and is composed of the old Missouri Pacific 
proper, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
and Southern, the International and Great Northern, the Central 
Branch of the Union Pacific, and the Texas and Pacific. The follow- 
ing table shows the miles of each division in operation : — 


Missouri Pacific Division .... 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas Division . 
International and Great Northern Division . 
St. Louis and Iron Mountain Division . 
Central Branch of the Union Pacific Division 
Texas and Pacific Division .... 








As has been said, the Missouri Pacific forms the basis of this 
system. The charter for this road, or, rather, of its predecessor, 
the Pacific Eailroad Company, was granted by the Missouri Legis- 
lature by act approved March 12, 1849. The Pacific Company was 
authorized to build two lines of road from St. Louis, one, the main 
line, to Jefi*erson and on to the western boundary of the State, and 
the other, a branch, to the south-western part of the State. The 
capital stock of the company was fixed at $10,000,000, and the road 
received aid from the State to the amount of $7,000,000. To aid 
in the construction of the Southwest Branch, as the branch was 
called, Congress also made a grant to the company of 3,840 acres 
of land to the mile, which amounted in all to 1,161,204 acres. Con- 
struction of the main line was commenced July 4, 1851, but its 
progress was slow. It reached Jefierson City in 1856 and Sedalia 
in 1861, but was not completed to Kansas City until the fall of 
1865. The construction of the Southwest Branch was even slower, 
but was finally completed to the State line, by way of Springfield. 
In 1866, however, the Southwest Branch was taken possession of 


by the State for non-payment of interest on the State subsidy and, 
with its lands, was sold to the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, 
which company, in 1872, leased the lines of the old company, or 
Kansas City trunk road. The two roads were then operated under 
one management until 1876, when the Pacific was sold under fore- 
closure and conveyed by the purchasers to the present Missouri Pa- 
cific Company. This company, with a capital of $3,000,000, was 
incorporated October 21, 1876. In the meantime, in 1868, $5,000,- 
000 of the State subsidy had been back-paid to the State . The amount 
of indebtedness the new Missouri Pacific assumed when it bought the 
road was $13,700,000. 

Since the completion of the road to Kansas City, it has successfully 
competed with all its rivals for the traffic of the Great West and, 
besides its numerous tributary lines, its connections with other roads 
are such that cars run to and from St. Louis to every point in the 
West and South-west without break of freight-bulk. Its career since 
it became the property of its present owners has been one of 
unparalleled success, and it has grown from a single line across Missouri 
to one of the most important trunk lines in the Union, with its 
thousands of miles of feeders extending in every direction west of St. 
Louis and in the South-west. In 1880 the St. Louis and Lexington, 
the Kansas City and Eastern, the Lexington and Southern, the St. 
Louis, Kansas City and Arizona, the Missouri River and the Leaven- 
worth and North-Western were consolidated with it. This was on the 
11th of August, and the authorized share-capital of the consolidated 
company was fixed at $30,000,000. The amount issued to carry out 
the consolidation was $12,419,800. The debt of the company after 
this consolidation was $19,259,000. 

On the 1st of December, 1880, the Missouri Pacific leased the 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway for a period of 99 years, the 
consideration paid being the net earnings of the road. The Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas was organized April 7, 1870, by consolidation of 
the Southern branch of the Union Pacific, the Tebo and Neosho, 
the Labette and Sedalia, and the Neosho Valley and Holden. The 
St. Louis and Santa Fe Railroad from Holden, Missouri, to Paola, 
Kansas, was purchased by the Missouri, Kansas and Texas in 1872, 
and the Hannibal and Central Missouri, from Hannibal to Moberly, 
was purchased in 1874. This is the division of the road which passes 
through Randolph county, and is about 20 miles in length. It was 
chartered February 13, 1865. The line of the Missouri, Kansas 
and Texas was opened from Junction City to the southern boundary 


of Kansas in 1870, and from Sedalia to Parsons in 1871. From the 
southern boundary of Kansas to Denison it was opened January 1, 
1873, and from Hannibal to Sedalia, in September of the same year, 
thus completing a continuous line from Hannibal, Missouri, to Deni- 
son, Texas. 

The Missouri, Kansas and Texas received large grants of land under 
act of Congress, both in Kansas and in the Indian Territory, and also 
important grants from the State of Kansas. The lands in the Indian 
Territory, however, are subject to the extinguishment of the Indian 
title, and have not therefore become available to the company. This 
road has been mainly instrumental in settling up and developing 
South-west Missouri and Southern Kansas. By it, also, Texas was 
given an outlet to the North, and over its line a perfect stream of 
trade and commerce, and of travel, flowed to and from that great 
State. Probably no road on the continent has been of so much value 
and importance to a State or section of country, as the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas has been and still is to Texas. ^ Over it population 
has pushed into the State and settled up all of its northern counties, 
a section of country nearly as large as the entire State of Missouri. 
Hundreds of thousands of people have been added to its population, 
and millions of property have augmented its wealth. The Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas has been to Texas what the Missouri river was in 
pre-railroad days to Central Missouri — the main artery of its popu- 
lation and wealth, and of its general advancement and prosperity. 

In 1882 the Missouri, Kansas and Texas acquired the International 
and Great Northern by the exchange of two shares of its own stock 
for one share of the latter. This exchange increased the share-capital 
of the company by $16,470,000. By the International and Great 
Northern, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas also acquired a land grant 
in Texas of about 5,000,000 acres. With the acquisition of the 
International and Great Northern and other tributary lines, a con- 
tinuous route was given from Hannibal and St. Louis to Galveston, 
Texas, and to Laredo, on the Rio Grande. At Laredo, connectipn 
is made with the Mexican National, which will lead into the city of 
Mexico, when the present gap in its line shall have been filled up. 
However, by the Missouri, Kansas and Texas a through rail route is 
already opened to Mexico, by connection with the Texas Pacific and 
the Mexican Central, which latter is completed to the capital city of 
the Montezumas. 

Early in 1881 the Missouri Pacific acquired the St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain and Southern, issuino' to the hitter's stockholders three 


shares of the Missouri Pacific stock for four shares of the Iron Moun- 
tain, the object and effect of the purchase being the consolidation of 
the two companies. The Iron Mountain and St. Louis extends from 
St. Louis to Texarkana, a distance of 490 miles, with branches from 
Bismarck, in Washington county, Missouri, to Columbus, Kentucky, 
on the Mississippi, a distance of 121 miles, and from Knoble to 
Helena, Arkansas ; also from Jonesborough on the Helena branch to 
Memphis, Tennessee, and from Poplar Bluffs, Missouri, to Cairo, 
Illinois, besides numerous minor branches. At Texarkana, on the 
line of the Arkansas and Texas, connection is made with the Texas 
Pacific, which latter leads south-east to New Orleans, west to El Paso 
(where it connects with the Southern Pacific for California), and due 
south to Longview, Texas, where it connects with the International and 
Great Northern for Galveston, on the Gulf, and for Laredo on the Rio 
Grande ; or rather, the Iron Mountain, the Texas and Pacific and the 
International and Great Northern form one continuous line either to 
New Orleans, Galveston, Laredo, or El Paso, for all are members of 
the South-Western system. 

The St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern is a consolidation of four 
original roads, or organizations — the St. Louis and Iron Mountain, the 
Arkansas Branch of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain, the Cairo, Ark- 
ansas and Texas, and the Cairo and Fulton. This consolidation was 
effected May 6, 1874. But long before either of these companies was 
incorporated, away back in 1837, an act of the Legislature was passed 
incorporating the St. Louis and Bellevue Mineral Railroad, the object 
being to reach the rich mineral regions of Southeast Missouri, from 
St. Louis. That Company was finally merged into the St. Louis and 
Iron Mountain Companj^ which was incorporated March 3, 1851. 
The capital stock of the Iron Mountain was fixed at $6,000,000. 
Various subsequent acts of the Legislature were passed to expedite 
the construction of the road, and the State issued its own bonds to 
assist in the construction, to the amount of $3,500,000, for which the 
State took a mortgage on the road. Work was commenced in the fall 
of 1853. It was completed to Pilot Knob in May, 1858. Under the 
act of March 21, 1868, the Arkansas Branch was built to Texarkana,. 
Arkansas, the capital stock of the Branch being $2,500,000. The- 
road was completed to Texarkana in the fall of 1872. In the mean- 
time, however, the Iron Mountain had failed to acquit its liability to 
the State, and it was sold under the State mortgage, Messrs. McKay, 
Simmons and Vogel becoming the purchasers. They transferred it to 
Mr. Thomas Allen and his associates, who reorganized the Iron Moun- 


tain Company and conducted the road under that name until 1874, 
when the name of the road was changed to the St. Louis, Iron Moun- 
tain and Southern, on account of the consolidation of the other roads 
with it. 

The Cairo, Arkansas and Texas, which was consolidated with the 
Iron Mountain and Southern in 1874, was an independent organization 
and was chartered May 16, 1872, with authority to build a line 
from Greenfield, opposite to Cairo, to Poplar Bluffs. This road had 
a grant of 65,000 acres of land. The Cairo and Fulton was also an in- 
dependent organization, incorporated in 1853. It had a grant of 
6,400 acres, which became the property of the St. Louis, Iron Moun- 
tain and Southern at the time of the consolidation. 

The St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern is justly regarded as one 
of the most important sections of road in the great South-Western 
system. It is a trunk line from St. Louis to Texas, and, by connec- 
tion with the Mexican National, soon to be completed, it will become 
the main line J:o the City of Mexico. At St. Louis it connects with 
the great Wabash System, which extends north-east to Chicago, to 
Toledo and to other points. At Toledo and at Detroit also, con- 
nection is made by the Wabash with the Canadian trunk lines and with 
leading lines to Philadelphia, New York, Boston, etc. The Iron 
Mountain opens up the magnificent mineral regions of Missouri, and 
passes diagonally through Arkansas, making the Great Arkansas 
Kiver Valley tributary to its traffic. It not only taps the cotton 
regions of Arkansas and the north-western parts of Louisiana and 
Mississippi, but also those of Texas, and, by the Texas Pacific, of 
the whole Red River Valley. 

The Texas Pacific, the longest line of the irreat South-Western 
System, being 1,487 miles long, or 101 miles longer than the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas, was organized under an act of Congress, approved 
March 8, 1871, and also under the general laws of Texas. It acquired 
the property of the Southern Pacific, the Southern Trans-Continen- 
tal, the Memphis, El Paso and Pacific, and the New Orleans Pacific. 
The Southern Pacific was a consolidation of the Vicksburg, Shreve- 
port and Texas, and the Southern Pacific. The building of the Texas 
Pacific was characterized by wonderful vigor and rapidity of con- 
struction. It is one of the new railroads of the country, but is 
rapidly becoming one of the great trunk lines of the Southwest. 
It now extends from New Orleans up the Red river to Shreveport 
and on through Texas by way of Ft. Worth to El Paso, in the 


extreme western corner of the Lone Star State, where it connects 
with the Southern Pacific for California. Also a branch from the 
main line extends from Marshall, in Harrison county, Texas, to the 
junction of the Iron Mountain, and from there to Whitesborough, 
on the line of the Missouri Pacific, in Northern Texas, or the ex- 
tension of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas ; and it has other branches, 
among the most important of which is the Ft. Worth and Dency, ex- 
tending from Ft, Worth, in the direction of Colorado, or toward the 
north-western Pan-Handle of Texas, being completed now as far as 
Wichita Falls, about 100 miles. This road, also, has a land grant 
which entitles it to 10,240 acres to the mile in Texas, under the 
laws of that State, and it has already had set apart to it over 10,- 
000,000 acres. 

The Central Branch of the Union Pacific, which now forms a part 
of the South-Western System, extends west from Atchison through the 
northern part of Kansas to Lenora, a distance of nearly 200 miles, 
which, with its branches, aggregates 388 miles, as stated above. This 
road was originally chartered on the 11th of February, 1859, under 
the name of the Atchison and Pike's Peak Railroad Company. A large 
part of the road was opened in 1867. It became a branch of the 
Union Pacific under one of the acts of Congress relating to that com- 
pany, and received a grant of 187,608 acres of land from the govern- 
ment and bonds, the latter at the rate of $416,000 per mile for 100 
miles. It became a part of the Missouri Pacific in 188 — . 

Although included in the lines already named, special attention 
should be called to the line of road in the South-Western System ex- 
tending from Joplin north to Kansas City and on up the Missouri 
river to Omaha. For, besides the value which the Joplin end of this 
line is to the system as a feeder, the Omaha extension is of great 
importance. This extension passes up to the Nebraska side of the 
river and gives a through line by the Missouri Pacific from Omaha to 
St. Louis, both for passengers and freight, without change of cars for 
the former or break of bulk of the latter. It also forms a part of a 
continuous line via Kansas City and Denison, Texas, from Omaha to 
either New Orleans or Galveston, or to Western Texas or Laredo, on 
the Rio Grande. In other words, it is a part of the greatest north- 
and-south line of railroads in the United States. At Omaha it con- 
nects with the Union Pacific, and makes the Missouri Pacific one of 
the important tributary lines to that great trunk-line across the 



The following tables will convey some idea of the financial and 
business condition of the roads included in the South-Western Sys- 
tem : — 

STOCKS. — 1883. 


Missouri Pacific, ( including exchanges for Iron Mountain 
stock whicli is lield as an investment) 

Missouri, Kansas and Texas, i Vv^'^vQk 

International and Great Northern 

St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern (which is owned by the 
Missouri Pacific, being acquired by an exchange of stock) . 

Central Branch of the Union Pacific 

Texas and Pacific 


$29,962,125 00 

46,405,000 00 

12,566 93 

9,755,000 00 

22,083,865 00 

32,161,900 00 

The Central Branch stock is included in that of the Union Pacific, 
the former road being operated by the South-Western System on ac- 
count of the Union Pacific. Hence the Central Branch stock is not 
given in the statement of the stock of the South-Western Svstem. 




Missouri Pacific 

Missouri, Kansas and Texas. 
International and Great Northern. . 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern. 
Central Branch of the Union Pacific. 
Texas and Pacific 



$26,895,000 00 
41,560,589 65 
15,008,000 00 
35,319,299 46 

41,714,000 00 

$160,496,889 11 

All the financial afiairs of the Central Branch are managed by the 
Union Pacific. 


Boads. . 


Missouri Pacific. 

Missoui-i, Kansas and Texas 

International and Great Northern (including the G. H. & H). . 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern 

$1,698,000 00 
2,481,660 00 
1,016,230 00 
2,180,840 00 

Texas and Pacific 

2,574,630 00 


$9,967,370 00 











•r <o 

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No. of tons of f'gt. car'd in 1881 

No. of tons of f'gt. car'd in 1882 

No. of tons of f'gt. car'd in 1883 

Increase of 1883 over 1882 






459 ,.536 











1940 m 
2533 m 
2390 m 





Deci'ease of 1883 " 1882 


803 m 
850 m 
133' m 

2326 m 
1773 m 
197 m 

2225 m 
2195 m 
2003 m 




Avei-age distance oarr'd in 1881 
Average distance carr'd in 1882 
Average distance carr'd in 1883 

1359 m 
125° m 
136" m 

1565 m 
1980 ni 
273" m 



No. of Passengers carr'd in 1881 
No. of Passengers carr'd in 1882 
No. of Passengers carr'd in 1883 




















57* m 
542 m 
495 m 

480 m 
44- m 

481 nj 




Average distance carr'd in 1882 
Average distance carr'd in 1883 




In the tables preceding this one the Galveston, Honston and Hender- 
son statements are included in the International and Great Northern, 
of which it is now a branch. 



Missouri Pacific 




$ 915,731 38 
4,978,465 38 

$ 4,175,266 00 

Missouri, Kansas and Texas. 




7,843,511 61 
4,646,503 66 

3,197,007 95 

International and Great Northern. 




3,435,968 71 
2,481,716 80 

954,251 91 

St. Louis, Iron Mount, and Southern. 




7,904,683 47 
4,214,563 85 

3,690,119 62 

Central Branch 




1,505,345 71 
830,173 01 

675,173 70 

Texas and Pacific 




7,045,652 38 
5,597,645 26 

1,648,007 12 

Total Surplus 

$14,339,826 30 













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These fucts show that the South- Western System is on a solid basis 
and is doins: a flourishino; business. The various bonds of the differ- 
ent roads are sought after in the markets as safe and remunerative in- 
vestments, and most of them are above par. The Texas and Pacifies 
are quoted at about 1.06, as an average, and the Missouri Pacifies range 
from 1.01 to 1.16, according to the issue to which they belong. The 
International and Great Northern (first mortgage) range from 1.05 to 
1,11, whilst the Missouri, Kansas and Texas consols (7s) sell from 1.04 
to 1.10. In 1882 the Missouri Pacific paid a dividend of 7 per cent. 
The figures of 1883 are not before us, but we feel safe in saying that 
so far as dividends are concerned the stockholders of the entire Sys- 
tem have every reason to congratulate themselves. 

In character of road-bed and equipments, as well as in every other 
particular, the South-Western System is without a superior in the 
West. Most of its main lines are laid with steel rails and, a large 
part of the System being composed of old roads, the road-beds have 
become settled and solid and, being kept in the best condition, the 
tracks are among the best west of the Mississippi and, indeed, 
throughout the whole country. The bridges of the System were 
invariably built for safety aud durability, without too close an esti- 
mate of the cost, and it is a fact that fewer accidents have occurred on 
the South-Western System from defective bridges than on any other 
large system of roads during the same period of time. The depots 
and buildings, and other local accommodations for traffic and travel, 
are of a superior class, and are fitted up with an eye less only to 
appearance than to comfort and service. The rolling stock is unsur- 
passed in the West. It has one of the finest stocks of passenger cars 
and sleepers, including reclining chair cars, in the Union. No ex- 
pense or pains are spared to make the journey of passengers both 
pleasant and expeditious. Run in connection with the Wabash System, 
the owners and managers of the two now being practically the same, 
the South-Western and the Wabash afford to the travel and traffic 
throughout the interior of the Union unrivaled facilities. All trains 
on both systems are rnn so as to make sharp connections with each 
other, thus making unnecessary delays or lay-overs hardly possible, 
from any fault of the road. Any point on the entire 10,000 miles of 
lines may be reached from any other point at the rate of from 20 to 
35 miles per hour, and without missing connections. Besides, these 
systems are run in connection with the Union Pacific system, and they 



also have advantao;eous runnino: arrangements with all the other lead- 
ing lines throughout the United States. 

As has been observed above, several of the roads included in the 
South- Western System have received valuable land grants from the 
Government and from some of the States in which the lines of the 
System are located. The following table shows the extent of these 
grants and the operations of the System with regard to the disposition 
of its lands during the last fiscal year : — 



St. Louis, 

1. M. &S. R'y. 


Kansas ^nd 



Missouri Div 

Arkansas Div 

Total number of acres originally 

granted and purchased . 





No. acres unsold Dec. 31, 1882. 





No. of acres sold during 1883. 





Average price per acre 1883. . 





No. acres unsold Dec. 31, 1883. 





Total amount of sales, including 

town lots, during 1883. . 

$ 78,280 81 

$ 15,700 


$ 195,988 31 

$ 646,006 59 

Cash received during 1883. , 

112,240 07 



171,879 68 

135,388 99 

Notes received during 1883. . 

54,118 48 



101,589 40 

173,328 72 

Gross receipts of Deparment 

since commencement. 

2,020,219 75 



1,145,457 62 

1,204,471 17 

Gross expenses of Department 

since commencement. 

1,128,935 47 




575,256 42 

Notes receivable, outstanding 

Dec. 31, 1883 

250,788 83 



701,554 21 

217,801 55 

By the above statement it is shown that the Texas and Pacific division 
has 4,729,042 acres of land still undisposed of. The St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain and Southern has 994,753 acres in Arkansas and 119,357 in 
Missouri, while all of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas lands are dis- 
posed of except 30,053. The following table shows the location of 
the lands of the Texas Pacific Railroad by counties and the number 
of acres in each county : — 












Ked River. 


Palo Pinto. 










Rains. .... 




Van Zandt. . 












Cooke. .... 












Tarrant .... 










Howard. . . 










Childress. . . • . 


i Motley. 






Kent. .... 


Tom Green. 






Andrews. . . • . 


Edwards, . 


Crockett, in S. E. Cor. . 




Pecos. .... 




El Paso. 


A large proportion of these counties are on or near the line of the 
Texas and Pacific Railway and other railways, and the lands therein are 
therefore afforded the advantag-e of o-ood railroad and market facilities. 
Many of them are near new and rapidly growing towns, which have 
generally been started within the past two or three years, or since the 
advent of the railroad in that section of the State. 

The lands of this Company range in price generally from $2.50 to 
$4.00 per acre, and are offered for sale on cash, five-year, and ten- 
year credit terms. The ten-year terms are one-tenth cash, and one- 
tenth annually, commencing the second year from date of purchase. 
The deferred payments bear interest at the rate of seven per cent 
per annum, which is payable annually. The five-year terms are one- 
fifth cash, and one-fifth annually, commencing the second year from 
date of purchase. The deferred payments bear interest at the rate 
of seven per cent per annum, which is payable annually. There is 
generally a difference of 30 percent between cash and ten-year terms, 
and 20 per cent between cash and five-year terms. When the lands 
are bought for cash, the Company issues its deed to the purchaser at 
once, but when bought on credit terms a contract of sale is issued, 
and for this contract a deed is substituted when final payment is made. 
More particular descriptions, as well as maps of many of these conn- 


ties, have been published by the Company, for free distribution, 
and can be had on application to W. H. Abrams, Land Commissioner, 
Texas and Pacific Railway, Dallas, Texas. 

The only satisfactory course for purchasers to pursue, is to come and 
see the country and make their own selections. The Company's land 
has been carefully examined, and in both the main office of the land 
department at Marshall, and at its branch office at Baird, can be found 
plats and descriptions of the land, which are open to the inspection of 
all inquirers. At both of these offices are experienced men, who are 
personally familiar with most of the lands, and will give any needed 
information. In nearly all counties in which the available lands of the 
Company are located, local agents have been appointed, who will 
cheerfully show lands and render purchasers every reasonable assist- 
ance in selecting homes. These accents are reliable men, furnished 

CO ' 

with plats and prices of all the lands in their vicinity, and will cheer- 
fully render all reasonable facilities to prospective purchasers. Their 
duty is to show the lands and state prices, and when a tract has 
been selected, to fill out the necessary application and attest the 
same. Blanks for such purpose have been furnished them. The 
applicant will then forward the application, with the necessary pay- 
ment, to W. H. Abrams, Land Commissioner, Dallas, Texas. Here 
all applications are subject to approval or rejection. All applications 
are approved if made on a basis of existing prices, unless the land 
applied for has been previously sold. If accepted, immediate ac- 
knowledgment is made, and the necessary title papers are furnished, 
as explained on the application blanks, with the least possible delay. 

Nature has been extremely lavish in making Texas one of the most 
varied in her products of all the States in the Union. Such is the 
adaptation of her soil and climate to the production of cotton — rank- 
ing in staple the finest in the world's markets — that one-fifth of her 
territory could produce an annual crop greater than is now gathered 
from all the cotton fields on the globe. 

The lands of this State are equally productive in the growth of all 
the cereals ; and the region especially adapted to the growth of 
wheat is larger than the great States of Missouri, Illinois and In- 
diana combined. Of the 168 organized counties, 68 are capable of 
producing 18 bushels to the acre, which is below the average pro- 
duct. The wheat of this State is drier, more dense, and the heaviest 
known, weighing from 64 to i^6 lbs. per bushel. 

Sea Island cotton grows well along the entire coast, and sugar-cane 
and rice thrive in all that part of the State south of the 30th parallel 


of north latitude. Corn, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, millet, castor- 
beans, broom corn and potatoes — both Irish and sweet — are raised 
in great abundance and perfection. Peaches, pears, apples, apri- 
cots, figs, pomegranates, strawberries and raspberries of the finest 
quality have been grown successfully wherever they have been tried. 
Grape-growing is destined to become an important industry ; the 
vines grow vigorously, and the fruit is large and delicious ; wild 
grapes of excellent quality grow in great profusion in all of our for- 

The soils of Texas are admirably adapted to the growth of nearly 
every kind of vegetable in use by man, and her climate and seasons 
admit of their beino; broug-ht into market both earlier and later than 
in any of the Middle or Northern States. 

According to the annual report of the Department of Agriculture 
for the year 1881, a year remarkable for its drouth, particularly so in 
Texas, it is shown that the value of farm crops per acre is much 
greater than in most other States and Territories of the Union. The 
following are the figures for eight staple crops : — 


Corn fU 78 Greater than in 8 other States and Territories. 

Wheat 17 78 " "29 " " " " 

Eye IG 80 " "35 " " " " 

Oats 16 35 " "34 " " " " 

Barley 17 37 " "20 " " " " 

Potatoes .... 39 20 " " 3 " " " " 

Tobacco .... 54 72 " " 20 " " " " 

Hay 13 75 " "11 " " " " 

Adding the prices per acre and dividing by the number of staples 
shows $23.47 to be the average value per acre of produce, exceeded 
only by Nevada and Colorado, where irrigation is necessary. In re- 
gard to the hay crop it must be stated that the cattle are on the range 
all year, very little hay being required for their maintenance ; but in 
sections where attention has been paid to the production of hay, large 
crops of the finest quality are easily produced. 

In accordance with the same authority, the average yield per acre 
and price per bushel, ton and pound, are greater in Texas than in the 
majority of States and Territories. 

Crop. yield. 

Corn 11.9 bushels greater than in 6 States. 

Wheat 12.7 " " " 26 " 

Rye 14 " " " 30 " 

Oats 26.8 " " " 17 " 

Barley 19.3 " " " 15 " 

Potatoes .40 " " " 8 " 

Tobacco .304 pounds " *' 18 " 

Hay 118 tons " " 25 " 



Corn . 
Rye . 
Oats . 
Hay . 

f 99 greater than in 24 States. 

1 40 



1 20 


61 ' 



90 * 



98 ' 



18 ' 


11 65 ' 



Owing to the great drouth of 1881, the crop fell far below the usual 
yield. The total yield, acreage and valuation, as compiled by the 
Department of Agriculture, are as follows ; — 


Corn . 
Rye . 
Oats . 
Hay . 




























The total value of the principal crops in Texas was estimated for 
the year 1881 at $43,982,661, which was more than was produced in 
any of 22 other States, though the cotton crop in the Southern States 
fell short over 1,000,000 bales, and corn, wheat, and other cereals 
were greatly reduced in their yield. 

For the year 1882, no complete statistics are before us. The es- 
timates however are as follows : Corn, from 20 to 40 bushels per acre ; 
wheat, from 12 to 28 bushels per acre ; oats, from 28 to 35 bushels ; 
potatoes, from 70 to 150 bushels per acre ; sweet potatoes, 100 to 200 
bushels ; tobacco, about 650 pounds per acre ; millet, two tons per 
acre ; cotton, three quarters to one and one-quarter bales ; sorghum, 
from 100 to 200 gallons per acre. 

The crops of corn, wheat, and cotton, raised during the year 1882, 
were enormous, as the following figures will show : Cotton, 1,280,000 
bales, estimated at $45 per bale, are worth $57,600,000. The corn 
crop was 98,000,000 bushels, valued at 40 cents per bushel, worth 
$38,200,000. Of wheat, 13,218,000 bushels were produced, valued 
at $13,000,000. The oat crop amounted to 30,000,000 bushels, valued 
at $14,000,000. 

It is estimated that 5,500,000 head of cattle are owned in Texas, 
valued at $137,500,000; horses and mules, 1,305,000, valued at 


$36,000,000. The number of sheep is Qstimated at 7,000,000, and 
valued at $17,500,000. 

Texas has increased in population and wealth with greater rapidity 
during the last ten years than any other State in the Union. Her 
population in 1850 was 212,000 ; in 1860, 600,000 ; in 1870, 818,000 ; 
in 1880, 1,654,480, an increase of over 100 per cent in the last ten 
years ; such has been the flow of immigration into Texas the past year 
that her present population is believed to number nearly 2,000,000. 
The tide of immigration into the State is immense, and there is every 
prospect that during the present it will exceed largely that of any pre- 
vious year. 

The taxable property of the State in 1850 was $51,000,000 ; in 1860, 
$294,000,000; in 1870, $174,000,000; in 1875, $275,000,000; 1880, 
in round numbers, $325,000,000, and at the present time largely in 
excess of $400,000,000. During the past few years the annual value 
of a few of her leading articles of export has been as follows : Cot- 
ton, $30,000,000; cattle, $6,000,000; hides, $1,800,000; wool, $1,- 
500,000 ; fruits and other exports, $3,000,000. By the last census, 
Texas ranks as the second wool-producing State in the Union. 

With the completion of the many new railroads in Texas, immense 
tracts of land have been made accessible and opened to settlement. 
Since 1876 an enormous current of immigration has poured into the 
State. Hundreds of new towns have sprung into existence, and 
thousands of new farms have been opened in places entirely uninhabited 
two or three years ago. 

One very decided advantage which Texas has over most of the other 
States in the Union, is that taxes are very low, and will continue so, 
as her present debt is comparatively small, and such wise provisions 
have been engrafted in her State Constitution as will efiectually pre- 
vent reckless running into debt, on account of either the State, her 
counties or cities, as have been witnessed in so many of the North- 
western States in the past few years. Most of these States now have 
similar constitutional provisions ; but, in most instances, they have 
been adopted after heavy debts have been contracted, while Texas, 
with the exception of a very few of her counties and cities, has been 
fortunate in that she has secured exemption before the burden has 
been placed upon her. There are but very few counties in Texas in 
which the levy for taxes of all kinds exceeds the rate of one per cent 
per annum on the total valuation, and this valuation in Texas, as in 
most other States, is seldom more than one-half or three-fourths of 
the actual value. In many counties in the State the total levy for 


the purposes of taxation does not exceed one-half of one per cent 
per annum. 

Article XIII., section 9, of the Constitution, provides that the 
State tax on property, exclusive of the tax necessary to pay the pub- 
lic debt, shall never exceed 50 cents on the $100 valuation (the levy 
at the present time is only 30 cents on the $100 valuation), and no 
county, city, or town shall levy more than one-half of said State tax, 
except for the payment of debts already incurred, and for the erec- 
tion of public buildings, not to exceed 50 cents on the $100 in any 
one year. 

The lands of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway in 
the State of Arkansas are situated on both sides of that road which 
runs diagonally from the north-east to the south-west corner of the 
State of Arkansas, crossing six navigable rivers, and running through 
many fine improved districts, having many thriving towns. 

These lands were selected more than twenty years ago, but were not 
salable until the completion of the railway. It presents the advan- 
tages of good climate, varied surface, different soils, high lands, bot- 
tom lands, many products, fine timber, good water, free range, rich 
mines, water power, choice of markets, and the conveniences of trans- 
portation. The streams are tributaries of the great Mississippi river. 
This grant is said to be in the middle of the country, because it is 
located between the southern and the northern tiers of States ; because 
there is fully as much of the wheat of the United States grown west 
of a line which passes north and south through this grant, as in the 
country east of it ; because a north and south line drawn very near 
the eastern limit of this land grant divides the population of the United 
States into two equal parts ; and because it is convenient to markets, 
and is the land grant nearest to old settlements. It is far enough 
West to have cheap and good land in abundance, while the South, the 
North and the East are not distant for commercial intercourse, either 
by rail or by water. Some do not wish a life too remote from the 
busy world ; this is the spot where easy terms are yet to be obtained 
for the homeseeker without traveling to the outer edge of civilization. 
This country offers inducements to honest and enterprising immigrants 
which cannot be equaled in any part of America. The dangers of pio- 
neer life are passed. Rail and river communication, the comforts of 
social life, mails, churches, schools are firmly established, and law and 
order prevail. 

The natural resources of Arkansas are of such nature that employ- 
ment can be had all the year round by those with limited means. 


Splendid forests of pine, white oak, ash, cypress, hickory, etc., cover 
many portions of the State, and are located convenient to Kansas, 
Nebraska and other States which have no timber, and must be sup- 
plied from this source. Hundreds of saw-mills and wood-working 
establishments are already in operation, and many more are being 
erected. Mines of silver, iron, lead and zinc of various qualities are 
being opened in different parts of the State. Coal is found in various 
places. Quarries of granite and sandstone are worked, and porphyry, 
banks of clay, kaolin, ochres and white sand for the manufacture of 
glass and queen's-ware are available. Water powers may be obtained 
easily, and many towns will be brought into existence and will afford 
great increase of values to people who will combine to pursue branches 
of manufactures in such locations. 

All the raw materials for manufacturing and fuel and water are 
abundant in Arkansas. Three thousand miles of navigable water, and 
railways running in every direction, enable this State to manufacture 
everything that can be needed for home consumption, and markets for 
everything that can be grown or manufactured are convenient. The 
elevation of the high land is about 1,000 feet above the level of the 
sea, and the highest points attain greater altitude. In these districts 
of the Ozark range of hills, consumptive and other invalids have 
relief and extension of life. The atmosphere is most excellent, and 
not so rarefied as to be severe on delicate organizations. 

A milder and more equable climate than that of Arkansas can not 
be found anywhere. The summer is of longer duration than in Mich- 
igan or Manitoba, and but rarely will the heat be as great in Arkansas 
in summer as it is in Nebraska, Michigan, Minnesota, Manitoba, or 
any part of Canada during July and August. Cases of sunstroke are 
rarely heard of in Arkansas, but are very common in all the Northern 
States. Here gentle breezes* are blowing night and day. The nights 
are cool in the midst of summer, and the farmer wakes up refreshed 
in the morning, ready for his day's work. 

The winters are short and mild, enabling the people to work in the 
open air nearly every day in the year. Snow falls but rarely, and 
remains on the ground not longer than a day or two. Lung diseases^ 
throat diseases, chronic colds, rheumatism and diseases caused by 
climatic influences, are of rare occurrence. Thousands of cases of 
chronic diseases caught in the Northern States have been permanently 
cured by the health-giving waters at Hot Springs, Warm Springs, 
Searcy, White Sulphur Springs, Ravenden Springs, and the many other 
health resorts of Arkansas. 


The soils are of various kinds, such as black sandy loams, clayey 
loams, and sandy and clayey mixtures of different combinations in the 
lower lands, all very productive and well adapted for corn, cotton and 
general farm products. In the upland flats and hills the soils are 
similar, not quite so rich, but splendidly adapted for fruit and grape 
growing and cereals. In some parts of the State black, waxy°land 
of surprising fertility is found, changing into red lands of equal fruit- 
fulness. The prairie land is located mostly along the Memphis and 
Little Rock Railway, but the greater portion of the State is covered 
with timber. In our strong soils and good climate small spaces grow 
great crops, and as they are planted early and the frost is late, well 
applied industry will cause surprising results, and a succession of crops 
may be produced upon the same ground in one year. This region, 
devoted to many crops, can produce everything for its own u.^e at 
home, and needs to import nothing. 

The wheat produced here is considered the best carried to St. Louis. 
Proofs displayed at the Centennial Exposition, and at other exposi- 
tions and fairs, have secured great favor among the people, and 
voluntary mention from many newspapers. The corn and cotton 
taking the highest premium at the Atlanta Exposition were grown in 
Arkansas. The cotton crop is always certain, always salable, and 
does not injure by keeping or in transportation. A small per centum 
of Its value takes it to a market, which can always be found at the 
nearest town or steamboat landino-. 

Root crops, melons, peas, beans, potatoes, and other like veo-etables 
are grown successfully in all respects. The grains and grasses are 
produced very profitably without much labor. Tobacco is grown 
with remarkable success, and is now become another great source of 
prosperity. Well authenticated experiments have fully proved the 
red uplands — so closely resembling the red soil of cJba — capable 
of producing a fine quality cigar leaf. By first-class cultivation in the 
bottom lands, on natural soils, without fertilizers, there can be raised 
per acre, from 60 to 80 bushels of corn, 15 to 30 bushels of wheat, 40 
to 100 bushels of oats, 1,200 pounds of tobacco, 75 bushels of pea- 
nuts, 200 bushels of sweet potatoes, more than one bale of good 
cotton. Grass grows abundantly, and hay is excellent. Cotton is- 
grown here as a regular crop. Arkansas produces wheat equal to the 
best in the world. Where wheat and cotton flourish and the peach, 
crop rarely fails, the moderation of the climate is assured. Great 
tracts of beautiful and useful timber convince one of fertility. These 
rich bottoms are as productive as the Delta of Egypt, and farms 


worked for many years without the application of fertilizers are yet 
rich and profitable. The country has the highest record for the best 
wheat in tlie world. The boasting made by other States is about the 
great number of acres producing wheat. 

Both in Missouri and Arkansas the Iron Mountain Railroad lands are 
sold from $2.50 upwards, with a general average of from $3 to $5 per 
acre for good farming land. The terms of sale are as follows : — 

1st. When one-sixth of the purchase money is paid down, a dis- 
count of 8 per cent from the old approved prices. 

2d. When one-fourth of the purchase money is paid down, a discount 
of 16 per cent ; and 

3d. When all the purchase money is paid down, a discount of 25 
per cent. 

To those purchasing land of the company a rebate of 33V3 per 
cent on freight paid on the immigrant's movables over its line will 
be allowed. To settlers purchasing land adjoining that of the com- 
pany a rebate of 20 per cent. Proof of purchase and settlement 
must be made to the Land Commissioner, at Little Rock, within ninety 
days, accompanied by receipted freight bill. To those purchasing 80 
acres of land from the company, and paying one-fourth cash, one-half 
the purchaser's fare ; and to those purchasing 40 acres, and paying all 
cash, the whole of the purchaser's fare paid over its line, will be 
deducted from amount of purchase money. 

Terms No. 1. At time of purchase, and in the year following the 
payment, is 6 per cent interest on principal ; and in the third and 
each year thereafter, one-ninth of the principal, with 6 per cent 
interest on the remainder until all is paid, giving a credit of 10 years. 

Terms No. 2. At time of purchase and in each year thereafter, one- 
sixth of the principal and one year's interest on the remainder, at the 
rate of 6 per cent per annum until all is paid, giving a credit of 5 
years on deferred payments. 

Terms No. 3. At time of purchase, and in each year thereafter, 
one-fourth of the principal and one year's interest on the remainder, 
at the rate of 6 per cent per annum until all is paid, giving a credit 
of 3 years. 

Terms No. 4. The whole purchase money down at time of purchase, 
and deed given to purchaser. 

Arkansas is increasing in population with wonderful rapidity. From 
1860 to 1870, on account of the war, it increased but 11.2 per cent, 
but from' 1870 to 1880 it increased 65.6 per cent, and now has 
1,000,000 inhabitants, its rate of increase being surpassed by few 


States in the Union. It has an area of 34,464,000 acres and is des- 
tined to become one of the great States of the West. Its lands are 
advancing in value with unprecedented strides. The department of 
the Iron Mountain Road reports that in a single year, 1<S83, its lands 
advanced in value no less than 40 per cent, or rather that their sales 
showed an increase of price per acre of 40 per cent over the price of 
1882. In 1870 it produced 117,784,800 pounds of cotton ; but in 
1882 it produced 315,100,000. So the increase in the corn produc- 
tion is hardly less remarkable. In 1870 it was 13,382,145 bushels ; 
but in 1882 it was 34,485,000. The crops of wheat show a steady 
and substantial increase. In 1883 it aggregated 1,416,400 bushels. 
Of oats there was produced in 1870 528,777 bushels, and .in 1882 
3,131,500. In 1870 there were but 265 miles of railway ; but on the 
1st of May, 1883, there were 1,747 miles. Of merchantable timber 
standing in the different States of the Union in 1880, Arkansas sur- 
passed even Michigan and Wisconsin, having 41,315,000,000 feet. 
So in almost every other measure of natural wealth and of progress 
Arkansas stands among the foremost States of the West and South. 
Surely when the best lands in such a State can be bought for $2 or 
$3 an acre on small cash payments, long time and low interest, lands 
that are advancing in value 40 per cent annually, as shown by official 
reports, why should one ask or desire a better investment? The lands 
of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern, in Missouri, are equally 
as desirable as those in Arkansas, and may be had on the same 

We have now reviewed briefly the history of the great South- West- 
ern System, including that of the several roads of which it is com- 
posed, as well as their location and mileage, their business and financial 
condition, their land grants and so forth. The various lines of this 
magnificent system palmate a region of country which includes more 
than a fourth of the entire Union — the great Southwest, one of the 
fairest and most fertile regions on the continent. The advantage to a 
county from being situated on such a system of railways cannot be 
overestimated. It places such county at once on the great lines of 
traffic and travel throughout a vast section of the country and, by the 
connections of the railway system on M'hich it is situated, gives the 
county ingress and egress into and out of all railroad points, from the 
frozen regions of the North to the perennial flower-lands of the Monte- 
zumas, and from the quays of New York to the golden coast of the 
Pacific. It brings the same currents of civilization that course through 
the most favored communities through all the counties and localities 


•which it penetrates, and gives Missouri equal advantages with those 
of the oldest States in the race of development and prosperity. Ideas 
and efibrts are thus given the same opportunities to assert themselves » 
wherever the track of the railway is laid. 

The following are the general officers of the South- Western Sys- 
tem : — 

Jay Gould, President, New York City. 

R. S. Hayes, First Vice-President, St. Louis, Mo. 

A. L. Hopkins, Second Vice-President, New York City. . 

H. M. Hoxie, Third Vice-President, St. Louis, Mo. 

A. A. Talmage, Fourth Vice-President, St. Louis, Mo. 

D. S. H. Smith, Fifth Vice-President and Local Treasurer, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

A. H. Calef, Secretary and Treasurer, New York City. 

John C. Brown, General Solicitor, St. Louis, Mo. 

James F. How, Assistant Secretary, St. Louis, Mo. 

C. G. Warner, General Auditor, St. Louis, Mo. 

George Olds, General Traffic Manager, St. Louis, Mo. 

W. H. Newman, Traffic Manager Lines South of Texarkana and 
Denison, Galveston, Tex. 

G. W. Lilley, Freight Traffic Manager Lines North of Texarkana 
and Denison and Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific System, St. Louis, 

E. Andrews, Consulting Engineer, St. Louis, Mo. 

H. C. Townsend, General Passenger Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 

F. Chandler, General Ticket Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 

Like the Wabash System, the great South- Western has been built 
up of fragmentary roads situated here and there, each running inde- 
pendently, with little or no profit to itself, and to the great incon- 
venience of business and travel. But at last a master mind appeared 
on the scene and brought order and system out of chaos. As Byron 
says of the sailor, — 

" Once more upon the waters! yet once more ! 
And the waves bound beneath me as a steed 
That knows his rider," — 

SO the great railroad manager of modern times took hold of the 
roads now composing this splendid system and in a short time, they 
became successful roads and valuable members of the finest system 
of railroads on the continent. The name of this "man it is unneces- 
sary to mention, for he is known as well without being named as is 
the great Captain of the age. A man of transcendant ability himself, 


he had the insight and wisdom to discover and call around him to 
aid him in his work associates worthy to share with him the great 
achievements he and they have accomplished. No history of the 
great South-Western and the Wabash Systems would be complete 
which failed to reflect something of the lives and characters of the men 
who have been identified with, and instrumental in building up those 
great railway enterprises. In the sketch of the Wabash System, 
which follows this, will be found short biographical notices of several 
of the leading men connected with that road, including Mr. Gould, 
Capt. Hayes, Col. Hoxie, Col. Howe, Col. Blodgett, Mr. Townsend 
and others, most of whom are, and have long been, identified with 
the South-Western System. But prominent among those identified 
with the latter system are Mr. Talmage and Gov. Brown, and for 
that reason short sketches of their lives are given here. It should 
be remarked, however, that other officials are hardly less worthy of 
mention, which would certainly be made but for the want of data from 
which to prepare sketches. This will be attended to afterwards. 


The practical operation of the great South-Western System is con- 
fided to the experienced and skillful hand of the Fourth Vice-President, 
Mr. Talmage. Archibald Alexander Talmage was born in Warren 
county. New Jersey, April 25, 1834. His father, an Englishman by de- 
scent, was pastor of a Presbyterian congregation, and was assisted in 
his responsible duties by a noble wife, in whose veins flowed some of 
the purest blood of Scotland. Born under these favorable auspices, he 
enjoyed every opportunity for acquiring a sound rudimentary educa- 
tion, and improved his advantages so well that at the comparatively 
early age of 15 he had passed through the curriculum of the high 
school and the academy with more than usual credit. Desiring to be 
independent, he then left home and spent three years in a country 
store at Goshen, New York, where he became somewhat familiar with 
the routine of general business and obtained his first glimpse of active 
commercial life. The lessons learned in this capacity no doubt proved 
invaluable in molding the future character of the man and in giving 
him habits of method and organization, which qualified him in an emi- 
nent degree for performing the duties of freight clerk in the freight 
department of the New York and Erie Railway, on which he entered 
when 18 years of age, and where he remained for one year, display- 
ing during that brief period a precocious talent and an adaptability 


for railroad work which were highly satisfactory to his superiors. He 
next spent some months in a wholesale hardware establishment in New 
York City, but the business hardly suited him, and in 1853 he re- 
moved to Chicago and obtained employment with the Michigan South- 
ern Railroad as freight clerk. Within 60 days, however, he was 
transferred to Monroe, Michigan, and soon after to Toledo, Ohio, 
where he remained until August, 1858, during the last two years in 
the responsible position of train-master, directing all trains on the 
Toledo Division ot' the road, and having charge of all employes at 
that point. 

In his 25th year he removed to St. Louis and engaged as passenger 
conductor on the Terre Haute and Alton Railroad, displaying the 
same force of character, the same energy, and the same ready tact 
which characterize his present management, and his superior abilities 
in the transportation department being generally conceded by all with 
whom he was brought in contact. In April, 1864, he was appointed 
assistant superintendent of the road between East St. Louis and Terre 
Haute, and infused into the management new energy and method. 
But, in consequence of a want of harmony between himself and his 
chief, he resigned in October, 1864, and accepted a position as master 
of transportation of the military roads controlled by the United States 
government east and south of Chattanooga. Within 30 days he 
was appointed superintendent of the same lines, and remained in ab- 
solute charge of them until, at the close of the war, the government 
turned them over to the civil authorities. He was then appointed 
general superintendent of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, 
and remained busily engaged in its reorganization and reconstruction 
until the fall of 1868, when he was invited by Mr. Herkimer, general 
superintendent of the Indianapolis and St. Louis Railway Company 
(which had leased the Terre Haute and Alton Railroad), to resume the 
assistant superintendency, which he had resigned in October, 1864. 
Here he displayed such marked ability that in October, 1870, he was 
appointed Mr. Herkimer's successor, the late Col. Thomas A. Scott 
asserting that "A. A. Talmajje was the best railroad manager in the 
West." In this position his abilities became more wjdely known and 
recognized, and hence it was not surprising that in March, 1871, he 
was requested to transfer his sphere of operations to the west side of 
the Mississippi river, and to become general superintendent of what 
was then known as the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, running from 
Pacific to Vinita. In December of the same year the general super- 


intendence of the Missouri Pacific was intrusted to him, and for a 
period of over 11 years, with the exeeption of a few months in 1876, 
he has remained in active charge of what may be truly considered the 
most valuable railroad property west of the Mississippi river. In this 
position he enjoys the implicit confidence of those who are recognized 
as being among the shrewdest and most far-seeing railway managers 
in the United States. His retention in so responsible a position as 
that of general transportation manager of the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way and its comprehensive system, covering about 6,000 miles of 
railway, for so long a period, is the best possible evidence of his suc- 
cess. He certainly occupies a foremost place among those truly great 
and public-spirited men who have been instrumental in building up 
that unrivaled transportation system west of the Mississippi river. 
There can be no question as to the indomitable energy, versatility and 
executive ability of one who, in the prime of physical and mental 
strength, has raised himself to a standard of influence incomparably 
superior to that which is occupied by any operating executive officer 
in the Western States. March 1, 1884, he was appointed Fourth Vice- 
President and his jurisdiction was extended to include the Wabash 
System, his success with the Missouri Pacific having been so great that 
he was called to take charge of the Wabash. He now has more miles 
of road under his management than any other general manager on the 

In 1868 Mr. Talmage was married to Miss Mary R. Clark, the 
accomplished daughter of the Rev. James Clark, D.D., of Philadel- 
•phia, Pennsylvania. The Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, D.D., the bril- 
liant pulpit orator of Brooklyn, New York, is his cousin. 


Gov. Brown was born January 6, 1827, in Giles county, Tennessee, 
and was the son of a farmer in moderate circumstances. His parents 
were of Scotch blood, and he was the youngest of nine children. He 
received his earliest training in the old-field school-house of that day, 
and later received the best education which the times afforded, at 
Jackson College, in Columbia, Tenn. He finished his course in 1846, 
and then engaged in teaching, while preparing for the bar, to which 
he was admitted in October, 1848. He opened an office in Pulaski, 
where his diligence, integrity and ability secured him a large and lucra- 
tive practice, to which he mainly devoted himself until the Civil War. 
His devotion to his profession did not interrupt his private studies of 


general literature, and having the means and the leisure, he supple- 
mented his studies with a journey abroad in 1858-59, visiting the 
country of his forefathers, and then making the tour of the continent, 
Egypt and the Holy Land. 

Up to 1860, Mr. Brown had strictly devoted himself to his pro- 
fession. He never sought office, and although a zealous and pro- 
nounced Whig, avoided politics as a pursuit. In 1860, however, he 
was chosen an elector on the Bell and Everett or Constitutional Union 
ticket. As a consequence of Mr. Lincoln's election, the Southern 
States determined to secede from the Union. The State of Tennessee 
was in a condition of intense political excitement, during which Mr. 
Brown took the stump, and made a vigorous and fearless canvass in 
favor of the Union and in opposition to secession. But when the 
proclamation of President Lincoln required the State of Tennessee, 
in common with other States, to furnish her quota of troops for the 
coersion of the seceding States, John C. Brown, with the great body 
of citizens of his State, felt that they owed it to their duty and their 
manhood to refuse to yield obedience to the call of the Government, 
which sought to compel them to bear arms against their brothers and 
their own blood. When Tennessee separated herself from the Union, 
and began organizing her troops lor the Confederacy, as a son of the 
South, Gov. Brown did not hesitate, but joined the Confederate army as 
a private, was elected captain of his company, and became colonel of the 
Third Tennessee volunteers ; and as senior colonel he commanded a 
brigade, and participated in the defense of Fort Donelson. When the 
fort surrendered, he l)ecame a prisoner of war. After his exchange in 
August, 1862, he was promoted to be brigadier-general, and was assigned 
to duty with Gen. Braxton Bragg. In the campaign in Kentucky, he 
participated in the battle of Perryville and other actions. After the 
battle of Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge, and the. actions incident 
to Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's retreat (in all of which he participated), 
he was promoted major-general. He finished his active military 
career at Franklin, Tenn., where he was so severely wounded as to 
be unable to rejoin his command until a short time before the 
surrender of Joiinston's army at Greensboro', N. C, where he was 
assigned to the command of one of Johnston's best divisions. In his 
relations with the army, he was a strict disciplinarian, and always at 
the post of duty. No trespassing on private property was tolerated, 
and marauding was severely and promptly punished. He was several 
times severely wounded. In 1864 he was married to Miss Childers, 


an accomplished lady of Miirfreesboro, Teun., and a niece of Mrs. 
James K. Polk, widow of the ex-President. Mrs. Brown has contri- 
buted a woman's share in promoting her husband's fortunes, and has 
borne him an interesting family of children. At the close of the war, 
Gov. Brown returned to the practice of his profession at Pulaski, and 
continued in full practice till 1869, when he was elected delegate to 
the convention and later president of that body which, in Ja'iiuary, 
1870, met and passed the present Constitution of Tennessee. In 1870, 
he was unanimously nominated by the Democrats of Tennessee for 
Governor. The issues in this canvass were of a character that seriously 
affected the honor and prosperity of Tennessee. The war had greatly 
wasted the resources of the State. An enormous public debt had 
accumulated, and deftiult had been made in payment of interest. The 
public credit was low and the resources for current expenses almost 
exhausted. Gov. Brown took the statesmanlike ground that the public 
debt could be and must be paid. He was elected by 40,000 majority 
to the office of governor — an office to which his eldest brother, Neill 
S. Brown, now of Nashville, had been chosen, in 1847, over Aaron B. 
Brown, one of the most popular Democrats of his day. The influence 
of Neill S. Brown, who was a central figure in State and National 
politics, was sensibly felt in the Presidential campaign, which resulted 
in the election of Gen. Taylor, and Mr. Brown was subsequently 
tendered the post of minister to Russia, which he accepted. 

In 1872, Gov. John C. Brown was unanimously re-elected, and 
during his administration (1871-5) the bonded debt of the State Avas 
reduced from about $43,000,000 to a little more than $20,000,000, a 
large floating debt was paid, and the State re-established its credit by 
resuming the payment of current interest after funding its past- 
due obligations at par. He retired from office, having won the general 
approval of the people of the State. In November, 1^76, a new career 
opened to him with the office of the Vice-Presidency of the Texas 
and Pacific Railway. This great highway from the Atlantic seaboard, 
through Texas and Mexico to California, a route unexposed to snows 
and frosts, was projected before the war. Such a system of rail- 
ways, connecting the Mississippi Avith the Pacific slope, was intended 
to attract the trade of California and the trans-Cordilleras to the great 
water-ways of the United States, and, at the same time, open a too 
long neglected commerce of the Republic of Mexico to our enterprising 
merchants. This Texas route, south of the isothermal line of snow 
blockades, had been projected, a small part of it built, and valuable 


franchises secured, before the war. An immense grant of hmd from 
the State of Texas, which owned her own public domain, had been 
secured, and favorable treaties with Mexico for the right-of-way were 
in progress of negotiation, when the secession of the Southern States 
stopped the work. When the war was ended, the Southern States 
found their Mississippi river commerce destroyed, and their great 
trans-continental railway still a scheme upon paper, while the North and 
West had made rapid progress in building the Northern and Central 
Pacific Railroad towards the Pacific slope. 

Gov. Brown accepted the office of the Vice-Presidency of the 
Texas Pacific with the enlightened views of the statesman and pub- 
licist. He clearly saw, if the South was to have her ante-bellum river 
traffic, there was in the projected railway through Texas and Mexico, 
with its liberal franchises and its landed subsidies, a ready means of 
reaching the trade of California and the sister Republic, and he entered 
heartily into the project. As Vice-President of the company he issued 
an appeal to the people of the South, elaborating his views in relation 
to the enterprise in a statesmanlike, sagacious and practical pamphlet, 
which deserve a leading place in the railway literature of a period that 
was prolific of great enterprises. He also delivered numerous ad- 
dresses in which he appealed to the people of the South to lay aside 
all questions of sectional strife and urged them to address all their 
eflforts to the improvement of their country, the fostering of educa- 
tion and the creation of wealth-producing facilities. For three years 
he remained at Washington, appearing before congressional commit- 
tees and pressing upon them the claims of this great work. His labors 
were onerous and difficult, but owing to the opposition of rival inter- 
ests they were not fully successful. Nevertheless, he performed them 
to the eminent satisfaction of Col. Thomas A. Scott and the capital- 
ists who were interested in the enterprise and who, pending the ap[)eal 
to Congress, had gone on with the work. Ultimately Gov. Brown 
was authorized by Col. Scott to go on to New York and effect negoti- 
ations which had been invited by Jay Gould and other capitalists. 
These negotiations were satisfactorily accomplished in January, 1880. 
Gov. Brown was then continued in his confidential position and 
in September, 1881, accepted the position of General Solicitor for 
the consolidated system Avhich includes the Missouri Pacific Railway, 
the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway, the Iron Mountain, the Texas 
Pacific, the New Orleans and Pacific and the International and Great 
Northern. He continued to have superintendence of the construction 


of the Texas Pacific from Fort Worth to El Paso, with head- 
quarters at St. Louis, until the line was completed in the winter of 

Gov. Brown's identification with the interests of St. Louis was 
heartily welcomed' His knowledge of the law and his abilities as a 
speaker, trained in the sharp school of exciting debate and in the 
calmer method of inquiry, his experience in the command of men and 
in the management of the most important affiiirs, his careful examina- 
tion and knowledge of the carrying trade and its auxiliary interest, 
eminently combine to fit him for leadership in the gigantic schemes 
that are radiating from St. Louis into the undeveloped regions of the 
Great Southwest. 


Various railroad enterprises were discussed and advocated in this 
State as early as 1835, and two years afterwards charters were granted 
by the Legislature to the St. Louis and Bellevue Mineral, and the 
Louisiana and Columbia Railroad Companies. These were after- 
wards merged into the charters of the Iron Mountain and Hannibal 
and St. Joe Companies. After the close of the Mexican War, the 
building of a railroad to the Pacific coast began to be agitated, and 
the people of Missouri, and particularly of St. Louis, were among 
the first to advocate the enterprise. The policy of St.. Louis was to 
build three grand trunk lines from that city, one directly west up the 
Missouri into Kansas and to the Pacific ; another toward Arkansas 
and the South-west ; and the third towards Iowa and the great North- 
west. For these roads charters were granted by the Legislature, and 
they ultimately became the Missouri Pacific, the Iron Mountain and 
the North Missouri, respectively. 

The North Missouri Railroad was chartered on the 1st of March, 
1851. The compan}' was authorized to build, equip and operate a 
railroad from St. Louis via St. Charles, thence on the dividing ridge 
between the Missouri and Mississippi rivers through this State to the 
Iowa line and in the direction of Des Moines. The road was com- 
pleted to St. Charles in August, 1855 ; to Warrenton in August, 
1857 ; to Mexico in May, 1858 ; to Moberly in November of the same 
year; and to Macon in February, 1859. 

The St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railway Comj)any w^as 
organized under the general laws of Missouri, and in 1872 became 


the owner by purchase of the old North Missouri Railrocad. Financial 
embarrassments having overtaken the North Missouri in 1871, it was 
sold out under foreclosure, and M. J. Jessup, of New York, became 
its purchaser. In February of the following year he sold it, as stated 
above, to the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Company. This 
company operated the road with marked ability and success until the 
7th of November, 1879, when it consolidated with the Wabash Rail- 
way Company east of the Mississippi, forming the present Wabash, 
St. Louis and Pacific Railway, the third largest system of roads in the 
United States. 

This company owns and operates in Randolph county, including the 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas, about 64 miles of road. 

At the time the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad was con- 
structed, the individual and county subscriptions to it amounted to 
$175,000. This amount was jiaid within four years after the sub- 
scription had been made. 

As has been said, the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway is the 
product of the consolidation of the old Wabash east of the Missis- 
sippi, and the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern. The general 
offices of the consolidated road are at St. Louis. Of these mention 
will be made further alons;. For convenience of manao-ement the 
road is divided into two o-rand divisions known as the " Western 
Division " and the " Eastern Division." The former, being that part 
west of the Mississippi, aggregates over 1,300 miles ; the latter, that 
part east of the river, on the old Wabash Railway, has a total mileage 
of over 2,300 miles. 

The old Wabash Railway originated in the Toledo and Illinois Rail- 
way, which was organized April 25, 1853, under the laws of Ohio, 
authorizing the company to construct and operate a road from Toledo 
to the western boundary of that State. On the 19th of August, 
following, the Lake Erie, Wabash and St. Louis Railroad Company 
-vas organized under the laws of Indiana to build a road from the east 
line of the State through the valleys of the Little river and Wabash 
river, to the west line of the State in the direction of Danville, Illinois. 
The road from Toledo throu2:h Ohio and Indiana was constructed 
under these two charters. On the 25th of June, 1856, the two com- 
panies were consolidated under the name of the Toledo, Wabash 
and Western Railroad Company. This organization having become 
financially embarrassed in the panic of 1857, its property was sold 
in October, 1858, under foreclosure of mortgage and purchased by 


Ozariah Boody, who conveyed it to two new companies under the 
names, respectively, of the Toledo and Wabash, of Ohio, and the 
Wabash and Western, of Indiana, the two being consolidated October 
7, 1858, under the style of the Toledo and Wabash Railroad Company. 
This company operated the road through the States of Ohio, Indiana 
and Illinois, until 1865, when all interests between Toledo and the 
Mississippi river at Quincy and Hamilton were consolidated under 
an agreement between the Toledo and Wabash, the Great Western, of 
Illinois, the Quincy and Toledo, and the Illinois and Southern Iowa 
Railroad Companies, under the name of the Toledo, Wabash and West- 
ern Railroad Company. The Great Western Railroad Company of 
this combination was organized in 1859, and its road extended from 
the Indiana State line to Meredosia in Illinois, with a branch from 
Bluff City to Naples. The road from Meredosia to Camp Point was 
owned by the Quincy and Toledo Company, and the road from Clay- 
ton, Illinois, to Carthage, Indiana, was owned by the Illinois and 
Southern Iowa Company. 

In 1870 the Decatur and East St. Louis Railroad Company con- 
structed and equipped a road between Decatur and East St. Louis, 
which in the same year came under the management of the Toledo, 
Wabash and Western Railroad Company, and in 1871 this road was 
opened to St. Louis. The Hannibal and Naples Railroad, including 
its branch from Pittsfield to Maysfield, was leased to the Toledo, 
Wabash and Western Company in 1870, and the following year the 
same company obtained control of the Pekin, Lincoln and Decatur 
Railroad. In' 1872 the Lafayette and Bloomington was added to 
the lines of the Toledo, Wabash and Western. But in 1874, when so 
many railroads were forced to the wall by the stringency in the money 
market, the Toledo, Wabash and Western was forced to go into the 
hands of a receiver, and John D. Coe was appointed by the court to 
conduct the affairs of the road. He retained control of it until 1877 
when a reorganization was effected under the style of the Wabash, 
Railway Company. While the road was in the hands of the receiver 
the leases of the Pekin, Lincoln and Decatur, and the Lafayette and 
Bloomington Railroads were set aside as well as that of the Quincy 
bridge, which it had previously secured. In 1879 the Edwardsville 
branch passed under the control of the Wabash, and in 1879 the con- 
solidation between the Wabash and the Kansas City and Northern was 
effected, as stated above. 

The capital stock of the consolidated company — the Wabash, St. 

324 HISTORY or Randolph county. 

Louis and Pacific — was $40,000,000, and in addition to this it had 
an indebtedness of $35,469,550, making the capital and bonded debt 
of the company $75,464,550. The present system includes twenty- 
one originally distinct and independent lines of road. Previous to 
the consolidation the Wabash proper extended from Toledo to St. 
Louis, Hannibal, Quincy and Keokuk, with a branch from Logans- 
port to Butler, Indiana, or a total length of 782 miles. But by the 
consolidation these roads were united with the St. Louis, Kansas City 
and Northern and its branches, which gave the new company a 
through line from Toledo to Kansas City, St. Joseph and Omaha, 
making the total at that time 1,551 miles. The same year of the con- 
solidation entrance was made into Chicago by its purchase of the 
Chicago and Paducah, extending from Effingham and Altamont to 
Chester, Illinois, and by the construction of a branch from Strawu, 
ninety-six miles northward. Subsequent acquisitions were the Toledo, 
Peoria and Warsaw, a distance of 246 miles, and before the close of 
the year the Quincy, Missouri and Pacific, the Champaign, Havana 
and Western, the Missouri, Iowa and Nebraska, and the Centreville, 
Moravia and Albia, all connecting at different points with the main line. 
On the 1st of January, 1881, the system embraced 2, 479 miles of 

The lines built and acquired during the year 1881, were the Detroit, 
and Butler, an extension of the Logansport and Butler division to the 
city of Detroit, 113 miles; the Indianapolis, Pennsylvania and Chi- 
cago, 161 miles in length ; the Cairo and Vincennes, the Danville and 
South-western, the Quincy, Missouri Pacific, the Des Moines, North- 
western, and the Attica and Covington, making the total mileage at 
the close of the year 3,'384 miles. The Butler and Detroit roads, 
in connection Avith the Toledo, Peoria and Warsaw, completed the 
second independent trunk line of the system from the Mississippi river 
to Lake Erie, besides securing new and important connections upon 
its entrance into Detroit. 

In 1872 several extensions and branches were finished, the most 
important of which were the Shenandoah and the Des Moines divis- 
ions. The former continued the Detroit trunk line from the Missis- 
sippi to the Missouri. The latter, which now extends to Spirit Lake, 
in the north-western part of Iowa, opened up that great State to the 
traffic of the Wabash System. The total length of the system in 
1882 was 3,670 miles, as follows : — 




Toledo to St. Louis 

Decatur to Quincy 

Bluffs, Illinois, to Hannibal, Missouri . 

Maysville, Illinois, to Pittsfield, Illinois 

Clayton, Illinois, to Keokuk, Iowa 

Logansport, Indiana, to Detroit, Michigan . 

Edwardsville, Illinois, to Edwardsville Crossing, Illinois 

Indianapolis, Indiana, to Michigan City, Indiana 

Havana, Illinois, to Springfield, Illinois 

West Lebanon, Indiana, to Le Roy, Illinois 

Vincennes, Indiana, to Cairo, Illinois . 

Danville, Illinois, to Francisville, Indiana 

HoUis, Illinois, to Jacksonville, Illinois 

Toledo, Ohio, to Milan, Michigan 

Attica, Indiana, to Covington, Indiana 

State Line, Indiana, to Buckington, Iowa 

La Harpe, Illinois, to Elveston, Illinois 

Hamilton, Illinois, to Warsaw, Illinois 

Chicago, Illinois, to Altamont, Illinois 

Streator, Illinois, to Streator Junction, Illinois 

Shumway, Illinois, to Effingham, Illinois 

Warsaw, Illinois, to Havana, Illinois . 

White Heath, Illinois, to Decatur, Illinois . 

Bates, Illinois, to Grafton, Illinois 

Champaign, Illinois, to Sidney, Illinois 





















St. Louis to Kansas City .... 

Brunswick, Missouri, to Council Bluffs, Iowa 
Rosebury, Missouri, to Clarinda, Iowa 
Moberly, Missouri, to Ottumwa, Iowa 
North Lexington, Missouri, to St. Joe, Missouri 
Centralia, Missouri, to Columbia, Missouri 
Salisbury, Missouri, to Glasgow, Missouri 
Eerguson, Missouri, to St. Louis, Missouri 
Quincy, Missouri, to Trenton, Missouri 
Keokuk, Iowa, to Shenandoah, Iowa 
Relay, Iowa, to Des Moines, Iowa 
Des Moines, Iowa, to Fonda, Iowa 




Eastern Division 
Western Division 




During the year 1883 considerable additions were made to the 
road, including the extension from Fonda, Iowa, to Spirit Lake, 
Iowa, a distance of about 80 miles, and others of importance, but 
the official figures are not before us. 

The controlling stockholders in the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific 
are also the leading stockholders in the Missouri Pacific and in the 


Iron Mountain, or the " South-Western System," as the two last 
named roads, with their tributary lines, are called, so that virtually 
the Wabash and the South-Western constitute a single system of rail- 
ways. Indeed, in April, 1883, the Wabash was leased to the Iron 
Mountain, of the South-Western System, so that the whole 10,000 
miles of road are now practically under one management, making by 
far the largest railway system in the world. These roads all traverse 
magnificent territory, and, looking at them from the standpoint of 
the future development of the country, they are without doubt among 
the most valuable railroad properties on the globe. This is particu- 
larly true of the Wabash System. Where are there five States in the 
Union equal to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Iowa, the States in 
which the Wabash roads are located ? Their elements of agricultural, 
mineral and forest wealth make them now, even under partial devel- 
opment, a region of unsurpassed value. In 1882, although consti- 
tutino' but nine per cent of the total area of the United States, they 
produced 196,244,100 bushels of wheat of the 502,798,600 bushels 
raised in the whole country, or over 39 per cent of the total crop of 
the Union. Of the 740,665,000 bushels of corn, they yielded 340,- 
705,900 bushels, or 46 per cent of the total crop. Their other farm 
products were proportionately large. In manutactures they are also 
of the first importance. Of the $5,369,677,706 worth of manufac- 
tured products turned out in 1880, these States produced 20 per 
cent, or products valued at $1,147,606,405. Bituminous coal is found 
in inexhaustible quantities in each of the five States named, and other 
minerals, particularly in Missouri, are found in great abundance. 
With a population of only 12,000,000 in 1880, what may we not ex 
pect the value of their products to be when they contain 60,000,000 
inhabitants, as they are "certainly destined to do ? With such a ter- 
ritory to draw from, the Wabash Railway has little to fear in the 
future, so far as volume of traffic is concerned. 

In point of management the Wabash is conceded to be one of the 
ablest conducted roads on the continent. The men who are now at 
the head of its afiiiirs are men who have risen to eminence in railway 
manao-ement by their own ability, enterprise, and personal worth ; 
men who, amid the failure of thousands, and in the most trying times 
in the history of railroads the country has ever seen, have built up 
one of the greatest railway systems in the world — gathering up the 
wrecks of roads here and there where others had left them, and con- 
finino- them in a harmonious, successful whole — a display of execu- 
tive and business ability, of enterprise and far-sighted sagacity, with 


but few parallels in history. No man in the management of the road 
but that holds his position because of his success in railroad affairs ; 
because of his success where others had failed, a success achieved upon 
a very sea of disasters. Look back ten years ago at the condition of 
the roads which now constitute the Wabash System ! Then there 
were not more than a score of them, scattered here and there over the 
great prairie States, the fairest and most fertile region under the sun, 
yet all of them tottering on the very brink of bankruptcy, and many 
of them practically dead as business investments. First one was 
taken from the hands of a receiver, a piece of dead property, and put 
on its feet and made to stand, not only to stand, but to become self- 
sustaining and prosperous. Then another was taken under the pro- 
tection of the first and put through a little course of resuscitation — 
and still another, and another, until the present magnificent system 
has been formed. It is an unrivaled distinction of the Wabash Sys- 
tem that it has been built up of roads mainly which had before proven 
failures — that it is the product of the brain and energy of men who 
have shown the genius and to force success where others have failed. 

To-day the Wabash is one of the best roads in the United States. 
Its main lines are all laid with steel rails, and its road-beds, bridges, 
culverts, depots, and other improvements, are not surpassed in the 
West. The rolling stock of the road has long been regarded as 
among the best in the country. Having always had sharp competi- 
tion, the management has made it a fixed policy to afford the public 
the best of accommodations, whether in passenger travel or freight 
shipments. As a result, their coaches, sleepers, and dining cars are 
perfect triumphs of art, not only in point of comfort, but of elegance 
and good taste, and their accommodation for freight, both merchan- 
dise and live stock, are all that could be desired. In one important 
particular the Wabash is without a rival in the West — in time. It 
runs through cars daily, including elegant chair-cars, sleepers, and 
dining-cars, direct from St. Louis to New York and Boston, making 
over thirty miles an hour on the through trip, and on all main lines its 
through rates of speed are approximately as great. Not only in pas- 
senger travel is it ahead of any of its rivals as to speed, but in freight 
transportation also. Less than four days are required to land its 
through fast freights in New York after they leave the depot in St. 

With regard to tariffs it would be suppressing the truth not to say 
that the Wabash is among the most liberal of roads. In fiict, in rail- 
road circles it is not as popular as some roads, for the very reason that 


it has so often led the way in reducing passenger and freight rates. 
Recognizing the fact that low tariffs increase travel and transporta- 
tion, its policy has always been to reduce the cost of carriage to the 
lowest possible figures. 

We give the official figures of the Wabash freight rate per ton per 
mile, since 1875 : — 

Year ' Average rate per 

I ton per mile in cts. 

1876 1.10 

1877 . . ■ 0.87 

1878 0.75 

1879 0.63 

1880 0.79 

1881 0.68 

1882 0.64 

1883 0.58 

These figures verify what was said above that the Wabash has led 
the march of Western roads in the direction of freight rates. 

The following are the general officers of the Wabash, St. Louis and 
Pacific : — 

Jay Gould, President, New York. 

R. S. Hayes, First Vice-President, St. Louis, Mo. 

A. L. Hopkins, Second Vice-President, New York. 

H. M. Hoxie, Third Vice-President, St. Louis, Mo. 

A. H. Calef, Treasurer, New York. 

D. S. H. Smith, Local Treasurer, St. Louis, Mo. 

James F. How, Secretary, St. Louis, Mo. 

O. D. Ashley, Second Secretary and Transfer Agent, 195 Broadway, 
New York. 

Wagner Swayne, General Counsel, New York. 

Wells H. Blodgett, General Solicitor, St. Louis, Mo. 

D. B. Howard, Auditor, St. Louis, Mo. 

Morris Trumbull, Assistant Auditor, St. Louis, Mo. 

George Olds, Freight Traffic Manager, St. Louis, Mo. 

Robert Andrews, General Superintendent, St. Louis, Mo. 

K. H. Wade, Superintendent Transportation, St. Louis, Mo. 

W. S. Lincoln, Chief Engineer, St. Louis, Mo. 

M. Knight, General Freight Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 

H. C. Townsend, General Passenger Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 

F. Chandler, General Ticket Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 

George P. Maule, General Baggage Agent, Union Depot, St. Louis, 

R. B. Lyle, Purchasing Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 

George F. Shepherd, Paymaster, St. Louis, Mo. 


C. P. Chesebro, General Car Accountant, St. Louis, Mo. 

C. Selden, Superintendent Telegraph, St. Louis, Mo. 

George C. Kinsman, Assistant Superintendent Telegraph, St. Louis, 

Jacob Johann, General Master Mechanic, Springfield, 111. 

U. H. Kohler, General Master Car Builder, Toledo, Ohio. 

I. N. McBeth, General Live Stock Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 

Most of these gentlemen are well known to the general public. As 
has been said, there is not a man connected with the management of 
the road who has not risen to his position by his own ability, energy 
and worth. The whole world is familiar with the career of the presi- 
dent of the company, 


certainly one of the most remarkable men of this or any other age. 
A New York farmer's son, self-educated, and starting out in life for 
himself without a dollar, by dint of his own exertions and character 
he has risen to the position of the first railroad manager on the globe. 
A great deal has been said for and against Mr. Gould. A great deal 
has been said for and against every man who has made a distinguished 
success in life. It is one of the conditions of success to be criticised 
and slandered as well as honored and esteemed. But if men are to be 
judged according to the general results of their lives, Mr. Gould has 
nothing to fear for his reputation in history. He has given to the 
country the finest systems of railway and telegraph the world ever 
saw, and if the people do not seem to appreciate 

"What manner of man is passing by tlieir doors," 

the time will come when his services and character will receive the 
homage which is their due. Mr. Gould became the president of the 
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific on the organization of the company in 
1879. Personally, however, he does not direct the afiiiirs of the road, 
but is directly represented in its management, as he is in the manage- 
ment of all his other Western roads, by 


the first vice-president of the company. Capt. Hayes was originally 
from New York. By profession he is a civil engineer. His first 
prominent connection with Mr. Gould's Western roads was as the 
builder of the Texas and Pacific. That road was constructed with 
amazing rapidity, and its afi'airs were managed with such ability and 
success that Capt. Hayes became at once recognized as one of the 


ablest railroad men in the country. The construction of the road 
was commenced in 1881, and on January the 15th of the following 
year it was ready for traffic to El Paso, on the Mexican border, thus 
opening up the route via the Southern Pacific to San Francisco. 
Following this, Capt. Hayes was placed at the head of Mr. Gould's 
whole South-Western System, or, in other words, was made first vice- 
president of the roads embraced in that system, and on the lease of 
the Wabash to the Iron Mountain in May, 1883, he became first rice- 
president of the Wabash company. 

Personally, Capt. Hayes is a quiet, unassuming gentleman. He is 
one of the few men whom position does not change in their bearing 
toward those around them. True manhood is superior to any position, 
however exalted, and this quality distinction cannot add to nor make 
less. It is only the weak and vain — those whose positions are above 
their merits — who make their importance and authority conspicuous. 
From no word or action of Capt. Hayes, outside of his official duty, 
would it ever be discovered that he is at the head of the greatest 
combination of railroad systems in the world. He is the same digni- 
fied, unpretentious gentleman now that he was before he became dis- 
tinguished for his great executive abilities. In his office all who have 
business with him are treated with the consideration and respect due 
them. In this particular he is in marked contrast with not a few whose 
positions are far less prominent. If all were as he is, it could not be 
said with truth, as unfortunately it sometimes seems to be, that he 
who becomes a railway official puts his modesty and good manners 
behind him. 

Capt. Hayes' leading characteristics as a railway manager are cool- 
ness and caution, united with firmness and great enterprise. No step 
of importance is taken without a thorough understanding of its results, 
and of the influence it is likely to have upon all the interests afl^ected 
by it. But when a measure is once decided upon and approved, it is 
carried out with a resolution and energy that makes its success a fore- 
gone conclusion. He not only directs the general policy of his roads, 
but personally overlooks the administration of affairs in the several 
business departments of the service. He sees to it that abuses are 
nowhere tolerated, and that the business of the different companies is 
dispatched with promptness and efficiency. The result is manifest, 
not only in the harmony with which everything moves through the 
half-dozen great roads over which he presides, but in the superiority 
of service they have rendered since he was placed at their head, and 


in the remarkable financial success they have achieved. Of all others, 
he is undoubtedly the man for the position he holds, and his selection 
for the place is but another proof of the remarkable sagacity of the 
man whose interests, mainly, he represents. 

The second vice-president of the company, as appears above, in the 
roll of general officers, is Mr. A. L. Hopkins. The sketches of 
several other officers of the Wabash appear on a previous page 
of this work in connection with the Missouri Pacific, with which they 
are likewise identified. 


the third vice-president of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific, and of 
the Missouri Pacific or South- Western System, like many of our most 
successful men, has risen to prominence and independence by his own 
energy and intelligence and the indomitable strength of his character. 
He is a Western man by birth, and started in life poor and without 
even the favor of influential friends. When a young man he went to 
Des Moines, Iowa, and there in a few years became recognized for his 
hio-h character and great enterprise as one of the most progressive and 
influential citizens of the place. Such was the consideration in which 
he was held that without his solicitation or even desire he was recom- 
mended for and appointed to the responsible office of United States 
Marshal. This position he filled with great efficiency until the expira- 
tion of his term of office, at the conclusion of which he declined reap- 
pointment, desiring to devote his whole time and attention to business 

On the inauguration of the great Union Pacific Railway enterprise, 
Col. Hoxie became connected with it as a superintendent of construc- 
tion ; and there he first distinguished himself for great executive abil- 
ity and indefatigable energy in pushing the work to completion with 
unparalleled rapidity. The energy and dispatch with which the road 
Avas pushed across the continent was regarded as one of the most mar- 
velous pieces of enterprise the world had ever seen, and was com- 
mented on by the leading journals of Europe as an evidence of the 
wonderful spirit of progress prevailing in America. To Col. Hoxie, 
more than to any other one man, is due the credit resulting from the 
expedition and success with which the two oceans were for the first 
time "linked with bands of steel." He personally supervised the 
work under his charge, and for months was on the ground at day- 


dawn, to leave only at dark, directing and pushing the work forward. 
The ability and success with which he conducted the construction of 
the Union Pacific attracted the attention of leading railroad men all 
over the Union, and his services were in great request. On the com- 
pletion of the road. Col. Hoxie was made its general superintendent — 
at that time one of the most important and difficult positions to fill in 
the entire railway service of the country. But the result vindicated 
the high estimate the board of directors had placed upon his ability 
and energy. As superintendent of the practical operation of the 
road, his success was not less brilliant than his success had been as 
superintendent of construction. His future as one of the great rail- 
road managers of the country was now assured. 

From the Union Pacific he was called to Texas to build the Inter- 
national and Great Northern. There he displayed the same qualities 
he had shown in the construction of the Union Pacific. The Inter- 
national and Great Northern was built with amazing rapidity. Of this 
he also became superintendent, and later along was appointed vice- 
president of the company. As soon as the Texas and Pacific passed 
into the hands of Mr. Gould he became superintendent of that road 
also. On the formation of the South- Western System he was appointed 
general manager of the International and Great Northern and of the 
Texas and Pacific, and was also appointed third vice-president of all 
the consolidated roads. Afterwards when, in May, 1883, the Wabash 
was leased to the Iron Mountain, thus becoming practically a part of 
the Missouri Pacific, or " South-Western System," as it is called, that 
road also came under his control, so far as the third vice-presidency 
is concerned. 

As third vice-president of these roads, Col. Hoxie has the manage- 
ment and superintendence of the entire freight traffic of the combined 
lines. These roads aggregate nearly 10,000 miles, and together con- 
stitute the most extensive system of railways under one management 
in the Avorld. To have the control of the freight interests on this vast 
system is a responsibility which but few men could safely undertake, 
a responsibility perhaps not equaled by that of any office, civil or 
military, in the government. The freight business on a railroad, as 
every one knows, is to the prosperity of the road what the advertising 
business of a newspaper is to the success of the paper — the very life- 
blood of its existence. The main support of every prosperous road 
comes from its freight business ; this is the source of its greatest rev- 
enue, and on the success of its freight management everything else 


depends. Nor is any other department of railroad management so 
complicated and difficult. The interests to be considered are innumer- 
able and often conflicting, but all must be consulted and harmonized 
to the best possible advantage. It requires not only a broad compve- 
hension of the general principles of transportation and trade, but an 
intelligent and thorough knowledge of practical business affairs, and 
of the best methods of conducting business transactions. Not only 
must general interests be looked to, but details also must be closely 
regarded. Nothing will wreck a road quicker than bad freight man- 
agement. It is, therefore, one of the most important departments, 
if not the most important, of railway management. 

The success that has attended Col. Hoxie's administration of this 
department of railway service, as official figures show, is gratifying in 
the extreme. The receipts from freight transportation have been un- 
precedentedly large — out of all proportion, in fact, to former years, 
even allowing for the growth of the country — and notwithstanding 
this, rates have been steadily reduced. These facts, though perhaps 
not so conspicuous as his construction of the Union Pacific Railway, 
speak hardly less for his ability as a railroad manager. Indeed, it is 
at least questionable whether it required a higher exercise of ability to 
gain the applause of the world by linking the two oceans together, 
than it does to successfully conduct the diversified, complicated and 
extensive business of 10,000 miles of railway traffic. 

Col. Hoxie is now somewhat past the meridian of life, but his 
energy, resolution and force of character seem only to have been 
strengthened by his ripening years. A man of prodigious capacity for 
work, he superintends, directs and personally inspects every branch 
of the service in his charge ; and he seems to be as active and as am- 
bitious of the future as he was before he had achieved either reputa- 
tion or fortune. Personally he is highly esteemed. . Having risen 
from the people himself, there is nothing of the aristocrat either in 
his manners or thoughts. He weighs men according to their charac- 
ter and intelligence, and res[)ects rank and fortune in the individual 
only so far as he makes himself worthy of respect. A man of gener- 
ous impulses and a kind, sympathetic nature, he is a warm, true friend 
to those who gain his confidence, and there is nothing, not dishonora- 
ble, within the bounds of reason that he would not do to serve them. 
Those who have known him for years speak of him as one of the truest 
hearted and best of men. 

One of the oldest general officers of the Wabash, or rather one 


among those longest ut the head of the affairs of that part of it, west 
of the Mississippi, is 


the present secretary of the company. Col. How is an old St. Louisan 
and comes of one of the best families of the city. He commenced his 
railway career in the ticlvet office of the old North Missouri Company, 
but rapidly rose by promotion to one of the general officers of the com- 
pany. Prior to the organization of the present Wabash, St. Louis 
and Pacific, he was the vice-president of the St. Louis, Kansas City 
and Northern, the predecessor to the Wabash west of the Mississippi. 
The St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern was the successor to the old 
North Missouri, and was one of the most successful, enterprising and 
progressive railways ever operated on this side of the river. It not 
only brought the affairs of the old North Missouri out of embarrass- 
ment, but improved the road in every particular and added hundreds 
of miles of track to its original lines. It built and opened the line to 
Omaha and increased the service, both passenger and freight, on all 
the lines of the road. Its financial success was unequivocal and most 
gratifying ; so much so that it became one of the most valuable pieces 
of railway property in the country. Its management was character- 
ized by unusual ability and vigor, and to no one was it more entitled 
for its rapid and brilliant success than to Col. How. A man of a high 
order of ability and of extensive experience in railway affairs, young 
and full of energy and ambitious to make the road a success, he in- 
fused into its management a new life and vigor, and urged it forward 
upon a policy that soon placed its success beyond the shadow of a 
doubt. Looking back upon the record the St. Louis, Kansas City 
and Northern road has made, he has every reason to feel satisfied with 
the influential and leading part he took in its management. Col. How 
now has much to do with the finances of the road, so far as its prac- 
tical operation is concerned, and has entire control of its tax depart- 
ment. In these departments of railway management he has already 
established a high reputation. His success in the tax affairs of the St. 
Louis, Kansas City and Northern was particularly conspicuous. He 
saved hundreds of thousands of dollars to the company annually by 
defeating exorbitant and erroneous levies. He is in every sense a 
worthy member of the present brilliant management of the Wabash. 


the general superintendent of the road, was originally from Philadel- 
phia, and was superintendent of the old Wabash, east of the Missis- 


sippij-fora number of years before the consolidation. The success of 
that road was largely due to the able and energetic manner in which 
he conducted the affairs of the superintendent's office. Having estab- 
lished a wide and enviable reputation while with the old Wabash, 
when the consolidation took place he was naturally placed at the head 
of the same department of the new company. Col. Andrews is not 
only a railway official of high standing, but is possessed of the qualities, 
to a marked degree, that challenge the respect and esteem of all men. 
He is a man with whom it is a pleasure to have business relations, and 
who adds much to the popularity and patronage of the road with which 
he is connected. 


the general passenger agent of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific and 
Missouri Pacific System, is distinguished for being one of the most 
popular and efficient general passenger agents in the United States. 
His rise in the railway service has been unprecedentedly rapid. Pos- 
sessed of a quick, active mind, and of stirring energy, in each position 
he held he comprehended the scope of his duties almost at a glance, 
and discharged them with so much spirit and success, that his advance- 
ment was assured and rapid. That he is the general passenger agent, 
though still a young man, of the most important railway system in 
the United States — a system in which none but the ablest and best 
men are permitted to hold important positions, is, in itself, the highest 
indorsement of his character and ability that could be given. And he 
is worthy in an eminent degree of the prominence to which he has 
risen. With qualifications far above the position he holds, although 
it is one of the first in prominence and responsibility, he brings to the 
discharge of his duties that ability and dignity, that clear aiid inteJli- 
gent grasp of the influence and effects of measures upon the difficult 
interests of the road, and that self-respecting, manly bearing, which 
not only make him a marked success, but elevate and dignify the 
position he holds. Personally Mr. Townsend is a man of wide and 
genuine popularity. Of an open, frank nature, well disposed toward 
the world, and full of life, he always has a pleasant word for every 
one, and apparently, without effort, wins the good opinions and con- 
fidence of all with whom he comes in contact. His personal popu- 
larity was by no means the least consideration that influenced his 
promotion to his present office. In business affairs he is courteous, 
polite and affable, and no one leaves his office with an unpleasant 
incident to remember. His chief clerk. 



is also comparatively a young man, and is highly esteemed both in 
railroad circles and by the general public. He commenced life for 
himself by learning the printer's trade, and having the qualities for a 
successful man in almost any calling, he of course succeeded as a 
printer. He became an artist in his trade — one of the finest printers 
throughout the country. Subsequently he was called into the service 
of the Wabash Railway to superintend its fine advertisement work, of 
which he since has had charge. It has doubtless been noticed by 
every one who has traveled in the West that the Wabash has the 
handsomest, most artistic and unique advertisements of all the West- 
ern roads. This of course is the result of Mr. Fisher's control of its 
advertising department. And he has made the distribution of his 
advertisements as judiciously as he has made their appearance 
attractive. Indeed, he has been remarkably successful in advertising 
the road, and its rapid increase of business is proof that the industry 
and good judgment he has shown in his work has not been without 
their reward. In the entire service of the road no one is more 
popular and more deservedly so. He is as accommodating and 
gentlemanly as if it was his only study to be pleasant and obliging. 
Personally the writer desires to acknowledge here a favor received at 
his hands — material assistance in collecting the data for the preced- 
ing sketches of the Wabash Railway. 


general solicitor of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific in all business 
of a legal character afiecting the active management of the road, 
became connected with the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern, the 
predecessor of the present Western Division of the Wabash, St. Louis 
and Pacific, as its assistant attorney during the winter of 1873-74. 
In June following he was elected general solicitor of the St. Louis, 
Kansas City and Northern by the unanimous vote of its board of 
directors. On the consolidation of that company with the old 
Wabash in 1879, he became general solicitor of the new Wabash, St. 
Louis and Pacific, the position he now holds. Col. Blodgett's career 
as a railroad lawyer has been one of marked ability and success. 
Gifted with a legal mind of a high order and of fine administrative 
ability, industrious almost to a fault, and an inveterate student, of 
the highest integrity of character and of close, exact business habits, 


justly popular with all who know him for his smooth, gentlemanly 
demeanor, and for his high personal worth, a clear, philosophical 
thinker and a pleasant, logical speaker, he combines, to an eminent 
degree, all the more important qualifications, both natural and 
acquired, for the chief law officer of one of the great railway corpora- 
tions of the country. Like most men of real merit who have risen 
to eminence he is essentially a self-made man. 

His father, Israel P. Blodgett, now deceased, was a respectable 
farmer of Illinois, but like most of his neighbors in that then new 
part of the country, was not a wealthy man. Wells H., therefore, 
had little or no pecuniary means to assist in establishing himself in 
life. After acquiring a common school education, supplemented with 
a few terms of college instruction, young Blodgett went to Chicago 
and began the study of law under his brother, Hon. Henry W. Blod- 
gett, now Jud^e of the United States District Court there, but then 
the general solicitor of the Chicago and North-Western Railway. Of 
studious habits, a superior mind, and entirely devoted to his chosen 
profession, he made rapid progress in his studies, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1860 with expressions from the court highly compli- 
mentary to his attainments and promise for the future. He at once 
entered actively upon the practice of law in Chicago, and was making 
rapid progress in his profession when the Civil War burst upon the 
country with all its fury. The life of the nation imperiled, he saw 
but one duty before him — to go manfully to its defense. He became 
a private soldier in the array of the Union, and followed the flag of 
his country with unfaltering devotion until it floated in triumph from 
the granite-ribbed hills of Maine to the sunlit waters of the Southern 
Gulf. For meritorious conduct as a soldier he was repeatedly pro- 
moted, and rose to the command of a battalion with the rank of 
colonel. He was twice cofnmended by written reports of the com- 
manding general for conspicuous gallantry on the field. Two honor- 
able scars, the proudest decorations a soldier can wear, attest the 
patriotic part he took in the war. 

After the war Col. Blodgett located at Warrensburg, Mo., in the 
practice of the law. There he at once took front rank in his profes- 
sion, and in 1866 was elected to the House of Representatives of the 
State Legislature. Two years afterwards he was elected to the State 
Senate. Following this, in 1872, he was unanimously nominated by 
his party for re-election to the Senate, but was defeated at the polls 
by a test party vote. Indeed, he ran far ahead of his own party 
ticket, and was defeated only b}' a small majority. 


In the Legislature his ability and attainments made him a leading 
member in each of the houses in which he sat. A clear, sober- 
minded thinker, and a conscientious, upright man, the fact that he 
supported a measure left but little or no doubt in the minds of others 
that it was for the best interests of the State ; and advocating it in 
his calm, lucid manner, he seldom failed to carry it to a successful 

Though a Republican, earnest and faithful, Col. Blodgett was one 
of the first prominent men in the State to advocate the enfranchise- 
ment of those who had been in rebellion. His record in the Legisla- 
ture on this question forms one of the brightest pages in the history 
of his career. With him the broad, vital principle upon which our 
government is founded — equal and fair representation for all — was 
of vastly more importance than any temporary party advantage or 
expedient. Indeed, his conception of true partisanship is that it 
should strive to keep the party identified with the best interests of 
the country. The rank and file of those formerly in rebellion he be- 
lieved to have been honest but misguided ; and representing their hon- 
esty of purpose and bravery, since they had submitted to the authority 
of the government and sworn to obey the laws, he believed no good 
purpose could be served by showing the distrust of their sincerity, and 
continuing them under the ban of civil ostracism. Hence he advo- 
cated earnestly and ardently their restoration to citizenship ; and to 
his efforts, less than to no man's in the State, were the enfranchised 
indebted for their ultimate right to vote. 

By the close of his term in the Senate, such was the high standing 
he had attained as a lawyer, no less than as a public man, for he had 
continued the active practice of his profession all the time, that his 
services as official attorney were sought by various important corpor- 
ation interests. Indeed, he had already distinguished himself in 
corporation practice, a department of the profession for which he has 
a special taste. In the spring of 1873 he accepted the assistant attor- 
neyship of the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railway as stated 
above, and was soon afterwards elected general solicitor for the road. 

The St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern was the successor to the 
old North Missouri ; and the mere mention of the name of that road 
suggests confusion, chaos and lawsuits without ending. Its policy 
was to fight everything and pay nothing — perhaps because it had 
nothing to pay with. It finally went down under a perfect maelstrom 
of litigation ; and the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern inherited 
from it a very sea of legal entanglements. To straighten out these 



and get the new road in proper condition, so far as its law interests 
were concerned, was the first work to which Col. Blodgett addressed 
himself, and it was a work which no ordinary lawyer could have 
accomplished. None with less ability than he showed, none with less 
industry, less energy and resolution, less system and method in the 
conduct of business, could have succeeded. But being a thorough 
business man no less than an able lawyer, he went to work in his 
office and in the courts, and in a remarkably short time had his dock- 
ets practically cleared — clearer by far than railroad dockets usually 
are — and in almost every case with success to his company. His 
office, also, became a model of system, order and method ; indeed, 
this-^ orderly arrangement of everything connected with his legal and 
business affairs — is one of the chief characteristics, without which 
the diversified and complicated business of which he has charge could 
not be successfully conducted. 

In the settlement of damage cases against the railroad, and, in- 
deed, of every class of claims, Col. Blodgett inaugurated an entirely 
difierent policy from what had before prevailed. He has always 
made it a rule to compromise every claim on a fair basis in which 
there is any merit at all, even though the law does not allow the claim, 
where compromise is possible. This policy, which has since been 
adopted by the law departments of several important roads, he has 
found best in every respect. It tends to promote that good feeling 
between the people and the road so advantageous to both ; whilst it 
saves thousands of dollars legal costs to the company and to claim- 
ants. As claimants can afford to compromise their claims at much 
less than they might ultimately recover by litigation, on account of 
the great cost and delay attending it, thus, without injury to them, 
the road saves additional thousands by fair compromises. This policy 
both good conscience and business sagacity approve. 

Col. Blodgett makes it as much to the interest of claimants to 
compromise as to the interest of the road. He tells them frankly 
that he will allow what is fiiir on their claims ; but before he will 
allow the company to be bilked, he will make it cost them more than 
they can possibly hope ultimately to realize by suit. A railroad 
lawyer of the first order, he knows beforehand in almost every case 
what the decision of the courts will be; and when he goes to law 
against a claim he generally wins the case. Indeed, the frequency 
with which cases are won by the railroad is often made the subject of 
criticism unfavorable to the courts. The fact lies not in the bias of 
the courts in favor of the railroad, for that does not exist ; but in 


that the road scarcely or never o:oes to the higher courts with a bad 
case. The attorneys for the road know a good case when they see it, 
and they know a bad one ; the first they carry up ; the second they 
settle. Thus the railroad is scarcely ever beaten in the courts. 

Col. Blodgett, although he has long stood in the front rank of 
lawyers in the West, is still comparatively a young man, being now 
only forty-four years of age. Considering his age and the position 
he occupies in his profession, it is not too much to say that his career 
has been a most successful and brilliant one. Nor has he yet nearly 
approached its meridian. With little less, if not quite a score of 
years more of professional activity before him in the ordinary course 
of nature, years, too, usually of the greatest advancement in the legal 
profession, his future promises a degree of eminence to which but few 
men can hope to attain. 


This road was originally known as the Louisiana and Missouri River 
Railroad, and was completed through Randolph county in 1871. 

The Chicago and Alton Railroad Company was organized October 
16, 1862, The following table will show the number of miles of road 
now owned and operated by this company : — 


Joliet to East St. Louis 243.50 

Coal City Branch 29.76 

Dvvight to Washington aud\branch to Lacon 79.80 

Roodhouse to Louisiana 38.10 

Upper Alton Line 7.40 

Joliet and Chicago Railroad (Chicago to Joliet) 37.20 

St. Louis, Jacksonville and Chicago Railroad (Bloomington to Godfrey via 

Jacksonville) 150.60 

Louisiana and Missouri River Railroad (Louisiana to Cedar City via Mexico) 100.80 

Kansas City, St. Louis and Chicago Railroad (Mexico to Kansas City) . 162.62 

Total 849.78 

Of this number 586.36 miles are east of the Mississippi river, while 
263.42 lay west of that stream. 

This road is now one of the most deservedly popular railroads in 
the West. It is especially popular along the line of its route through 
Missouri ; popular, because of the courtesy of its officers and em- 
ployes, and because of its speed, safety, and the prompt arrival and 
departure of its trains upon schedule time. Its passenger coaches are 
not only neat, but elegant in design and construction. Each train is 
supplied with reclining chairs, which are always so highly esteemed 
by the traveler, whether his journey be long or short. 



The Chicago and Alton owns and operates about 18 miles of road 
in the county. Altogether, there are 82 miles of railroad in Ran- 
dolph county. 


* 6 six per cent bonds of $1,000 each, payable in from 
one to seven years, issued July 10, 1880, to fund 
floating debt, interest payable annually on 1st day 
of July, at office of county treasurer 
16 ten per cent bonds of f lOOeach, due in from 1 to 10 
years, issued January 1, 1871, for ditching and 
draining swamp lands, interest payable annually on 
1st of January, at office of county treasurer 

Money borrowed from school fund upon which the 
county pays 10 per cent interest on the 1st day of 
January of each year 

Interest promptly paid ; interest and sinking fund tax 
of 15 cents on $100 valuation. Taxable wealth 


69 six per cent 10 year bonds of $500 each, and 155 do. 
of $100 each, issued July 14, 1879, under act of 
April 12, 1877, in compromise and redemption of 
bonds issued to the Tebo and Neosho Railroad Co., 
interest payable 1st of April and October, at EX' 

change Bank, Moberly, Mo 

Interest promptly paid ; interest tax on $100 valuation 
60 cents. Taxable wealth $1,086,075. 

$6,000 00 

1,600 00 
22,693 00 

$30,293 00 

50,000 00 

The bonded debt of Sugar Creek township was incurred in aid of 
the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad. 

The county indebtedness has been reduced to about $22,692.18 



History of Printing and first Newspapers — Huntsville Eecorder — Independent Mts- 
sourian — Advertisements and Professional Men of that Day — Randolpli Citizen — 
Eandolph American — Randolph Vindicator — North Missouri^ Herald — Huntsville 
Herald — Higbee Enterprise — Moberly ^eraM a7id Heal Estate Index — TTie Meni- 
tor — Moberly 2)ai7j/ Enterprise — Enterprise-Monitor — The Headlight — The Chron- 
icle — The M-ob^xly Fortschritt — Public Schools. 

The press, the great luminary of liberty, is the handmaid of prog- 
ress. It heralds its doings and makes known its discoveries. It is 
its advance courier, whose coming is eagerly looked for and whose 
arrival is hailed with joy, as it brings tidings of its latest achieve- 
ments. The press prepares the way and calls mankind to witness the 
approaching procession of the triumphal car of progress as it passes 
on down through the vale of the future. When the car of progress 
stops the press will cease, and the intellectual and mental world will 
go down in darkness. The press is progress, and progress the press. 
So intimately are they related, and their interests interwoven, that 
one cannot exist without the other. Progress made no advancement 
against the strong tides of ignorance and vice in the barbaric past 
until it called to its aid the press. In it is found its greatest dis- 
covery, its most valuable aid, and the true philosopher's stone. 

The history of this great discovery dates back to the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Its discovery and subsequent utility resulted from the follow- 
ing causes in the following manner : Laurentius Coster, a native of 
Haerlem, Holland, while rambling through the forest contiguous to his 
native city, carved some letters on the bark ©f a birch tree. Drowsy 
from the relaxation of a holiday, he wrapped his carvings in a piece of 
paper and lay down to sleep. While men sleep progress moves, and 
Coster awoke to discover a phenomenon, to him simple, strange and 
suggestive. Dampened by the atmospheric moisture, the paper 
wrapped about his handiwork had taken an impression from them, and 
the surprised burgher saw on the paper an inverted image of what he 
had engraved on the bark. The phenomenon was suggestive, because 
it led to experiments that resulted in establishing a printing office, 


the first of its kind in the old Dutch town. In this office John Guten- 
burg served a faithful and appreciative apprenticeship, and from it, at 
the death of his master, absconding during a Christmas festival, tak- 
ing with him a considerable portion of the type and apparatus. Guten- 
burg settled in Mentz, where he won the friendship and partnership 
of John Faust, a man of sufficient means to place the enterprise on a 
secure financial basis. Several years later the partnership was dis- 
solved because of a misunderstanding. Gutenburg then formed a 
partnership with a younger brother, who had set up an office at Stras- 
burg, but had not been successful, and becoming involved in lawsuits, 
had fled from that city to join his brother at Mentz. These brothers 
were the first to use metal types. Faust, after his dissolution with 
Gutenburg, took into partnership Peter Schoeffer, his servant, and a 
most ingenious printer. Schoeff'er privately cut matrices for the 
whole alphabet. Faust was so pleased that he gave Schoeflfer his only 
daughter in marriage. These are the great names in the early history 
of printing, and each is worthy of special honor. 

Coster's discovery of wood blocks or plates on which the page to be 
printed was engraved, was made some time between 1440 and 1450, and 
Schoeffer's improvement — casting the type by means of matrices — 
was made about 1456. For a long time printing was dependent 
upon most clumsy apparatus. The earliest press had a contrivance 
for running the forms under the point of pressure by means of a screw. 
When the pressure was applied the screw was loosened, the form with- 
drawn and the sheet removed. Improvements were made upon these 
crude beginnings from time to time, until the hand-press now in use 
is a model of simplicity, durability and execution. In 1844, steam 
was first applied to cylinder presses by Frederick Kong, a Saxon 
genius, and the subsequent progress of steam printing has been so 
remarkable as to almost justify a belief in its absolute perfection. In- 
deed, to appreciate the improvement in presses alone, one ought to be 
privileged to stand awhile by the pressman who operated the* clumsy 
machine of Gutenburg, and then he should step into one of the well- 
appointed modern printing offices of our larger cities, where he could 
notice the roll of dampened paper entering the great power presses, 
a continuous sheet, and issuing therefrom as newspapers, ready for 
the carrier or express. The Romans, in the times of the emperors, 
had periodicals, notices of passing events, compiled and distributed. 
These daily events were the newspapers of that age. In 1536, the 
first newspaper of modern times was issued at Venice, but govern- 
mental bigotry compelled its circulation in manuscript form. 


Ill 1663, the Public Intelligencer was published in London, and is 
credited with being the first English paper to attempt the dissemina- 
tion of general information. The first American newspaper was the 
Boston Neios-Letter ^ whose first issue was made April 24, 1704. It 
was a half-sheet, twelve inches by eight, with two columns to the page. 
John Campbell, the postmaster, was the publisher. The Boston Ga- 
zette made its first appearance December 21, 1719, and the American 
WeeMy^ at Philadelphia, December 22, 1719. In 1776 the number 
of newspapers published in the colonies was 37 ; in 1828, the 
number had increased to 852, and at the present time not less than 
2,000 newspapers are supported by our people. Journalism, by which 
is meant the compiling of passing public events, for the purpose of 
making them more generally -known and instructive, has become a 
powerful educator. Experience has been its only school for special 
training, its only text for study, its only test for theory. It is scarcely 
a profession, but is advancing rapidly toward that dignity. A distinct 
department of literature has been assigned to it. Great editors are 
writing autobiographies and formulating their methods and opinions ; 
historians are rescuing from oblivion the every-day life of deceased 
journalists ; reprints of interviews with famous journalists, touching 
the difi*erent phases of their profession, are deemed worthy of publi- 
cation in book form. Leading universities have contemplated the in- 
auguration of courses of study specially designed to fit men and women 
for the duties of the newspaper sanctum. These innovations are 
not untimely, since no other class of men are so powerful for good 
or ill as editors. More than any other class they form public opinion 
while expressing it, for most men but echo the sentiments of favorite 
journalists. Even statesmen, ministers and learned professors not 
unfrequently get their best thoughts and ideas from the papers they 

The Huntsville Recorder was the pioneer newspaper of Huntsville 
and of Randolph county. It was established, we suppose, some time 
during the year 1853, judging from what the proprietor, John R. 
Hull, says in his valedictory. Through the kindness of Mrs. E. G. St. 
Olair, we have been permitted to see the first copy of the Independent 
Missourian, which contains the valedictory of the editor of the He- 
corder, and also the salutatory of E. G. St. Clair, the editor of the 
Independent Missourian. The valedictory is as follows : — 

We appear once more before our readers and the public generally, 
in order to make our parting bow to them in retiring from the position 
of editor, which we have occupied for some time past. In doing so, we 


renew the hope expressed on a former occasion, that our readers may 
have been pleased with our efibrts to amuse and inform them ; and if 
at any time, they may not have been altogether satisfied, we ask of 
them to remember only the good and forget the ill of us. We have 
heard remarks once or twice about the " failure of the i?ecorc?er." 
We beg leave to state there Avas no such thing as a failure. The pro- 
prietors of the Recorder sold it, as they intended to do from the first, 
provided they had a suitable offer; if they had not met with such an 
ofl'er the paper would still have been continued and issued as regularly 
as usual. Their only motive was to keep up a county paper here. 
As for ourself, we have not, nor ever have had, any idea of becoming 
an editor for any great length of time. Our profession, as our 
readers all know, is a totally difierent one ; and we have never had 
the slightest intention of chano^ins^ it. Mr. St. Clair who succeeds us 
in the editorial chair has been connected with the press for many 
years ; and so far as we are able to judge, he is thoroughly acquainted 
with the business of conducting a paper in the proper style, and is 
also fully qualified for that position. We hope, and indeed confidently 
expect, that he will be able to give entire satisfaction to our patrons. 
In conclusion, we ofl'er to our readers and citizens our best wishes for 
their future welfare in all things, and may success ever attend them. 
Though we retire from the editorial office, we may still be found at 
our office at all times, where we shall be happy to see visitors, whether 
on business or otherwise. Call and see us reader, and give us the 
pleasure of your acquaintance. 


John R. Hull. 

E. G. St. Clair succeeded Mr. Hull as editor, and changed the name 
of the paper to the Independent Missourian. The following is his 
salutatory : — 

With this number commences the first volume of the Independent 
Missourian. In accordance with a long established custom, as well 
as with our own views of propriety, we take this opportunity to give 
the public a brief outline of the course we will pursue as a public 
journalist. Independent is the name we have chosen for our journal, 
and independent we intend it shall be in all things, but neutral in 
nothing. To advance the interest of our adopted county and State, 
and to contribute as far as in us lies to the prosperity of this 
glorious sisterhood of States, is the highest object of our ambition, 
and to the attainment of which all our energies will be directed. No 
party in politics or sect in religion will receive our support, except 
so far as in our judgment, its religious or political tenets tend to the 
great objects we have in view, viz. : The loelfare of our common 
country. This is the standard by which we shall judge of the public 
acts of our public men. In a word, we will labor for the good of the 
country, and not for the supremacy of party. Instead of long 
leaders on the old, stale political dogmas of Whig and Democratic 

346 • HISTORY or Randolph county. 

orthodoxy, our columns will be filled with all the earliest, foreign, 
domestic news and local items. The mighty events now transpiring 
in Europe, Asia and on our own continent — the fearful struggle in 
which every power in Europe seems likely to be soon involved — the 
result of battles more momentous in their consequences than any 
which have been fought since the star of the first Napoleon sank in 
blood — will be fully given in the Independent Missourian. Our 
paper will be fully as good as any weekly in all the surrounding 
country, and equally as interesting to all classes, unless it be to the 
hackneyed politician to whose soul tricks of party " are as congenial 
as candor and fair dealing are strangers." Our terms are One Dol- 
lar, invariably in Advance. We believe and confidently expect, that 
the citizens of Randolph will rally to our support, give us a liberal 
subscription list, and always /orA; over the dollar al the time of sub- 

E. G. St. Clair. 

As the paper from which we have taken the above was published 30 
years ago, it may be a matter of some interest to our readers of to-day 
to know who then advertised among the business and professional men 
of the town, and to see something of the advertisements and character 
of the matter which the paper contained. 

Business men. — P. G. Gerhart, stove and tin store; J. F. Riley, 
gunsmithing ; A. J. Ferguson, manufacturer of saddles, trunks, har- 
ness and upholstery ; J. C. Shaefer, tailor ; L. Heether, Randolph 
House ; Smothers & Tedford, saw-mills, two miles from town ; B. N. 
Tracy, general store ; J. B. & G. W. Taylor, general store ; Patton 
& Samuel, general store; J. V. Hardy &> Co., wholesale and retail 

Professional Men. — John R. Hull, attorney-at-law ; G. H. Burck- 
hartt, attorney-at-law; Thomas B. Reed, attorney-at-law; H. M. 
Porter, attorney-at-law ; B. P. Herndon, physician ; J. H. Miller, 
physician; W. T. Dameron, physician; William C. Bohannon, 
* physician; W. H. Taylor, physician, six miles north of Huntsville ; 
James J. Watts, physician, eight miles south of Huntsville. 

There seems to have flourished at that early day in Huntsville, a 
lottery, as will be seen by the following advertisement : — 
Now Fortune Waves the Magic Wand : 

1,000 dollar lottery to come off in Huntsville on Christmas day. A 
free dinner will be given to all ticket holders. Call and get a ticket 
soon, or they will all be gone and none left for the lucky ones. 

S. W. Robertson. 


The undersigned will keep constantly on hand, negro men, women, 
boys and girls in Huntsville. All persons who wish to buy negroes, 


can make it their interest to call on the subscribers, or address them 
by letter, giving description of the kind of slaves desired. 

®:^=A11 negroes warranted to come up to recommendations, or 
taken back or exchanged. H. L. Rutherford, 

Wm. D. Malone. 

wives wanted. 

[For the Indepeudeut Missourian.] 

Two young men are anxious to secure wives, while men are scarce 
and girls are plenty. The hair of one is auburn, with fair complexion, 
rather corpulent, with considerable pretensions to literature, is be- 
lieved as good-looking. The other has light hair, ayes nearly gray, 
tall, complexion rather pale, but passable looking, teeth bad. Both 
possess some money, but little inclination to work. We wish wives 
with a good suit of hair (black preferred), positively no gray ones ; 
of medium size ; brunette complexion preferred, but do not feel dis- 
posed to make that a point ; rosy cheeks, pouting lips, hands and 
feet small, straight nose, but not sharp, good teeth, sweet breath, and 
they must abhor tobacco (for we wish to use that). No claims as 
noble descendants of noble parentage, as we wish none higher than 
the second families of Virginia. Widows we wish included, if they 
possess not more than five responsibilities. We have mutually agreed 
that one shall have all the money, as we have not enough to serve 
both plentifully ; and that one of the ladies must be in good circum- 
stances, the other may be poor. What the gents lack in money will 
be made up in kindness. 

All communications with inquiries will be promptly answered. 

Address Cupid, 

Huntsville, Mo. 

The Randolph Citizen succeeded the Independent Missourian in 
May, 1858, and was first published by Francis M. Taylor. It was 
afterwards conducted at different times by Richard W. Thompson, 
Alexander Phipps, William A. Thompson, James B. Thompson and 
W. C. Davis, and was discontinued in the latter part of the year 1875. 

The Randolph American was the next paper established at Hunts- 
ville, and was started in November, 1858, by G. M. Smith and J. M. 
Stone, under the firm name of Smith & Stone. 

The publication of the Randolph Vindicator was commenced 
February 28th, 1878, by Balthis & Collins (W. H. Balthis and H. C. 
Collins), who continued to run it for about 12 months, when it 
ceased to exist. 

The North Missouri Herald was established January 10, 1869, by 
John R. Christian, J. S. Hunter and L. R. Brown. In May follow- 
ing, the interest of L. R. Brown was taken by W. C. Davis. In Jan- 


iiary, 1870, the interest of John R. Christian was purchased by 
Thomas D. Bogie. In October, 1870, the interest of W. C. Davis 
was purchased by J. S. Hunter and T. D. Bogie. The paper was 
run by these parties until January 1, 1875, when the interest of J. S. 
Hunter was purchased by T. D. Bogie, who run the paper alone until 
January 16, 1879, when he sold it to T. M. Elmore, who managed it 
by himself until July following when he sold a half-interest to W. 
H. Balthis, and the paper is still being conducted by these gentlemen. 
The name was changed from North Missouri Herald to Huntsville 
Herald in April, 1870. The Herald is now the only paper published 
in Huntsville. 

The Higbee Enterprise was published at Higbee in 1882-83, by 
Dentith & Ferlet (William E. Dentith and Timothy A. Ferlet). 


The first newspaper published in Moberly was the Moberly Herald 
and Real Estate Index, published by William E. Grimes, who was 
the first real estate agent in the place. The first number was issued 
January 16, 1869. It was a sixteen-column folio, and contained 13 
columns of reading matter, and three of advertisements. 

There are three weekly and two daily papers published in Moberly. 
The Monitor, a weekly journal, was started in 1869 and for several 
years it was published only weekly. The Moberly Daily Enterprise 
was established in the spring of 1873. In 1874 these two journals 
consolidated under the name of Enterprise- Monitor, and at a later 
date the title " Enterprise " was dropped and the paper has ever since 
been conducted as the Daily and Weekly Monitor. Steam power has 
been added and the printing house has been greatly enlarged, doing 
all classes of work. It is owned and published by George B. Kelly. 
It is Democratic in politics. 

The Headlight was established in 1873 and published both as a 
daily and weekly edition. A job office attached does all kinds of work 
in that line. It has a power press and other machinery, and does a 
large amount of business. It is owned and published by William May- 
nard, and is Republican in politics. 

The Chronicle was started as a daily and weekly journal in the fall 
of 1880 by William A. Thompson. In the winter of 1881-2 the 
paper was removed to Missouri City and subsequently to Salisbury, 
Mo. At the latter place Mr. Thompson died, and his widow, Mrs. 
Ella Thompson, continued the publication of the paper, removing it 
to Moberly in the summer of 1883, where it is now issued as a weekly 


journal. It is Democratic in politics so far as it treats of political 

These journals have an extensive circulation and are important fac- 
tors in the commercial interests of the city. 

The Moberly Fortschritt, was started April 1, 1881, by G. B. Kelly, 
who after running it for one year, sold it to Gus. Miller, who after 
continuing it about three months, ceased publishing it. 


Number of white children, males 3479 ; females, 3335 ; number of 
colored children, males, 426 ; females, 416 ; total, 7656. 

To accommodate this number of children there have been erected in 
the county 87 school buildings ; eight of these are for colored chil- 
dren. They are neat frame buildings, and have been constructed 
with reference to the health, comfort and convenience of both 
teacher and pupils. These pupils are under the care and instruction 
of 48 male and 73 female teachers, who are, in the main, not persons 
who have temporarily adopted the vocation of a teacher as a mere 
expedient to relieve present wants, and with no ultimate aim to 
continue teaching, but who have chosen their profession from choice, 
expecting to make a life work of it. The male teachers are paid 
a salary which averages $43.00 per month, and the female a salary 
which averages $35.00 per month. We hope the day is not far dis- 
tant when Eandolph county will be as liberal in the salaries of the 
female teachers in her public schools as Greene, Dallas and a few 
other counties in the State. These counties have recognized the fact 
that the services of the female teacher are worth just as much as the 
services of the male, and are accordingly paying her an equal salary. 

For teachers' wages, the sum of $24,218.10 was paid out during 
the year 1883 ; for fuel, $1,036.85 ; for repairs and rent of buildings, 
$1,179.88; for apparatus and incidental expenses, $2,656.91; for 
erection of school-houses and purchase of sites, $1,086.50; for past 
indebtedness, $2,016.44; for salaries to district clerks, $393.00; 
amount on hand at the close of the year, $4,150.68; value of school 
property at the close of the year, $45,574.00 ; average rate per $100 
levied for school purposes, 43 cents. 

The county has now a school fund of more than $37,000, which is 
rapidly increasing year by year. The schools are in a flourishing con- 
dition throughout the county, and are being liberally patronized by 
all classes of persons. The opposition and prejudice, with which they 
met a few years ago, are gradually dying out, and everybody is now 
a friend of the public schools. 



[By Eev. M. J. Sears.] 

On the third Saturday in August, 1819, before Missouri was a 
State, or Randolph was a county, a number of the early settlers met 
together, and were organized into a Baptist Church, and gave it the 
name of Happy Ziou, and on the second Saturday in the following 
month, united with the Mt. Pleasant Association, organized at Mt. 
Pleasant Church, Howard county, just one year before. The dele- 
gates chosen by the church to bear their petitionary letter to the As- 
sociation, were: Thomas Henson, William Harvey and Asa Kirby. 
*********** * * 

At the August meeting, 1827, the name of the church was changed 
to Silver Creek. Up to this date and for many years later, almost 
the entire settlement was made up of Baptists and their families, and 
the church enjoyed to a very liberal degree the blessings of the Lord, 
reporting peace and prosperity in all the letters, which were annually 
sent up to the association, down to the year 1835. Yet the member- 
ship, perhaps, never at any one time, numbered over 75 or 80 per- 
sons, for other Baptist churches were organized in the surrounding 
country, and drew largely upon the present body for membership ; 
among which we mention Mt. Harmon, Mt. Ararat, Pleasant Grove, 
Dover (first called Turner's Prairie), and Little Union, located in the 
north suburbs of North Huntsville, all of which have become extinct. 
The different pastors who served the church up to date above men- 
tioned were Elders Thomas Henson, Charles Harryman, James Rat- 
cliff, Thomas Fristoe and William Sears. All, except Elder Fristoe, 
commenced their ministry in, and were ordained by Silver Creek 
Church. Among the influential citizens who were prominent members 
of that church, before the year 1835, were William Harvey, Dr. 
William Fort, Hardy Sears, Aaron King, John Whelden, William and 
Joseph Marrow, Ambrose Halliburton, Blandermin Smith, Abraham 
Gross, Asa Kirby, Isaiah Humphrey, Basil McDavitt, Sr., Wiley 


Sears, Sr., David Crews, Charles Finuell, William Cavens, Benjamin 
Hardister and Richard Bradley. These and many others, whose 
names are not at hand, all obtained a good report through faith, and 
have gone from faith to sight in the glory land. 

At the October meeting following the division in Mt. Pleasant As- 
sociation, Isaiah Humphrey and wife, Basil McDavitt, Sr., and wife, 
William Cavens and wife, and Nancy West withdrew from Silver 
Creek Church in order to form a separate body, and to become identi- 
fied with what was then called the " Missionary Party ^''^ since which 
time the church has enjoyed uninterrupted peace, and a fair share of 
prosperity. The writer of this united with the church in October, 
1849, and began his ministry before he was 20 years of age, and at 
21 years of age was ordained to the pastoral care of the church, and 
has sustained that relation to the church to this day. From 1835 to 
1849, Elders William Sears, John Buster and John Mansfield, each 
in turn, served the church as pastors with good success. These were 
o-ood and faithful ministers, but on account of the distance thev lived 
from the field of their labors, would often fail to meet appointments. 
In 1840 Brother James Sears, and in 1843, Brother Willis Sears, now 
©f Chariton Church, Macon county, left the " Missionaries," and were 

received into the church upon their baptism. 


Soon after the unhappy division of 1835, a large per cent of our 
membership emigrated to Macon county, and helped to found the 
now prosperous churches at Chariton and Little Zion, in that county ; 
and in this county, the churches at Hickory Grove and Oak Grove, 
which are both prosperous. Besides the two last named and the 
mother church, there are also Pleasant Hill and Moberly Churches, 
making five in all, of the Primitive Order in Randolph county. 
Elders W. A. Rothwell, M.D., James Bradley, James P. Carter 
and the writer are the ministers of the Primitive Baptist faith in this 
county. The first named is a native of Kentucky, brother Carter, of 
Virginia ; brother Bradley and the writer were born and raised in this 
county. Elders James RatclifF, William Sears, James Barnes, Archi- 
bald Pattison, J. W. Garshwiler, John Buster and James Grisholm 
have all been residents of this county, and in turn have served the old 
churches above named, and have all gone to their reward above to 
rest from their labors below. Elder William Sears was ordained to 
gospel ministry in Silver Creek Church in 1836. No other ordination 
to the ministry occurred in the church until the third Sunday in April, 


1851, when the writer was set apart to the important work of preach- 
ing the gospel of Christ to dying men. Since that time the chnrch 
has set apart Elder Lewis Sears and Elder J. W. Bradley (since 
deceased) and granted license to Elder P. M. Sears, who was after- 
ward ordained to the ministry at the request of Oak Grove Church. 

Little Union Church (^Baptist). — This is the name of the first 
church edifice that was erected near the town of Huntsville. It was 
a log cabin, and was erected about one mile north of the town, as early 
as 1828. Among its constituent members were Nancy Wright, Dr. 
William Forth and wife, Mr. Lafon and wife, Martha Fort, Abraham 
Riley and wife, Rachel Riley, James Riley, Nancy Goggin, John 
Smoot and wife, Susan Smoot, Martin Fletcher and wife, Charles 
Hatfield and wife, Benjamin Skinner and wife, Paulina Skinner, 
Thomas Hardister and wife, Isaac Harris and wife, Blandermin Smiths 
This church was presided over by Revs. Lynch Turner, John Buster, 
James Ratclifi' and Thomas Fristoe, at difierent intervals. 

After the course of several years, the old building was torn down,, 
and a new house of worship erected near the present site of Lay's 
Mill, which is in the corporate limits of Huntsville. 

Providence {Methodist) Church — Was organized in 1834 at the 
cabin of S. G. Johnson, with the following named persons as consti- 
tuting the original membership : S. G. Johnson, Nancy W. Johnson, 
Margaret Cooper, Nancy Fawks, Polly Fawks, and Lasey Cooper. 
About the year 1836 this congregation had preaching at what was 
known as Johnson's School House, and in 1846 they erected Old 
Providence Church, called the " Twelve Corners." In 1878, the pre- 
sent frame house of worship was built at a cost of $1,100, the dedi- 
catory service the same year being presided over by Rev. B. F. 
Johnson, D.D. Among those who have ministered to the spiritual 
needs of this church are Jesse Green, presiding elder and circuit 
preacher; Read Coleburn, Forsythe Thatcher, R. B. Ashby (presid- 
ing), William Caples, William Sutton, A. Monroe, J. Elder Eads. 
The membership now numbers about 80. 

Renick Union Church. — This house of worship was built jointly 
by the M. E. Church South, Christian and Missionary Baptist, at a 
cost of $3,000, each denomination contributing the sum of $1,000 
towards its erection. It is situated in the town of Renick. Amona^ 
the names of the original members of the Methodist congregation are 
found those of Stephen Brockman and wife, Thomas Brockman, Mrs. 
Thomas Spurlin, Thomas Price, wife and daughter, Elizabeth Pyles, 
E. D. J. Brockman, S. W. Hubbard, Jane Hubbard, and Rev. Wesley 


Hatton and family — Jane, Reuben and David. The first pastor of 
this congregation was Rev. Collett, followed by Revs. Taylor, W. N. 
Sutton and Thomas B. Moss. About 50 persons constitute the mem- 
bership at present. 

Some of the primary members connected with the Baptist denom- 
ination were William Butler, W. F. Elliott and G. O. Powell and 
wife. Rev. Beauchamp was the first to preach for the congregation. 

An organization of the Christian Church was effected about the year 
1860, by Rev. W. B. Anderson, at which time S. N. Pyle and wife, An- 
tony Foster, S. S. Elliott and wife, M. M. Burton and wife, T. C. 
Walker and wife, Mrs. Jules Chilton and Daniel Bruce and wife com- 
posed the first members. Now the membership is 70. Revs. Wilmott, 
Donan and C. P. HoUis have been their pastors. 

This church edifice was completed in 1876, at a cost (as above 
stated) of $3,000. The same year it was dedicated by Rev. John D. 
Vincil. A Sabbath-school containing about 40 scholars was started 
in 1870, and is now superintended by J. A. Mitchell. It is a strong 
pillar of the church. 

Chapel Grove Church — Which is located on the southern part of 
section 26, township 52, range 13, was formed into an organization 
about the year 1869, by William B. Cross and wife, J. B. Green and 
wife, Samuel Lyons and wife, George W. Ferguson and wife, G. W. 
Hubbard and wife, Mrs. Stockton and Albert Smith and wife, who 
were the charter members. Rev. William Wood first filled the pulpit 
of the church, after him coming Revs. DeMoss, John Shores, J. F. 
Rooker, William Sutton, William Warren, A. Spencer and R. F. 
Beavers. In 1871 the present building, in which services are held — 
a frame, 32x42 feet — was completed and is valued at $1,200. The 
number in the church at this time is 55. 

Enon Missionary Baptist Church. — In 1872 William Moberlyand 
wife, William Bartee and wife, Cephus Nichols and wife, Jesse Burton, 
wife and son, Oscar Paul De Garino, Mrs. Isaac Stipe, and possibly 
others, met and formed the above named church. That year, or 
during the following one, a church building was erected on section 2, 
township 53, range 13, and cost in the vicinity of $600. It is a 
frame structure, and in the fall of 1873 was dedicated by Rev. W. L. 
T. Evans, who was the first shepherd of this little flock. William 
Woods, John R. Terrell and Rev. Evans, the present pastor, succeeded 
the first mentioned. The number of the present membership is 40. 

Mt. Carmel Church — Was organized August 31, 1873, by Rev. 
J. B. Mitchell, with five elders, Henry T. Johnson, James M. Holman, 



William D. Harlan, Thomas J. Sherran, Paul Teeter. Two deacons 
were ordained in August, 1874 ; George W. Harlan and George W. 
Clardj. Thomas J. Sherran ceased to act in 1880 as elder, and James 
M. McGoodwin and James K. Harlan were elected elders March 6, 
1881. George W. Chirdy ceased to act as deacon in 1879, and Oscar 
C. Bedel was elected to fill his place. George W. Harlan and Oscar 
C. Bedel discontinued their services as deacons in 1882, and I. N. 
Harlan and William T. Farris were elected in their stead. The 
church was organized with 85 members, — Henry T. Johnson, 
James M. Holman, William D. Harlan, Thomas J. Sherran, Paul 
Teeter, Elizabeth N. Johnson, M. L. Johnson, James T. Day, G. J. 
Dressier, J. A. McGuire, J. S. Harlan, J. D. Gregory, M. C. Adams, 
S. L. Harlan, M. L. Summers, J. H. Frazier, G. W. Clardy, Wm. H. 
Mofi'ett, Hugh Eagan, Ella Eagan,iV[. R. Kirkpatrick, G. W. Harlan, 
W. B. Morris, M. E. Morris, I. N. Harlan, Samuel McGuire, Joseph 
Roygere, O. C. Redd, S. F. Gregory, M. J. Eagan, J. S. Combs, 
Martha Combs, M. S. Harlan, Dora Doaks, R. S. Holman, J. W. 
Gray, M. L. Clardy, M. C. Barnes, H. Burton, S. A. Burton, L. S. 
Dressier, G. W. Harlan, W. McDaniel, A. E. McDaniel, G. Darr, 
Samuel Epperly, Mary Epperly, M. A. Epperly, Thomas McCully, 
M. E. Clardy, N. F. Power, S. C. Power, J. W. Vreeman, S. F. 
McCully, G. P. Epperly, Felise Day, Nancy Day, M. L. Holman, J. 
S. Barnes, S. T. Barnes, Harriet Darr, W. H. Eagan, G. J. Eagan, 
W. T. Dameron, H. A. Epard, C. B. Day, James H. Rogers, J. L. 
Powers, M. F. Burton, M. H. Tinsley, J. W. Harlan, John Roger, Eliza 
Roger, C. F. Harlan, Isaac S. Harlan, J. W. Turner, M. L. Rogers, L. 
A. Teeter, S. M. Harlan, W. D. Johnson, Fanny McGuire, Biney Mc- 
Guire, S. J. Harlan, R. J. Moffett and D. E. Frazier. At the present 
date 170 persons constitute the membership. The church house was 
built in 1876 at a cost of $1,200. Rev. James Dysart is the present 

Vlifton Bill Church — Was originally known as " Dark's Prairie " 
Church (thus called at organization), and held its first meetings one 
mile north of Clifton until the new house of worship was completed 
in 1868, when it was moved to that structure, and shortly thereafter 
the name was changed to the present form. This latter building is 
valued at $1,200, and was dedicated to God's service in the fall of 
1868 by Noah Flood. Rev. S. Y. Pitts was called as pastor when the 
church was started, and has since served in this capacity. The organ- 
izing members of the society were H. Stamper, Sarah Stamper, D. J. 
Stamper, Mary A. Stamper, Isaac Sanders, Phebe Sanders, Jonathan 


Sanders, Frances Sanders, Indiana Sanders, Kile}^ Sanders, David 
Clifton, and another person named Sanders, whose Christian name we 
were unable to learn. There are now in the church 168 members. 

Silver Creek Baptist Church — Effected an organization on the 
third Saturday of August, 1819, the originators being Elders Thorp 
and Hubbard. The names of those comprising the first membership 
we were unable to obtain, as they are not specified on the record. In 
1833 a log house for worship was built. The church became sepa- 
rated upon the missionary question and subsequently was reorganized, 
their first meeting being held the fourth Saturday of November, 1835, 
when Thomas Fristoe was made pastor and Isaiah Humphreys deacon, 
with William Cavins as clerk. In 1860 the building in which services 
are now held was erected at a cost of $1,200. It is a frame structure, 
and was dedicated by Elder M. J. Sears, anti-Missionary, and Elder 
Noah Flood of the Eegular Baptist Church. The names of the pastors 
who have served the church are as follows : Thomas Fristoe, from 
1835 to March, 1839 ; Wm. Mansfield, 1839-1845 ; Jesse Ferril, 1846 ; 
John Roan, 1847-1852 ; Jesse Ferril, again, 1853-1858 ; F. M. Stark, 
1858-1863 ; William C. Woods in 1863 ; S. Y. Pitts, April, 1864, 
March, 1867 ; Lewis Sears, 1867-1869 ; F. M. Stark from February, 
1869, to February, 1870 ; J. W. Terril accepted the care of the church 
as pastor in June, 1870, and resigned in November, 1871 ; F. M. 
Stark, December, 1871, September, 1876; W. Kilbuck was elected 
pastor October, 1876, and continued to April, 1878 ; F. M. Stark was 
again elected in May, 1878, for 12 months; J. W. Terril, October, 
1879, resigned in February, 1881 ; Elder Stark was then elected in 
xMarch of the same year, and is pastor at this time (April, 1884). 
The records show that 200 persons have been members of this church, 
52 of whom are known to be dead, and most of these died while con- 
nected with this cono-reo-ation ; 13 have been excluded from the fellow- 
ship of the church, and the remainder, except the 40 who now compose 
the organization, have been dismissed by letter to join other churches 
of a like faith and order. 

Mount Vernon Missionary Baptist Church. — This church now has 
a membership of 75, but at the organization, in 1858, had only nine 
members, as follows : John S. Kimbrough and wife, F. B. Hubbard 
and wife, Mary Y. Settle, J. G. Settle and wife and Simeon Styles 
and wife. At an expenditure of $1,200, a fine, well-finished structure, 
in which services are now held, was built in the fall of 1881. It is of 
frame, 28x42, and was dedicated by Rev. F. W. Houtchin, Benjamin 
Gentry and P. T. Gentry. The latter gentleman was the first pastor 


of the church, and served as such for a number of 3'ears, being suc- 
ceeded by W. L. T. Evans, W. W. Kilbuck and Daniel R. Evans, 
the present minister in charge. 

Good Hoj^e Missionary Baptist Church. — In a good, substantial 
log house — which was built by the members, and money to the 
amomit of $50 — services of this body are now held once a month. 
Though not a building of any very great external beauty, within a 
spirit of unity, peace and concord prevails among the members — a 
beauty, though not so apparent, of far more value. The organization 
was effected in 1871, with Hugh Jackson and wife. Rev. J. M. Byram 
and wife, Samuel Jackson, John H. Roberts and wife, Sarah Hargis, 
and Mrs. Naler. The church edifice was erected in 1872 and was 
dedicated by Revs. J. M. Byram, Woods and others. The pastors 
have been : Revs. J. M. Byram, W. W. Kilbuck, Jackson Harris, Ed- 
ward Silver and William Brown. Rev. Jackson Harris is the present 

Pleasant Hill Regular Baptist Church — Is located on section 8, town- 
ship 54, range 14 ( Salt Spring township). In 1865-66 this church edi- 
fice, for the purposes of worship, was built at a cost of about $1,000. 
In dimensions it is 36x40 feet. At the organization of the church, in 
May, 1866 (organized by Rev. M. S. Sears), the following persons 
were present and their names placed upon the records : Leonard Dott- 
son and wife, Mrs. Margaret Goodding, R. R. Goodding and wife, 
Nancy Hall and sister, Peyton Hall, Mrs. Mason, S. G. Phipps and 
wife, J. R. Phipps and wife, William Rodgers and wife and James 
Brock, wife and mother. At this time the membership numbers 
nearly 40. Revs. M. J. Sears, Benjamin Owen, P. M. Sears and 
James K. Carter have filled the pulpit of the society. The latter is 
the present pastor. The Missionary Baptists have a half interest in 
the church, which was deeded to them in the fall of 1883, but they 
have held services there for some 14 years. Their ministers have 
been W. L. T. Evans, S. Y. Pitts and G. B. Clifton. They have 61 
members in their organization. 

Highee Christian Church. — The original organization of this body 
took place near the year 1845 in the vicinity of the town of Higbee, 
and was known as the Dover Church. From continued usage, and 
after withstanding the storms of many winters, the church structure 
about rotted, and a new edifice was erected one mile west of Higbee, 
in which services were held until the formation of the present church 
at HiMDee in the summer of 1880. Some of the members at the re- 
oriranization were : M. M. Burton, wife, two sons and an adopted 


daughter ; J. W. Burton, wife, and two sons ; S. Lessly, wife, mother 
and one son ; W. L. Eeynolds, John W. Newby, John Blackford, Sarah 
Blackford, Eleven Dawkins and wife, Ann Dysart, Mary 8. Dysart, 
Alice Yates, Fannie Yates and Joel Yates. Their present house of wor- 
ship is a frame building, 36x56, erected at an expense of $1,900. It 
was dedicated by Eev. Joel A. Headington and Rev. C. P. Hollis. 
The former was the first pastor, and since then Rev. Headington has 
ministered to the spiritual necessities of the congregation. There are 
75 members, and 'services are held there times a month. The Sab- 
bath-school, with a regular attendance of 50 pupils, is superintended 
by S. Lessly. 

Salem Christian Church. — In the summer of 1873 this church 
completed a house of worship, 30x34 feet, with 14 feet of studding — 
property now valued at about $600. It is a frame building, and is 
located on section 2, township 53, range 13. The formation of the 
church took place in 1872, when Jason Moberly and wife, T. J. 
Nichols and wife, J. Quisenberry and wife, C. B. Quisenberry 
and wife, William Love and wife, and John Reid and wife con- 
stituted the regular members. There are now about 60 commu- 
nicants. Among those who have served as pastors are Revs. William 
Blackburn, P. C. Hollis, John McCune, R. H, Love, after whom 
came J. C. Reynolds, then George Dew, and, finally, William Hen- 
derson. It is now in a most flourishing condition. 

Antioch Christian Church. — On the first Lord's Day in July, 1837, 
this church was constituted as such, and among the early members we 
find the following named well known persons the first 11 were con- 
stituent members : Roland T. Proctor and wife, Diana D. ; Benjamin 
Haley and wife, Eliza ; James Heathman and wife, Elizabeth ; James 
Adams and Caroline, his wife ; Joseph C. and Eliza Drake ; James 
Beatty, Jacob Roman, William Haley and wife, Belinda; Henry R. 
Haley, Joseph W. Helm, Thomas P. Coates and wife, Frances; Nor- 
burn Coates, David Myers and Mary, his wife ; Henry and Judith 
Myers, Henry H. Newton, Henry Grimes, James G. Dunn, Ambrose 
Haley and wife, Cassandra ; Isaac Foster, Peter Matthews and wife, 
Ettaline; Asa C. Proctor, Ardeline Chapman and Cynthia, his wife; 
Thomas Wilson, Nathaniel Welch, Alexander Proctor, Dabney 
Haggard, William Myers and wife, Christina; William Newton, 
Elisha Sherwood and wife, Frances, and Clement and Amy Jeter. The 
first church building, which was of logs, was constructed in 1837, and 
in" 1860 their present frame structure was completed. Elders Wilmot, 
James A. Berry, William H. Featherston, Peter Donan, George E. 


Shanklin and George A. Perkins have filled the pulpit, the latter of 
whom is occupying it at this date. He has under his control 77 mem- 
bers. Many ministers of the Christian denomination have become 
famous in this State, and among them might be mentioned Alexander 
Proctor, Thomas P. Haley, Henry H. Haley (now deceased), Will- 
iam H. Featherston and E. J. Lampton of the Antioch Church. 
Their popular reputation has been deservedly won. 

Mount Hope Cumbeiiand Presbyterian Church. — The edifice of 
this denomination, which is located on section 29, township 54, range 
14 (Salt Spring township), was constructed in 1874, and is 24x42 
feet in dimensions, its valuation being about $600. The society 
formed itself into an organization and became known by the above 
name in the spring of 1874, Rev. W. F. Manning being the originator. 
The constituent members were J. S. Jenkins and wife, Margaret 
Evans, Mary A. Walker, A. T. Chapman, M. J. Hardesty, J. J. 
Adams, Ann A. demons, Susan E. demons, W. A. and Mary L. 
Cunningham, Alexander and Sabra Frazier, Eliza J. Shaw, Thomas 
and Sarah A. Hardesty, D. A. Shaw, D. S. and Janette Payne, John 
A. Adams, Roxanna Turner, Fannie E. Jenkins, Jennie A. Adams, 
Mary J. Overby, Arthur Jenkins, May F. Gentry, Barbara E. Riley, 
Mary F. Sperry, Selmon Frazier, Mary E. Payne, Lenora Adams, J. 
H. Hardesty, George Gentry, Josephus Hardesty, W. J. Evans, Mary 
C. Riley and Joan Chapman. Their first pastor was Levi Hanes, fol- 
lowed by Revs. A. M. Buchanan, George Wittingham and J, Lewis 

Sugar Creeh Cumberland Presbyterian Church. — The first build- 
ins: of this cono-reojation was erected in 1840 — a structure 26 x 46 feet. 
The present house of worshi]3 is the third one put up upon the same 
site. This is on section 26 of Sugar Creek township, about two miles 
north-west from Moberly. The church was formed under the present 
name in 1834 by Rev. Samuel C. Davis, who was the earnest and 
loved pastor for 18 years. The members at the organization were John 
Tedford and wife, D. Tedford, Andrew and Margaret Hannah, Lu- 
cinda Hannah, and James and Jennie Cunningham. Rev. Lewis Routt 
is the present pastor in charge. 

M. E. Church South — Located at Cairo, through the efforts 
largely of Rev. C. Babcock was constituted as a church organization 
in 1868, John Hoag and wife, William Moody and wife. Walker 
Wright and wife, Harriet Johnson, Sarah Smith, Mrs. Shaw and Mrs. 
Lampton being the original members. A frame house of worship, in 
which services are now held, was built at a cost of $1,400 in 1873, 


and was dedicated the same year by Dr. W. G. Miller. There are 
now 68 persons in the church. The following named pastors have 
served as such in this congregation: Kevs. C. Babcock, L. Rush, 
David Blackwell, J. S. Todd, Walter Toole, James Taylor, L. Bald- 
win, Walter Toole, L. Brewer, J. C. Carney, George W. Quinby, 
and lastly the present incumbent, J. S. Todd. 

Meals Chapely M. E. Uhurch /South. — The organization of this 
church was consummated by Rev. C. W. CoUett, in 1867, with M. and 
J. Moberly and wives, J, P. Meals and wife, William Grimes, George 
H. Cottingham and wife, William Westfall and wife, Eli Eastwood 
and wife, Mrs. John Mills, Mrs. W. J. Meals, Mrs. Susan Grimes and 
Mrs. Hulda Meals as constituting the primitive members. Since then 
the membership has increased to 42. The following ministers have 
been the pastors of the church since its start; C. W. Collett, Rev. 
J. R. Taylor, H. W. James, William Toole, Rev. Baldwin, W. M. 
Sutton, J. S. Rooker, Joseph Rowe and Robert Loving. The build- 
ing in which worship is conducted was erected in 1867. In size it is 
36x40, and is valued at about $800. 

^620 Hope M. U. Church South. — In the summer of 1881 the 
church edifice now occupied by this congregation was built at an ex- 
penditure of $1,200. It is a frame structure, 30x15 feet, and was 
dedicated the same year, after which, in the fall of 1881, an organiza- 
tion was affected, the original members being G. H. Cottingham and 
wife, S. D. Lyons, wife and two daughters, John J. Matthews and 
wife, S. Robertson and J. T. S. Gates and wife. Revs. William War 
ren, Spencer and R. Beaver have been its ministers. Services are 
conducted by the Methodist denomination in this house once a month, 
and the Christians and Baptists also hold meetings each once a month. 


Death of Jas. A. Garfield — Death of C. Wisdom — Death of Capt. Lowry — Death 
of Capt. Coates — Judge Thomas P. White — Sudden. Death of Dr. J. C. Oliver — 
Death of au Old and Estimable Lady — Tornado — Tornado of 1831 — Randolph 
Medical Springs — Official Record — Politics — Taxable Wealth. 


[From the Herald.] 

Monday, September 26, 1881, was indeed an impressively sad day 
in Huntsville. Our citizens with great unanimity seemed to appreciate 
fully and deeply the awful fact that on this memorable day, in the far 
off State of Ohio, would be laid to rest for ever in the cold embrace of 
mother Earth, all that was mortal of James Abram Garfield, our late 
honored chief magistrate, who was stricken down in the prime of his 
life, in the zenith of his high renown and in the hour of his greatest 
usefulness, without warning and without cause, by a red-handed 
assassin. This horrible and humiliating fact cast a deep, settled 
gloom over our entire community, and each face wore an expression 
of sadness, such as could only have been produced from heartfelt 
grief. Then it was meet and proper that our people should take such 
steps as would show to the outside world how keenly they felt the 
great calamity with which we have been afflicted ; to show in what 
high esteem we held the illustrious dead while living, and to give an 
honest expression of sympathy for the bereaved, aged mother, who, 
standing as she is almost upon the brink of the grave, has had the last 
tender tie which bound her so firmly to earth ruthlessly severed ; for 
the pure, amiable wife, who showed so plainly her true womanhood 
by her admirable and self-sacrificing devotion to wifely duty, and for 
the five orphaned children, who are deprived in earl}^ youth of their 
natural and alfectionate guardian. To this end all business was 
suspended for the day ; the churches, public buildings, business 
houses, and a large number of private residences were tastefully 
draped in mourning, and at two o'clock p. m., union memorial 
services were held at the Christian Church. 

At one o'clock p. m., the bells of the city commenced to toll. 
Each stroke seemed to add additional depression to the poignant 
sorrow of every heart, and the deep quiet which prevailed throughout 
the day told plainer than words could express it that our people were 
sorely grieved over what they conscientiously believed to be a great 
national calamity. Ten minutes before two o'clock, the Masons and 
Odd Fellows formed in front of their respective lodges, and, headed 
b}' Beedles & Prindle's excellent brass band, marched in procession to 



the strains of solemn music to the Christian Church, and filed in, 
occupying front seats therein. The church was densely crowded, and 
a great many were compelled to remain on the outside. 

At two o'clock sharp, the choir, lead by Mrs. Wisdom, sang in an 
aftecting tone of voice the beautiful hymn, "Vital Spark," after 
which President Weber offered up a fervent prayer. The old, familiar 
hymn, "God moves in a mysterious way His wonders to perform," 
was then read by Rev. W. T. Ellington and sung with feeling by the 

President Weber next read in a clear, full voice the following pre- 
amble and resolutions presented by the committee appointed fo^i- that 
purpose : — 

Whereas, The citizens of Huntsville aud vicinity feeling:, with all other sections of 
the country, the great loss to the nation in the death of James A. Garfield, President 
of the United States ; and 

Whereas, On this day of his interment, while memorial services are being held 
here, and not only in every city and hamlet on the American continent, but also in 
most all the nations of the earth, we deem it proper and right to express the 
sentiment of the people of Huntsville this day assembled to pay the last tribute of 
respect to the departed ; therefore 

liesolvecl, That without regard to party or sect, the sad news of the death of James 
A. Garfleld, late President of the United States, was received with great sorrow by 
this entire community, and while thus expressing the most profound admiration, not 
only for his just and able administration of the affairs of the nation, as indicated in 
his brief career, but also of his heroic courage, fortitude and Christian patience 
exhibited during his protiacted suffering, we must also utter our detestation of the 
monster in human form who thus, by his infamous deed, deprived the nation of its 
honored and well-beloved chief. 

Eesolved, That our warmest sympathies and tenderest regards are hereby tendered 
to the heroic. Christian wife, and aged Christian mother and to his orphaned children, 
in their hour of great affliction and in their irreparable loss of son, husband and father. 

The resolutions were heartily adopted, and President Weber then 
read appropriate passages of Scripture from the books of Second 
Kings, Isaiah and James, after which the consoling hymn, " Asleep in 
Jesus, Blessed Sleep," was read with confidence by Rev. Mr. Elling- 
ton and sung with earnestness by the choir. As soon as the sweet, 
assuring strains of the Christian music had been l)orne away on the 
peaceful bosom of the atmosphere, to be taken up and wafted on by 
angel voices to the foot of the Great White Throne, on which is seated 
the King of Kings, Mr. Ellington came forward, and in his most 
eloquent and impressive manner delivered the following able memorial 
sermon, which was listened to with marked interest tlirouo-hout, and 
which was requested to be published by the unanimous voice of the 


Text : " Howl, fir-tree ; for the cedar is fallen." — Zechariah, 11th 
chapter, first clause of second verse. 

To-day the nation sits solitary. To-day the wail of sadness and 
grief casts its gloom over all the States and Territories of the broad 
Union, and the world sends messages of sympathy and condolence — 


the chief magistrate, the President of the United States, is dead. 
" Howl, fir-tree ; the cedar is fallen ! " 

" God only is great." Such was the concise but triumphant ex- 
pression with which Massillon, the distinguished religious orator, com- 
menced his discourse on the occasion of the death of Louis XIV. 

Never was a more correct sentiment uttered by human lips. And 
never was there a more appropriate occasion for its utterance, unless 
it is on the present occasion. Who would dare appropriate the epi- 
thet " great " to himself, when he who had received it from a nation's 
voice for half a century had fallen at the very slightest touch of Prov- 
idence — the crown removed from his temples, the scepter wrested 
from his hands, and his form changed to dust and ashes? That, cer- 
tainly, as well as the present, was a suitable time for the minister of 
God, whose business it is to measure the human by the Divine, and to 
adjust the temporal to the Eternal, to detach an epithet which has so 
often been wrongly placed, from its human, and append it to God alone. 

The utterance of this important sentiment stands approved by phi- 
losophy as well as by theology, by the decisions of human reason as 
well as by inspiration. It is a sentiment which commends itself, not 
only deductively, but almost to man's intuitive perceptions, that there 
is, and can be, but one absolute greatness. All other greatness, if it 
be possible there can be any other greatness, is greatness by compari- 
son. It is the greatness of finite estimated by the finite, of the de- 
structible weighed in the balance of the destructible ; the greatness of 
angel measured by angel, of man measured by man ; but it is not and 
can not be the greatness of God. The greatness of God differs from 
all other in that it is greatness absolute. 

Man is great only by comparison. In this sense the epithet " great " 
stands indissolubly connected with the name, and is most justly worn 
by the deceased President of the United States, James A. Garfield, 
whose sad and most unfortunate death we this day commemorate. 
*' Howl, fir-tree ; for the cedar is fallen ! " 

Howl, all ye smaller trees of the forest that receive support and 
protection from the overtowering, matchless cedar ; howl, for the cedar 
is fallen ! 

To-day there is no North, no South, no East, no West. Each State 
vies to do honor to our fallen chief. The thousands of pulpits, busi- 
ness houses, family residences, from the humble cabin to the mansion, 
clad in mourning. Ah ! a nation flooded in tears attest a nation's 
grief, a nation's love-appreciation. " Howl, fir-tree ; for the cedar is 

This grand Union of States stands united to-day as, perhaps, never 
before ; and, brief as was his career in official stations, no man, liv- 
ing or dead, has done more to bring out, to strengthen, to close up, 
and to make forever indissoluble the bonds of this Union, than James 
A. Garfield. May I not say he has forever sealed these bonds with 
his blood; and let all the people say, Amen. " Howl, fir-tree ; for 
the cedar is fallen ! " 


But the nation not only sits to-day in sorrow and sadness, but also 
in deep humiliation. Sad thought! Had our beloved President 
fallen by the usual order of sickness, sorrow alone would sadden the 
heart. But feelings of deep humiliation miugle with the sorrow of 
every American citizen. The President of the happiest, the freest, 
the most inviting to respectability, usefulness and honor of au}'^ coun- 
try upon which the sun rises ; in the time of universal peace, prosper- 
ity and happiness, falls by the red hand of the assassin. Just as the 
hopes of the whole country were raised to a state of unprecedented 
rejoicing over the undoubted prospect of an unprejudiced, impartial 
administration, that would continue or give even greater prosperity 
and happiness to the country, and that would give satisfaction to and 
be the admiration of all parties, sects and sections, the unrelenting 
assassin steps in with his bloody ax, and the tall, sturdy, overshadow- 
iug cedar, around which centered the hopes of fifty millions of human 
beings, after weeks of the most persistent resistance to death's dark 
pall, trembles, bends, falls, and now lies prostrate at the feet of a 
weeping, humiliated nation. "Howl, fir-tree; for the cedar is 

I think it proper, and know you will indulge me in making a few 
extracts of Southern sentiment. They come from Georgia, and are 
full of thrilling interest, — a section of the country not thought to be 
always in sympathy with the government at Washington : — 

" With anguish we announce that the worst fears have been con- 
firmed, and James A. Garfield, President of the United States, is 
dead. By the hand of a fanatic of most desperate surroundings, 
whom it would be a stretch of charity to call a madman, this great 
and good President, this fond husband and loving father, this noble 
gentleman, has been slain. Strange that the bullets of brave foemen 
should have, in fair fight, spared him for such a fate. Sad, in- 
deed, is it that such a glorious being, so useful, so powerful, so manly, 
so excellent, should become the victim of so vile a wretch. To God 
we leave vindication and the ends of justice. The heart of the South 
bleeds for the stricken mother, wife and children. 

'* Upon his dead body we lay an immortelle, a wreath of trust, 
sorrow and regret. Innocent of the assassination of Garfield, the 
South, fearless of the future and forgetful of the past, stands tear- 
fully beside the relics of the President and prays that the storm-tossed 
spirit shall have the rest of the righteous and a sanctuary in that 
eternal haven where, lulled to slumber, grief forgets to mourn." 

Georgia, grand old Georgia, of the immortal thirteen, speaks for 
the whole South. Who does not rejoice at such sentiments coming up 
from the land of chivalry and manhood. The South is solid once more. 
Solid, thank God, in sympathy and affection for the President, his 
family and friends, and in common grief with a sorrowing, bleeding 
nation. Then from the North and from the South, from the East and 
from the West, we this day hear, in mournful notes, " Howl, fir tree ; 
for the cedar is fallen ! " 


It is true our noble President fell, and the nation put in tears, at 
the hands of a dastardly assassin, but facts are being developed that 
give to the country the brightest hopes for the future, both civil and 
religious. There has been developed, and is still being developed, an 
amount of sympathy and confidence, in all sections of the country, in 
the stability and just administration of our grand republic that the 
most trustful scarcely dared to anticipate. 

Such is the well arranged, the grandeur, the adaptibility of the 
machinery of our unparalleled government, that, were it not for the 
universal sympathy and good will manifest towards our deceased 
President, scarcely a ripple would roll over these broad, happy lands 
when death snatches the scepter from the hand and lays the body in 
the grave. In the forcible language of our lamented President on 
the demise of President Lmcoln ; " God reigns and the government 
at Washington still lives." 

The fact, also, to a high degree, and most satisfactory, has been 
developed, broadened, heightened, so that it has taken its stand upon 
the dome of the capitol of most every State in the Union, and by 
proclamations for prayer and mourning, proclaims in tones heard from 
the center to the circumference of the nation, " This is a Christian 
nation." For a time it was a nation upon its knees. Infidelity stands 
aghast at the amount of religious confidence developed. Just when 
that gloomy system is, as I believe, making its last weak eflbrt to 
revive its dark shades, which had been stricken to the earth by the 
sunlit righteousness of God, the whole nation, with rare exceptions, 
is expressing its faith in the existence and providence of God, and 
turning their eyes and hearts to His altars, as the great source of help 
in the dreadful extremity impending. 

A depth of religious feeling and sentiment pervades the entire 
nation that is gratifying to a high degree to every lover of Christianity 
and of Christian civilization. 

To trace, to-day, the leading events in the life and death of our 
deceased President is unnecessary. The history, the facts of the life 
and death of James A. Garfield, are better knowai to-day by the great 
masses of the people of these States than any other man, perhaps, living 
or dead. But as the basis of some remarks to induce all classes to 
emulate his virtues and his just ambition to do his work faithfully, 
whatever that work might be, we will say, that from early childhood, 
in the dear little cabin of his parents, to his elevation to the presidency 
of the greatest republic known to history, he seems to have been a 
model ; a model boy, a model youth, a model student, a model young 
man, a model husband and father, a model teacher, a model soldier, 
a model statesman, and bid fair to make a model, if not tlie model 
President. But, alas ! just in the midst of life, in the midst of his 
career of usefulness and honor, when all hearts were turned to him as 
being the man who would heal up the wounds and divisions of the 
nation and place the cap sheaf thereon with shoutings, death did its 
fatal work, and the model man is dead! " Howl, fir tree; for the 
cedar is fallen I " 



In this "land of the free, and home of the brave," obscurity of 
birth, poverty, h\ck of royal blood or noble paternity stand not in the 
way of ascending the ladder of human greatness to its highest round. 
In this home of the free, honesty, honor, industry and perseverance 
are sure to carry you to the front in whatever occupation or profession 
you may follow. If, boys and young gentlemen, who hear me to-day, 
you would rise to places of higher trust and honor, the true way is to 
follow your present honest business, however humble, with honor, 
strict fidelity and unswerving perseverance, then you will soon be in 
demand for more elevated positions. In this we have a rich example 
in our deceased President. Born in poverty, but of honorable parent- 
age; bereft of his father before he was two years of age, his entire 
training and education were left to a mother, a notable mother. She 
early instilled into his childhood and youthful mind, principles of 
affection, integrity and perseverance. Mothers too many take a lesson 
here. He ever acknowledged his indebtedness to his mother — God- 
like principle — and, living and dying, he clung to that mother with 
the grace of aflfection, esteem and confidence, that only the iron grasp 
of death could sever. 

Here are infallible marks of the existence of the elements of true 
greatness in every boy and young man — a high esteem for mother, 
a deep constant affection for mother, a constant devotion to the coun- 
sels and wants of mother; mother, excepting the name of the adora- 
ble Savior, the sweetest, the divinest name that falls on mortal ears. 
We are proud of our noble President's record here. Boys, young 
gentlemen, emulate him in this. I have no confidence in the honor- 
able success of any young man who does not hold in highest affection 
and esteem his mother. 

But, were it expedient, I might continue this, and speak in terms 
equally honorable of our noble, fallen President in every relation of 
life, whether domestic or civil. But we must close this part of the 
subject. " Howl, fir tree ; for the cedar is fallen ! " 

Whatever may be, however, the honorable terms in which we may 
speak of these relations of our world-honored President; the highest, 
the crowning glory and virtue of all is James A. Garfield, deceased 
President of the United States, was a Christian, highest style of man. 
He was not satisfied with the mere profession in a general way, in the 
presence of select friends, that the great doctrines of Christianity 
may be true. His religions convictions were of a higher order and 
from his heart, and were manifest in practical life. He felt it his 
duty publicly to acknowledge his allegiance to the religion of Jesus, 
and his faith in Him as his personal Savior. Unlike many others, he 
did not vainly imagine that he could serve God as faithfully, as ac- 
ceptably out of the church, away from God's organized people, as he 
could among them, hence he made a choice of one division of the 
grand army of our glorious God. He cast his lot with the denomina- 
tion of Christians known here, in whose house we worship to-day, 
and everj^where they have carried their influence as the Christian 



Church ; and at Mentor, the home of his youth and warm attachment, 
he was a constant communicant of that church and a devout wor- 
shiper at her altars. When he came to the White House as the 
President, all hail to the Christian President ! he did not leave his 
religion at home, in the rear. Here it was in front again ; here. Sab- 
bath after Sabbath, he is seen making his way to the little, unpre- 
tending, unassuming white church ; still a constant communicant and 
worshiper of Almighty God. 

No wonder in his last, lingering affliction, when the cold chills of 
death were gathering over him, he could look the tyrant in the face 
and exclaim : " I fear thee not, I am read3^" Simple thought, grand 
language, glorious truth, "I am ready!" But a sympathizing na- 
tion, and weeping mother, wife and children, can only attend him to 
the margin of the cold river; here angels take the charge, and, on 
the other shore, they lift him, all dripping with the waters of the 
Jordan of death, and triumphantly bear him off to his home in the 
skies, in the bosom of his God, forever at rest. Joyful thought ! thrice 
comfortable reflection, our suffering President is free ! No sorrow rolls 
over him, no pain afflicts, no anxious care disturbs. We this day 
cover him with the nation's tears and a world's sympathy, and com- 
mit his body to the tomb. " Howl, fir tree; the cedar is fallen ! " 

The wheels of the clay tenement stand still. That once noble form 
is now prostrate in death. But that consecrated soul, that cultivated 
mind, that great intellect is not dormant ; nor hushed in silence, nor 
stilled in action, but, on the other shore, in the mighty universe of 
God, it moves in a higher sphere, in nobler works, and shines as a 
star of the first magnitude. God has use for such Christian intellects 
in other parts of his infinitely expanded universe, as well as this ; 
and doubtless, already started on missions of thought, and grander 
works than ever engaged his head and heart on tljis humble planet of 
ours, as great as those works were. 

With all sections of our weeping, bereaved country, '< we lay an 
immortelle upon his grave," and wave a final adieu till we meet him 
in the skies. Join all ye States, all ye fathers and mothers, wives 
and children in the sad adieu. "Howl, fir tree; the cedar has 
fallen!" In the language of another : " Brave heart ! Great soul! 
America is the stronger for that life and that death. His life was 
gentle, and the elements so mixed in him, that nature might stand up 
and say to all the world ; ' This was a man.' " 

O, though wronged, outraged, suffering, fallen President, thy soul 
having escaped and taken its aflight to fairer climes, we, this day, 
commit thy body to the grave ; earth to earth, dust to dust, ashes to 
ashes; in glorious hope of a blissful immortality. Farewell, fare- 
well, Christian man and brother. Peace to thy ashes, a crown of 
glory upon thy head. " Howl, fir tree ; the cedar is fallen ! " 

After the delivery of the memorial sermon, the choir sang in 
pathetic strains the hymn, •' Mourn, pray, praise," and at its con- 
clusion Judo;e Burckhartt came forward and pronounced a fflowinsr 


eulogy on the deceased President and his noble wife, in which he de- 
clared with great earnestness that James A. Garfield was the truest 
type of the American citizen that ever filled the presidential chair, and 
that his devoted wife had also shown herself to be a true type of the 
American woman. 

The doxology was then sung by the congregation, the benediction 
pronounced by the Rev. Mr. Ellington, and, while the choir sang 
*' Where now is our loved one," the Masons and Odd Fellows 
marched out and back to their respective lodges, and the rest of the 
audience dispersed to their homes. 

The Odd Fellows, on their return to their lodge, concurred in the 
adoption of the following resolutions drafted by St. Louis Lodsfe, 
No. 5: — 

James A. Garfield, President of the United States, is dead. 

A nation, yea a world mourns. He, who from the poor and almost friendless boy, 
by indomitable will and perseverance, wrought his way to distinction among men, 
even to the proudest position ever held by mortal man, has been cut down in the 
midst of a most useful career — at the very moment of reaching the topmost round 
of the ladder of fame — mercilessly cut down by the hand of that most despised of 
despicable creatures, the cold-blooded and cowardly assassin. 

We, the Odd Fellows of Missouri, as good citizens, desire to express our horror at 
the cruel act which destroyed so valuable a life, our unmitigated contempt for and 
condemnation of the miserable wretch who perpetrated it, and our heartfelt sym- 
pathy and condolence with the family of the President so foully murdered; therefore 
be It 

Resolved, That we, the members of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows of the 
State of Missouri, do hereby express to the officers of the government and the people 
of the Republic our great sorrow for the country's loss. 

Resolved, That we tender to the noble, heroic and devoted wife of the deceased 
and her fatherless family our sincere, heartfelt, aye, inexpressible sympathy in this 
their great affliction. May God, in His infinite mercy, visit, comfort and bless her 
and them. 

Resolved, That, as a token of our sorrow, our halls be draped in mourning for 
thirty days. It is the duty of Odd Fellows to "weep with those who weep," to 
"mourn with those who mourn." 


A good man has fallen ! 

At half past four o'clock on the morning of December 2, 1869, 
Mr. Caswell Wisdom, banker of Huntsville, breathed his last, after a 
protracted illness. He died calmly, peacefully — fell asleep to wake 
no more. The faithful watchers 

Thought him dying when he slept, 
* And sleeping when he died. 

Mr. Wisdom was one of the leading men of the county, in fact, its 
history is his history. Going there at an early day from North Car- 
olina, a poor man, by industry, economy and business tact, he accu- 
mulated a handsome estate. He filled several offices of public trust, 
having served four years as sheriff of the county — and in all of them his 
honesty and integrity was never questioned. A number of years ago, 


he made a profession of religion, but we do not believe he ever united 
with the church. He was about 61 years old. 


Another of the brave knights who fought under the glorious, but 
ill-starred banner of the South, and who illustrated by their unblench- 
ing courage, and chivalrous devotion that all the knightly attributes 
did not die out of the world with the good Prince Arthur, has obeyed 
the summons of his great Captain and gone to join the ranks of those 
who keep watch and ward on the battlements of Eternity. 

Capt. Thomas G. Lowry, of this county, whom we mentioned 
recently as being in a critical condition from cancer on his face, died 
on Tuesday night last, June 23, 1870, His death was not altogether 
unexpected either by himself or his friends, and when the final sum- 
mons came for him to leave the scenes of his toils and triumphs, like 
the true soldier that he was, he answered "Ready" and passed out 
into the damps and dews of eternity without a murmur. At an early 
period in the struggle for Southern nationality, he enlisted under the 
red battle cross that marshalled the hoasts of freedom, and was placed 
in command of Co. F, in the "Old Missouri Third," a regiment 
commanded by Col. Reeves, and whose thinned ranks and scarred 
veterans told how nobly and how well they fought in that glorious but 
fruitless struggle. Under that banner he fought with heroic firmness 
during all those terrible years, loved with a brother's aflfection by all 
his comrades, and we know he would have asked for no greater boon 
than that its drooping folds should hang moui-nfuUy over his bier 
when he could light no longer. But he is gone — gone from all who 
loved and honored him here, and the sad announcement of his death 
will drive the tear of sorrow down the furrows of many a bronzed 
cheek that never blenched in the red gleam of battle, where Death 
rode upon the wings of the wind ; but we feel thankful for the assur- 
ance that he had made his peace with God ; and that the old soldier, 
having " crossed the river," is now sweetly resting with the immortal 
Jackson, " under the shade of the trees." He was buried yesterday 
with all the impressive solemnity of the Masonic funeral services. 


Scarcely is the ink dry with which the announcement of Capt. 
Lowry 's death was made, before we are called upon to chronicle the 
departure of another aged and venerable citizen from the shores of 

Capt. Thomas P. Coates, well known to all our people as one of 
the noblest of men, died at his residence near Milton, in this county, 
on the 26th of June, 1870. He was born in Essex county, Virginia, 
November 10th, 1791, and was therefore at the time of his death in 
the 79th year of his age. In 1834 he moved to Missouri, and tented 


on the place on which he lived and died. In 1817, he became identified 
with the ancient and honorable Masonic fraternity, being one of the 
charter members of Huntsville lodge. In 1838, he connected himself 
with the Christian Church, of which he remained a devoted and active 
member through the remainder of his life, and dying, was cheered and 
supported by his living faith. He was married four times, and be- 
came the father of 13 children, 10 of whom are now living. No one 
among the old pioneers of this country was more beloved and honored 
by those among whom the strength of his manhood was spent, than 
Capt. Coates, and in the course of his career he was called upon to 
serve his fellow-citizens in various responsible positions, at one time 
filling the office of judge of our county court. To some men, and 
indeed to many, the thoughts of Death embitter what should be the 
happiest hours of existence, but to a miin like the venerated one who 
has just fallen, it comes with a benediction in its hands, and the hero 
who has fought the battle well and bravely, when his last hours come, 
is cheered by the consciousness that the world was better for his livhig 
in it, and lays down his life not reluctantly at its protracted close. 
His remains were deposited in the family cemetery on Tuesday last, 
with all the honors and impressive ceremonies of the Masonic funeral 



Judge Thomas P. White, one of the best, noblest and purest citi- 
zens Randolph county ever had, died at his home in Moberly, about 
three o'clock last Friday morning, after a few days' illness, of pneu- 
monia. The following historical sketch of